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President TYLER, 9th September. Loan of $12,000,000 authorized by Congress. 1841—1850–The island and harbor of Hong Kong ceded (1841) by the Chinese to England. Pennsylvania United States Bank failed third time, 5th February, and made an assignment, 4th September. Union of Upper and Lower Canada, 10th February. Foreign trade of Canton suspended, and hostilities with the English renewed, 21st May. Canton taken, 27th. American clocks exported to England. 1842. Anti-corn law movement in Parliament by Sir R. PEEL. Captain Wilkes returned from his exploring expedition, 11th June. Ashburton treaty ratified by the Senate, 20th August. British treaty with China, (29th August,) by which it was agreed to open five free ports. 1843. Return of Captain Ross from the South Pole, 6th September. Treaty of commerce, by Sir H. Potting ER, with China. 1844. Treaty of annexation of Texas to the United States rejected by the United States Senate, 8th June. Anti-rent riots in New-York, August. Re-charter of Bank of England. Magnetic telegraph between Baltimore and Washington. Cheap postage act of United States went into operation, July 1. 1845. Treaty between United States and China ratified by United States Senate, 16th January. Sir John FRANKLIN left England, 25th May, on his Arctic expedition. Anti-corn law league at Manchester. Steamship GREAT BRITAIN arrived at New-York, 10th August. Treaty of annexation of Texas ratified by the United States Senate, 1st March. Loss of $6,000,000 by fire in New-York city, 19th July. PEEL ministry resigned, 11th December. 1846. Oregon treaty between England and the United States, signed in London, 17th July. Second failure of the potato crop in Ireland. Steamship GREAT BRITAIN stranded in Dundrum Bay, 22d October. Declaration of war with Mexico by the United States, 12th May. New tariff bill passed by Congress, 28th July. Veto of French spoliation bill by President Polk, 8th August. 1847. Gold in California discovered. United States ship JAMEstown left Boston, 28th March, and frigate MACEDONIAN, 18th July, with provisions for the relief of the Irish. Great commercial distress throughout Great Britain, September to November. 1848. The State of Maryland resumed payment of interest, 1st January. Treaty of peace between Mexico and United States, signed 30th May. Suspension bridge at Niagara Falls completed, 29th July. Edict to incorporate Bank of France with nine branches, 27th April. India rubber life-preservers invented. 1849. Penny postage adopted in Prussia. First experiment of a submarine telegraph at Folkstone. 1850. Invasion of Cuba by Lopez. £20,000 reward offered by Parliament for discovery of Sir John FRANKLIN, 8th March. Colliss' line of steamers to Liverpool commenced operations. Steamer ATLANTIc left New-York, 27th April. The celebrated Koh-inoor diamond, valued at $2,000,000, brought to England, July. 1851.-The London exhibition opened, May 1. Contract of Pacha of Egypt with Mr. STEPHENson for a rail-road from Alexandria to Cairo. Railways completed between St. Petersburgh and Moscow, Dublin and Galway. Collins' steamer PACIFIc arrived in Liverpool, May. Yacht AMERICA won the race at Cowes, 22d August. Hudson River Rail-Road opened to Albany, 8th October. Dr. KANE returned from the GRINNELL expedition, October. 1852.-Construction of French Crystal Palace ordered, February. Expedition of United States naval forces to Japan, March. Dr. RAE returned from his search for Sir John FRANKLIN, February. Ship PRINCE ALBERT returned from search for Sir John FRANKLIN, 7th October. 1853–Trial trip of the caloric steamship ERicsson from New-York to the Potomac, 11th January. Second Arctic expedition left New-York, 31st May. American expedition arrived at Japan, 8th July. Loss of the steamship Humboldt, 5th December. 1854.—Combined fleets of England and France entered the Black Sea, 11th January. Loss of the steamer SAN FRANCIsco, 5th January. Steamer City of GLAsgow lost, March. Declaration of war by England against Russia in behalf of Turkey, 28th March. Commercial treaty between United States and Japan. French loan of 250,000,000 francs, announced March 11, and Turkish loan of £2,727,400. London jointstock bankers admitted to the clearing-house, June 7, Crystal Palace at Sydenham opened, 10th June. Bombardment of San Juan by ship CYANE, 13th July. Loss of steamer ARCTIC, 27th September. Captain McCLURE returns from Arctic discovery, 28th September. 1855.-Discovery of Captain FRANKLIN's remains. £10,000 awarded Captain McCLURE by Parliament. Paris exhibition opened 15th May. Submarine telegraph wire laid in Black Sea. Resistance by United States to payment of Sound Dues. First rail-road train crossed the Suspension bridge at Niagara, 14th March. French loan of 500,000,000 francs taken, 18th January. Suspension of PAGE, BAcon & Co., ADAMs & Co., San Francisco, 22d February. English loan of £16,000,000 taken by Rothschilds, 20th April. Ships ARCTIC and RELEASE, Capt. HARTSTEIN, left New-York for relief of Dr. KANE and party. 1856.-The Arctic discovery-ship, REsolute, was delivered to the British authorities at Portsmouth, 30th December. 1857.-Expulsion of JAMEs SADLEIR from the House of Commons, for fraud, February 16. Trial trip of the United States frigate NIAGARA, April 22. Count D'ARGENT, Governor of the Bank of France for twenty-one years, resigned May. Suspension of Ohio Life and Trust Company, New-York, August 24. Suspension of the banks of Philadelphia, Baltimore, &c., September 25. New-York banks suspended October 14. Suspension of Wilson, HALLETT & Co., Liverpool; HogE & Co., Liverpool; John Monroe & Co., bankers, Paris, and numerous others, November. Suspension of Bank of England charter, November 12. Severe storm on north coast of Scotland, November 23. Resumption of specie payments by New-York banks, December 14. Canton bombarded by the English and French, December 28. 1858–Attempt to assassinate the Emperor NApoleon, 14th January. Loss of the “AvA,” mail steamer from Calcutta to Suez, 1st February. The Livingston exploring expedition sailed from Liverpool, 10th March. Conference at Shanghai of the representatives of Great Britain, France, Russia and the United States, 30th March. Great fire at Christiana, Sweden, destroying three-quarters of the city, 13th April. Forts at the mouth of the Peiho, near Pekin, captured by the English and French forces, 20th May. Treaty between Great Britain and China, signed at Tietsin, 26th May. A new boundary treaty between Turkey and Persia, signed at Constantinople, 29th May. Convention agreed to for the suspension of hostilities between the Turks and Montenegrins, 5th June. Jeddah bombarded by the British ship Cyclops, 23d July, and again on 5th August. Second treaty between United States and Japan signed, July 28, Lord ELGIN landed and negotiated, at Jeddo, a treaty between Great Britain and Japan, 12th August. Important financial reforms adopted by the Sultan of Turkey, 18th August, Message by Atlantic Telegraph, from Queen Victoria to President Buchan AN, 22d August. The Hamburg screw-steamer “AUSTRIA!” burned at sea; upwards of 400 of the passengers and crew were lost, 13th September. Crystal Palace at NewYork destroyed by fire, 5th October. Royal proclamation issued throughout India, announcing transference of authority of the East India Company to the home government, 1st November.

1859–Death of Baron HUMBoldt, aged 92 years, May 6. English and French forces accompany the English and French ambassadors to the Emperor of China; repulsed on attempting the passage up the Peiho River, with a loss of about 450 men, 25th June. The Island of San Juan, Oregon, taken possession of by Gen. HARNEY in the name of the United States government, 1st July. Terrific gale, causing extensive loss of life and property, over England and on the coasts, 26th October. Severe gale through the southern districts of England, 1st November. The steamship INDIAN, from Liverpool, wrecked upon Seal Ledge, 65 miles east of Halifax; 24 of the passengers and crew lost, 21st November. First train passes over Victoria #: in Canada, 24th November.

1860–Peace is concluded between Buenos Ayres and the Argentine Confederation, 5th January. Falling of the Pemberton Mills at Lawrence, Mass., 10th January. United States five per cent, loan, $1,100,000, negotiated, January 31. First silver bullion received from the Washoe silver mines. A treaty signed between France and Sardinia for the annexation of Savoy and Nice to France, 24th March. The Japanese Embassy arrives at San Francisco, 29th March. First pony express reaches Carson Valley in 84 days from Missouri, 12th April. Attack on the Bank of England by Messrs. OverEND, GURNEY & Co., bankers, defeated, April. Fraud in Union Bank of London discovered, April 23; loss £263,000. Fraud in Pacific Mail Steamship Company stock discovered at New-York, May 18. News received in London of the failure of the Red Sea telegraph, May. President Bucha NAN vetoes Homestead Bill, and it is lost, 23d June. Failure of STREATHFIELD, LAURENCE & Co., and other houses in the leather trade, London, July. The Taku forts at the mouth of the Peiho are taken by the Allies, after a strong resistance by the Chinese, 21st August. United States ten million five per cent. loan taken, October 22. Great panic in New-York stock market, November 12. Georgia banks suspended payment, November 30. Steamer PERSIA arrived at New-York from Liverpool with $3,000,000 in gold. South Carolina secedes from the Union, 20th December. Fort Moultrie evacuated by Major ANDERSoN, 26th December. Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie seized by State authorities, 28th December. John B. Floyd resigns as Secretary of War, 29th December. Bank of England raised rate of discount from five to six per cent, 31st December. Robbery of $173,000 belonging to English bondholders by the Mexican government, December. Prospectus of Turkish six per cent. loan issued by M. MIREs, Paris.

[The preceding sketch is mainly from “The Cyclopodia of Commerce and Commercial Navigation,” published by Messrs. HARPER & BROTHERs, N. Y., 1859.]

CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND BOARDS OF TRADE.

Monthly Meeting of the New-York Chamber of Commerce, November 7th.

THE regular monthly meeting of the Chamber of Commerce took place Thursday, November 7th, Mr. PELATIAH PERIT in the chair. It being understood that the Rev. Messrs. CoNw Ay and TAYLoR, and Mr. Foster, from North Carolina, would be present and explain the destitute condition of the loyal citizens of North Carolina, a large attendance was present.

After the reading of the minutes of the October meeting, Mr. G. W. BLUNT moved that Is AAC V. Fowler, ex-postmaster and a defaulter, be expelled from the Board, which was unanimously agreed to.

Mr. Roy AL PHELPs called the attention of the Chamber to the present bankrupt law. He said that it was the desire of merchants generally that the law should be so arranged as to afford equal protection to the debtor and creditor; that the city of New-York suffered greatly from it, and it was full time for it to be equitably arranged. He notified the Board that a meeting of the merchants for that purpose would take place on Monday evening, November 11th, at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, to which the members of the Chamber who took an interest in the subject were invited.

Messrs. ELLwood WALTER, President of the Mercantile Marine Insurance Company and Secretary of the Board of Underwriters, Ezra NYE, formerly of the Collins line of steamships, and GEo. D. MoRGAN, special agent of the Navy Department at this port, were appointed trustees of the Nautical School in New-York harbor, for the purpose of educating boys in seamanship and navigation.

Mr. DENNING DUER, after making some complimentary remarks upon the career and retirement of Gen. Scott, offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That the Chamber of Commerce at this, its first meeting after the retirement of Lieutenant-General WINFIELD. Scott from the command of the army of the United States, desires to join its voice to that of the constituted authorities of the nation and of the people at large, in bearing testimony to the signal services of Lieutenant-General WINFIELD. Scott, and to his illustrious example as a man, a soldier and a citizen, through a period of more than half a century. In war, always successful; in adverse circumstances, never discouraged; in the moment of victory, never unduly clated; provident of the blood of the soldiers, and steadily set against any self-aggrandizement at the cost of a single life unnecessarily hazarded; alike in peace and in war respecting the sanctity of the law and subordinating arms to the civil authority. He passed through his long career without a stain upon his name, or a departure from the character of an able, upright Christian, soldier and gentleman.

Once and again, when foreign war seemed to threaten our country, we have turned instinctively to the great soldier as our mediator for peace, and never in vain; and now, when the crime of the age—the rebellion of the Southern States—broke out, he, whose warning voice in advance was fatally unheeded, stood forth faithful among the faithless, and, with his great name and strong arm, bearing aloft the flag of our Union, sprinkled in times past with his blood, and blazing all over with his exploits, he planted it on the dome of the Capitol, and, inaugurating the new President beneath its folds, rescued the nation from anarchy. Later still, when baffled traitors, rushing to arms, beleaguered the capital with overwhelming forces, and the head of the nation called all loyal men to the rescue, WINFIELD Scott, at Washington, was our sword and buckler, and to him flocked instantly thousands and tens of thousands of our countrymen. And now, when the sublime uprising of the people has arrested the danger, the glorious veteran, broken with the trials of war, asks permission to remit to young and able hands the chief command, and gracefully retires, crowned with every honor that a grateful country can bestow— faithful in all the past to one flag, one constitution, one country and one great name of America. The Chamber of Commerce deems it a privilege to express its sense of such eminent services, and to place upon its records the memorial of teful appreciation. Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions, duly authenticated, be presented to General Scott.

Mr. BLUNT said that the proper way to present these resolutions to General Scott would be the appointment of a committee to present them personally. He was confident the General would appreciate that course. Mr. PHELPs thought that the better way to present them would be by letter, as the General was completely run down with visitors, and was too fatigued. Mr. BLUNT knew that General Scott would make it convenient to receive the committee. The great cause of trouble with the General was, that the greater number of those who call upon him do so for the purpose of obtaining his autograph, or on business connected with the government. It was finally resolved to appoint a committee to wait upon the General at the Brevoort House, at nine o'clock the next morning, to present him with the resolutions. Messrs. DENNING DUER, THOMAS SUFFERN, GeoRGE W. BLUNT, C. H. MARSHALL, A. A. Low, and the President, Mr. PELATIAH PERIT, were appointed said committee. Mr. A. A. Low spoke of the necessity of having a line of steamships, properly armed, established between San Francisco and New-Orleans, for the protection of American commerce, as also to obviate the delays and necessity of having to communicate with China through England. Mr. Low took this occasion to state that he had received advices direct from China in thirty-five days, which took seventy-five to come by Europe. He then offered the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to prepare a memorial to Congress, asking for the establishment of a line of steamers from San Francisco to Japan and China, to be suitably armed for the protection of American commerce on the Pacific, and of sufficient speed to insure a rapid transmission of the mails.

Messrs. Low, NYE and W. T. ColeMAN were appointed as such committee.

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