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Non-sonant. b, as in bin.
P, as in pin. d, as in did.
t, as in till. j, as in jig.
ch, as in chin. g, as in go.
k, as in kill. v, as in veer.
f, as in fear. th, as in this
th, as in thin. z, as in zone.
s, as in so. zh, as in azure.
sh, as in shine. 1, as in lo. m, as in mow. n, as in no. LIQUIDS. r, as in rim.
h, as in he. 1, as in sing.
hw, as in when.
REMARKS UPON THE CHART.—The foregoing Chart is not strictly phonetic. In it, t, c, s, h, and z, have each at least two offices. The imperfection thus existing is fairly shown by giving, as we ought to do in phonetic writing, to each of the letters, t and h, in the word nevertheless, its appropriate value, nevert-he-less ; or how shall it be known whether 6-1-e-a-t-h-e-d is to be pronounced breathed or breat-hed. This evident ambiguity may be removed by separating every written polysyllable into its syllabic elements. To avoid this labor, as well as the writing of digraphs (double forms), single characters may be substituted.
This suggestion is acted upon in Lessons X. and XII., where substitutes are suggested for ch, sh, and zh. Substitutes for th and th can also readily be devised, thus lessening the time and space required for the phonetic writing.
Though the compound elements oi and ou are not correctly represented by the component parts of these digraphs, yet, as it is found that no ambiguity can arise from the use of these forms, when once the power of each is known, they have been suffered to stand.
In pronouncing the word feet, we produce three sounds, each of which is simple,—that is, each sound is such that it can not be separated into two or more unlike sounds. Such a sound is called an elementary sound.
The first element heard in feet, called “the sound of f," is formed by continuous blowing, while the lower lip is placed lightly against the edges of the upper front teeth; the second, called “ long e,” is produced by singing, while the tongue, slightly advanced, and curved so as to be highest in the middle, is raised nearly to the roof of the mouth; and “the sound of t” is formed by first pressing the end of the tongue against the inner gums of the upper front teeth, compressing the breath above it, and then suddenly allowing the forced breath to escape.
Pronounce each of the following words, and, after each, utter whichever of the foregoing three sounds it contains: cat, me, cuff, laugh, sheaf, sphere, tea, eat, reefed.
Of the three sounds we have been considering, which, if any,
you hear when you pronounce of? bed? beak? team? tot? thee? thank ? elk? enough?
What four ways of representing “ the sound of f," in the following four words,-sheat, cuf, laugh, sphere ? Name three other words to illustrate each of these four ways. In what two ways is the sound of t represented in eat and reefed?
Pronounce mete, mead, meed, bier, seize, pique, key, poean. What one sound is heard in every one of these words? How is this sound represented in mete? in mead? in each of the remaining words ? Are any two of the ways alike? In the Keys to English spelling-books and dictionaries this sound is usually represented by ē. [The horizontal mark over the e is called a macron.] If we adopt this character to represent “long e,” these eight words may be written thus: mēt, mēd, mēd, bēr, sēz, pēk, kē, pē-an.
When for a given sound we invariably write one and the same character, the mode of indicating is called phonetic, phonographic, phonic or phonotypic, all from the Greek word phone, meaning sound.
Pronounce the following: bēk, mēl, rēm, werd, sim, stēl, grēt, sfēr, bēlēv. What silent letter is here omitted in writing each of the first four words ? In what two ways may the fifth be spelled ? the sixth ?
DIRECTION.—When asked to represent a sound for which no special character has at that stage of these lessons been provided, use for the purpose the letter (or letters) representing the sound in the given word as printed, being careful to omit every silent letter,
Represent by well-formed written characters all the sounds in breeze, leer, sphere, bier, ream, geese, least, sweet, meat, glebe.
If, while the lip and teeth are placed as described in Lesson II., for forming “ the sound of f," a tone, or singing sound, be given,
6 the sound of v " is formed. Try this. Fand v, then, represent two sounds between which there is a resemblance; these are called cognate - (twin-born) sounds.
T and d are also called cognate ; for, while the tongue is in place to form the sound of t,” if we make a singing sound (but allow no ringing within the nose), we form the sound of d.
If you would observe carefully the difference between the sounds of t and d , raise the chin, and, while uttering the first sound in the word deem, press the thumb and fingers of one hand firmly against the upper part of the throat, just beneath the roots of the tongue. You perceive a jarring. Maintaining the same position, begin the word teem. Is the tremulous motion observed ? You now merely impel the breath; in uttering deem, you began by giving forth a semi-musical sound.
Sounds like those of d and v are called resonant, sonant, intoned, or vocal ; and the breath is said to be vocalized.
Elements wanting in resonance, like those represented by t and f, are called non-sonant, aspirate, or atonic.
How many sounds in the word date? Utter the first; the last. In forming the sound represented by the letter å in date, is the tongue as near to the roof of the mouth as in sounding ē? The sound of a in date we call “ long a.” Represent it by ā.
Pronounce aim, ā; brake, ā; wait, day, obey, sleigh, inveigh.
Utter forcibly each sound in evade, feet, ate, fade, date, feed, eight, fate, deed. [This is an exercise in Oral Phonic Analysis.] Pronounce each word clearly before and after analyzing it. [See p. 14].
Represent tame, bale, deal, sleep, vain, steal, lief, trade, plate, heal. (This is an exercise in Written Phonic Analysis.]
The sound of p is formed by compressing the lips, forcing the breath against them, then suddenly bursting them apart and emitting the breath.
Practice with the initial sounds of pale and bale as you did with those of teem and deem. Are the sounds of
and b cognate? Why? While attempting to form the sound of b, no resonance should be allowed in the nose.
Pronounce ah. This is considered the very finest sound in the language. Learn to form it with exactness,
-the tongue in its natural position, and the opening of the mouth enlarged from side to side. Do not fear to say ah, star; ah, calm, ah, father ; ah, half ; laugh, calf, balm, half. This is “ Italian a." Represent it by ä.
A sound almost as fine and full as ä, is heard in the words awe, nor, call, morn,—the tongue in the same position as for ä, but the opening of the mouth narrower from side to side. Pronounce awe, sort ; awe, bought ; awe, taught ; awe, fault. A, when representing this sound, as in hall, is called “broad a;” and the o in corn is called “ broad o.”
One name is enough for a single sound; and we will call this “ broad 0," and represent it in all cases by ô; thus, hôrn, pôl, rôt.
Pronounce six words containing ä; six containing ô. Distinguish between farm and form ; also between morn and mourn. [The difference between ä and ô is more