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PASSAGE OF THEIR FRIENDS HERE. Pesorns in America wishing to assist the emigration of their friends in this country are recommended either to remit the money to persons here in whom they can confide to make the requisite arrangements, or else to pay in America only a part of the passage money, taking at the time a written engagement that their friends should be provided with passages before a given day, and retaining the balance until their arrival.

In the cases of orphan or deserted children chargeability is necessary,

The restriction of the 13 & 14 Vict. c. 101, s. 4., to orphan or deserted children having no settllements, or whose settlements are unknown, is superseded, and the section is applicable to all orphan or deserted children under 16 years of age, if chargeable.

Subject to a doubt in the case of poor persons settled in a separate parish, the limit of iol. per head in the expenditure is removed altogether.

As a preliminary, the Local Government Board require to be furnished with a resolution of the guardians as well as with certain particulars indicated in a descriptive list, a form of which is supplied, and on those being furnished to them (with the certificate of consent before justices in the cases of orphans or deserted children) the order is immediately issued, if no objection exists on the ground of the character of the emigrant, the amount of expenditure, or otherwise.

It appears from the annual report of the Local Government Board, just published, that, during the year 1871, 893 persons received assistance out of the rates to emigrate.



The Emigration Commissioners will receive and remit, free of charge, for the use of newly arrived emigrants of the poorer class, to the Government Immigration Agents in the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland, any sum of money not less than 51. nor more than 201. from any one person, which may be paid to them or to their credit at the Bank of England for the purpose. The persons transmitting the money must furnish the Commissioners with the names and ages of the emigrants for whose benefit the money is deposited; and specify the manner in which it is to be expended in the Colony-whether wholly in cash, or partly in cash, and partly in providing the emigrants with provisions and conveyance to their destination.

The Commissioners do not engage to effect purchases of land, or otherwise to invest or retain the money for the benefit of individuals, but simply to instruct the Government Agents to apply it to the immediate use of the people after their arrival, either in the mode directed by the depositor, or, in the absence of such directions, in the manner which the Immigration Agents may deem most advantageous for the emigrants.

Owing to the varying rates of exchange, a given sum will not always produce the same amount of colonial currency, but the sum to be received in the colony will in all cases exceed, in nominal amount, the sum deposited in this country.

This arrangement can obviously be only made available in the cases of emigrants proceeding to those places where there are Government Immigration Agents, vide p. 2.


CHARGE AFTER LANDING. DOMINION OF CANADA.—The “Immigration Act of 1869 ” (32 & 33 Vict. cap. 10 of 1869) requires, in addition to the capitation tax, a bond of indemnity from the master of the ship, with two sureties, to be given for each passenger not belonging to any emigrant family, likely, from bodily or mental infir. mity, to become permanently a charge on the cology.

The bond is to be given by the master in the sum of 300 dollars for each such passenger, and for three years; but it may be commuted by an immediate payment of such sum as the local government may tis.

The collector of customs is authorized to dispense with the bond on production of a certificate of the medical superintendent at the Quarantine establishment, that the passenger has become lunatic, idiotic, deaf and dumb, blind, or infirm, from some cause not discernible when the ship sailed.

Under the 16th section of the Act, the Governor may, by proclamation, prohibit the landing of pauper immigrants until the master of the vessel bringing them has paid to the immigration agent such sum of money as may be required for their temporary sup port and transport to their place of destination.

In New York, a bond in the sum of 500 dollars, and for five years, is required from the owner or consignee of any ship bringing in any idiot, lunatic, deaf, dumb, blind, maimed, or infins person, or any one above the age of 60, or any widow, or woman without her husband and with a child or children, or any person likely, from any cause, to become a public charge; but if a bond of indemnity in the sum of 300 dollars for each passenger, able as well as impotent, has been given, and has not been commuted (as it may be by an immediate payment of a dollar and a has for each person), the 500 dollar bond is not required. Practically, however, the commutation money is paid on all the passengers, and the 500 dollar bond is given in respect of those who are deemed likely to become chargeable.- New York Act, 11th Juij 1851, c. 1523, s. 4.

In Victoria, the bond of indemnity (which is invariably required) is to be given by the ownet, charterer, or master, in the sum of 100l., and for five years, in respect of each passenger, “eithe

lunatic, idiotic, deaf, dumb, blind, or intirm, and

likely,” in the Emigration officer's opinion, “to “ become a charge upon the public or upon any “ public or charitable institution.” It is not required in respect of emigrantsintroduced at the public expense. -28 Vict. No. 255, sec. 36,

FALKLANDS.—No bonds are required for British immigrants, but for foreigners 'the Government may require from the importer a bond that they shall not become chargeable.

In TRINIDAD, immigrants under contract arriving permanently disabled are supported at the expense of the colony, till opportunities occur of restoring them to their native country.

In NEWFOUNDLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA, VanCOUVER ISLAND, Natal, New South Wales, South AUSTRALIA, QUEENSLAND, WESTERN AUSTRALIA, TASMANIA, and New ZEALAND, no indemnity bonds for immigrants are required.


New South Wales. The goods and effects of emigrants dying on the voyage are, on the arrival of the vessel, collected by a Curator of intestate estates, appointed under a Colonial Act (11 Vict. No. 24; Oct. 1847) and disposed of by public auction, after payment of debts and expenses: the residue, if under 501., may be paid over by the Curator, under a Judge's order, to any person claiming to be entitled, without any probate or letters of administration being taken out, or any legal proof adduced of the right or title of the party claiming; sect. 12.

QUEENSLAND.-There are special qula similar to those in force in the Emigration Commissioner's vessels applicable to ships proceeding under the arrangements of the Colonial Government; but the regulations applicable to emigrants in other vessels have not been stated by the colonial authorities.

VICTORIA.- The goods and effects of passengers who may die on their voyage to Victoria are, in default of any legitimate claim thereto made within 7 days, to be handed over by the master (under a penalty not exceeding 1001.) within fourteen days after arrival, to the Immigration officer, and by the latter to the persons entitled, under any will of the deceased, or,

case of intestacy, to the Curator of intestate estates in the Colony.—28 Vict. No. 255, sect. 35.

South AUSTRALIA.-The effects of Government Emigrants dying on the voyage to South Australia, and having no near relatives in the Colony, are publicly sold by the Government Auctioneer ; and the proceeds, together with any money belonging to the deceased, are remitted to the Emigration Commissioners in England, for the benefit of the next of kin.

The Curator of intestate estates administers to the estates and effects of persons dying in the colony without having made a will. Full particulars are published half yearly in the province, and are transmitted annually to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—By a Colonial Ordinance, the Supreme Court is empowered to grant Letters of Administration to its Registrar, to administer to the effects of parties dying intestate, and without any person in the colony having interest in them : but the Registrar in himself has no power over the effects of passengers dying on the voyage out.

New ZEALAND.-The Supreme Court grants probate or administration to the effects of a person dying at sea within the jurisdiction of the court.

7 There are no regulations on this NATAL.

Dominion Op CANADA.—The effects of passengers dying on their voyage to Canada, unaccompanied by relatives or other persons entitled to take charge thereof, are to be accounted for and paid over, under a penalty not exceeding 250l. currency, by the master, to the Collector of Customs at the port of arrival, who is to grant a receipt to the master, containing a full description of the nature or amount of the property

NEWFOUNDLAND.—BritiSH COLUMBIA.— VancouVER ISLAND.--No regulations in force on this subject.

JAMAICA.-Law 34 of 1869 provides that it shall be the duty of the Sub-agent of Immigration to collect and take possession of the property, monies, or assets of any Immigrant who shall die in this island, and, with the sanction of the Governor, to deliver or pay all such property, monies, or assets to any person in the island who shall establish a right to the same, or, in the absence of any such person, to convert the said property into money, and pay the proceeds into the Island treasury, in order that the same may be remitted to the person or persons, in India or elsewhere, who shall be entitled thereto.

BRITISH GUIANA.—The estates of deceased Immigrants are taken charge of by the Administrator General of unrepresented estates, an officer whose duties are regulated by special Ordinance and performed under the supervision and control of the Supreme Court of Civil Justice.

TRINIDAD.—The effects of Immigrants dying on board ship are handed over to their immediate relations, if any, otherwise they are taken in charge by the surgeon superintendent, who delivers them, at the port of debarkation, to the Agent General of Immigrants, for the benefit of whom it may concern.

GRENADA.–Upon the death of any indian immigrant his employer is required to make an inventory of the property of the deceased, and to take charge of it until it is handed over to the Immigration Agent, who is to distribute it amongst the relatives of the deceased in the Island, or to transmit the proceeds to India for the benefit of his relatives there.Regulations by Governor in Council, 17th May 1871.


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HINTS TO EMIGRANTS TO AUSTRALIA. 1. Length of Voyage.-— The usual length of the voyage to the Australian Colonies in sailing ships is about 90 days, and to New Zealand a little longer; and as, at whatever season of the year it may be made, passengers have to encounter very hot and very cold weather, they should be prepared for both. The steamers to Melbourne usually make the voyage in about 60 or 65 days.

2. Outfit.The following is a list of the principal articles required; but it cannot be too strongly impressed, as a general rule, that the more abundant the stock of clothing each person can afford to take, the better for health and comfort during the passage:

Single Man's Outfit to Australia, 1 moleskin jacket (warm lined)

11 0 i ditto waistcoat with sleeves

6 i ditto trowsers (warm lined)

10 1 duck ditto

2 3 I coloured drill jacket

3 9 1 ditto ditto trowsers

3 3 I ditto ditto waistcoat

2 7 1 blue pilot over-coat or jacket

10 0 Or, l oilskin coat

96 2 blue serge shirts or Jersey frocks, each 4 6 I felt hat

2 0 1 tweed or Scotch cap

0 6 blue striped cotton shirts, each

2 4 1 pair of strong boots*

8 6 1 pair of light shoes

5 0 4 coloured pocket handkerchiefs, each 0 63 4 pair worsted hose, per pair

1 0 2 pair cotton half hose, per pair

8 1 pair braces or belt

0 8 4 towels, each

0 6 Razor, shaving-brush, and glass in box 1 6

Single Woman's Outfit to Australia. 1 warm cloak, with hood

6 0 1 bonnet, trimmed

5 0 1 sun hat, not trimmed

2 0 1 stuff dress

10 6 2 cotton print dresses, each

0 6 shifts, each

2 4 2 coloured flannel petticoats, each

3 0 1 stuff over ditto

4 6 2 twill cotton do. do.

0 1 pair of stays

2 6 4 pocket handkerchiefs, each

0 31 4 night caps, each

0 8 4 sleeping jackets each

6 2 pairs worsted hose, per pair

1 2 4 cotton do., each

(10) 1 pair of leather shoes

29 i ditto boots

0 6 towels, each

6 Assortment needles, buttons, thread, &c.- 1 0

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Each person would also require,1 bowl and bottle, ls. 9d., knife, fork, deep tin plate, 1 tin mug, table-spoon, and teaspoon, Is. 6d. 2 lbs. of the best yellow soap, per lb. 4d. 1 hair brush and comb, 18. 8 pairs of brown cotton sheets, each 2s. 9d. 2 tins blacking, each 4d. 2 shoe brushes, each 7}d. 1 pair of blankets, 78. 6d. A married couple re- ! i coloured counterpane, 28.9d. quire but one set of 1 strong chest, with lock, 88.9d. these articles, only 1 soiled-linen clothes-bag, 28. of a larger size. 1 bed and pillow, 58. Cost of Outfit for a Single Man, about £5 10 0

Ditto ditto Single Woman , 5 15 0

Ditto ditto Married Couple 10 10 0 The cost of an outfit for children varies with their size. Generally speaking, three children under 7, or two between that age and 14, may be clothed for about 5l. ; but a well grown girl or boy of 13 years of age will cost nearly as much as an adult.

3. Colonial Tax.— There is no tax on emigrants arriving in the Australian colonies. 4. Expense of erecting a Dwelling suitable to an

Agricultural Labourer. New South Wales.-Agricultural labourers are

generally provided with dwellings rent free by their

employers. QUEENSLAND

- 401. to 50%. Dwellings are generally provided for agricultural

and other servants. VICTORIA

151. to 60%. Country labourers are always provided with dwell

ings rent free, by their employers. WESTERN AUSTRALIA, about

201. to 404 South AUSTRALIA, from

207. to 60% Labourers on stations are as a rule provided with

dwelling houses rent free, by their employers. TASMANIA.-Agricultural and other labourers in the

country are usually provided rent free with dwell., ings by their employers; but when such is not the case, a hut fit for a labourer can be put up for from 101. 1o 151.; a slab hut in the bush for shepherds for 51. In the towns, a decent building of brics

or stone costs from 301, to 401. New ZEALAND.-In the country, cottages built of

raupo” (the native rush) can be put up for from 51. to 101., which can be made very comfort. able, and quite impervious to the weather; but, from their intlammable nature, they are not allowed in the towns. In the towns, a weather. boarded cottage of two rooms can be built for about 401. or 501., or one can be rented for from

83. to 10s. per week. CAPE OF Good Hope. 201. to 501. Agricultural

Labourers can generally hire small cottages at rents varying from 78. 60. to ll. a month.

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. For use on the voyage, shoes or slippers are much more convenient than boots. The following is a cheap and excellent coinposition for preserving leather from the bad etfects of seawater; Linseed oil, 1 gill; spirit of turpentine, 1 oz., bees' wax, 1 oz.; Burgundy pitch, toz.; to be well melted together and kept covered in a vallipot; lay it on boots or shoes, rubbing it in well, and set them in a hot sun, or before the tire.

Victoria { in Melbourne, about

By the Passengers' Act, provisions and water are, however, required to be laid in for the first 4 Colonies for 70 days, and in winter time for 80 days; and for British Columbia viâ Cape Horn for 182 days.

6. Maintenance on arrival, &c.—Passengers are entitled by the Imperial Passengers’ Act to be maintained on board in the same manner as during the passage for 48 hours after arrival, unless within that time the ship should quit the port in the prosecution of her voyage. As regards those bound to the Dominion of Canada, the “ Immigration Act of 1869 " imposes a penalty on the master who compels passengers to leave before the expiration of 48 hours, and provides that they shall be landed free of expense and between six in the morning and four in the afternoon.

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5. Rent of a Town Lodging for a Mechanic's Family. New South Wales

10s. to 20s. per week. Queensland

23. 6d. to 10s. Sin country townships, about 10s.

10s. Western Australia, about

78. South Australia, from

58. to 88. Tasmania,

from 38. 6d. to 10s. New Zealand

88, to 10s. CAPE OF Good HOPE:

In Cape Town, from
Graham's Town, average 30s.
Port Elizabeth

Country Districts

58. to 30s. 6. Caution not to linger in the towns.-Emigrants to the Australian colonies are strongly advised, with a view to their own advantage and health, to look immediately on arrival for employment in the country, and not to linger in the crowded dwellings of the towns. Hints to EMIGRANTS TO British North America.

1. Caution to keep Conlract Tickets.-Emigrants to every British colony ought to keep their contract tickets, as otherwise, if the ship is prevented by any accident from reaching her destination, or if the passengers, for any other reason, are not landed at the place named in the tickets, they may have a difficulty in obtaining a return of their passage money, to which in that case they would by law be entitled.

2. Caution to provide_means for subsistence and transport after arrival.--Emigrants are warned that they have no claim of right for assistance out of the public funds of the colonies; they should, therefore, provide themselves with sufficient means of their own for their subsistence and conveyance into the interior from the port where they land.

In Canada a Colonial Law expressly prohibits relief from the Emigrant Tax Fund, excepting in cases of sickness on the part of destitute emigrants.

3. Tools. It is not generally considered desirable that agricultural labourers should take out implements of husbandry, as these can be easily procured in the colonies; but artisans are recommended to take such tools as they may possess, if not very bulky.

4. Time to arrive in North America. - The best period is early in May, so as to be in time to take advantage of the spring and summer work, and to get settled before the winter sets in. 5. Average Length of Passage :

Sailing Ships. Steamers.

10 to To Quebec

· 36 days.

12 days. Prince Edward Island (say) 36 Nova Scotia


New Brunswick

British Columbia, round
Cape Horn

viâ Panama 50
Overland, viâ New York and
San Francisco, 24 days.

7. Advice to Emigrants arriving in Quebec.The water of the river St. Lawrence is stated to have a strong tendency to produce bowel complaints in strangers. It should at first, therefore, be drunk as sparingly as possible. Emigrants should also avoid exposure to the great heat of the sun by day and the dews and noxious vapour by night. All emigrants who wish to know the distance to any part of the province, the way to get there, what it costs, and the best places to find work, should ask the Government Immigration Officer (who will board the ship they arrive in), or else go to the Immigration Office, Old Custom House Buildings, Quebec.Those arriving hy steamer will land at Point Levi, where there is also a Government Office. Emigrants should not listen to the opinions or advice of persons hanging about the places of landing, whose business it is to make profit out of them. Many young females and unprotected persons have been deceived and suffered from acting on such advice. For the better protection and convenience of emigrants desiring to wash their clothes and obtain information as to their future journey, temporary accommodation has been provided at the Government Immigration Wharf, Quebec, where they will be allowed to remain for a period not exceeding 48 hours. Emigrants who go out to join friends or relations already settled in the country should proceed at once to their destination. Farm labourers will get plenty of work in the farming districts. The Chief Agent will not assist any one who loses his time by staying in the city, unless detained by sickness or other good reason. Any offer of work had better be at once accepted, even if the wages are not as much as the emigrant thought they would be, because, until he gets into the ways of the country, he is not of much use to the farmer and has a great deal to learn. Mechanics who do not get work at their trades, had better take the first offer that is made to them than be idle.


Clerks, shopmen, or persons having no particular trade or calling, and unaccustomed to manual labour, or females above the grade of domestic servants, should not emigrate to Canada, unless going to situations previously engaged, as the supply is already greater than the demand for persons of these classes.

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10. Caution not to refuse good wages.

-Until em grants become acquainted with the labour of the country, their services are of comparatively small value to their employers. They should therefore be careful not to fall into the common error of refusing reasonable wages on their first arrival.

11. Expense of erecting a log hut. The cost of a log hut, such as settlers usually erect, may be stated at from 51. to about 121. But when the chief part of the work is performed by the emigrant himself, the cost is much less. These huts, if properly code structed, are very warm and comfortable.

VANCOUVER ISLAND.—The expense of erecting a suitable dwelling for an agricultural labourer may be estimated at from 251. to 301.

The rent of a town lodging for mechanics ani labourers is about 68. per week.

BRITISH COLUMBIA.—The cost of such a building varies according to the rate of wages in the different parts of the colony. But a good hut can be but and fitted up by the immigrant at a cost of lo or 151.

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Any complaints of bad treatment on the passage out should, in the first instance, be made, upon landing, to the Immigration Agent at the port of disembarkation.

Caution.—Newly arrived immigrants are free quently tempted by the promise of high wages held out by agents from the United States to leave Canada for the States. These promises should not be entertained without much caution and inquiry.

Protection of Passengers.—The 17th and subsequent sections of the “Immigration Act 1869," contain stringent provisions for the protection of passengers. They are allowed by law to remain on board 48 hours after arrival in port; and they and their luggage are to be landed at suitable hours, free of expense, at landing places appointed by the Governor.

The 20th section secures to foreign immigrants the observance by the inasters of vessels of the laws of the country from which they are conveyed.

No persons, without being duly licensed, may recommend lodgings or railway or steamboat routes to immigrants, or book passages or take money for inland fares, or for the transportation of baggage. (Sect. 22.)

Lists of prices per day and week for board and lodging, or both, and also the rates for separate meals, are required to be displayed in taverns, hotels, and boarding houses receiving immigrants; and no keeper of a boarding house or tavern can have a lien on immigrants' goods for any sum exceeding five dollars, — about 1l. sterling. (Sect. 23.)

Emigrants arriving at Quebec, holding through tickets for their inland transport, and desiring to obtain information, may delay their journey for that purpose, as the railway or steamboat company to whom they are addressed will take charge of their luggage until they are ready to proceed.

8. Colonial Tax on Emigrants :--

Canadian DoMINION.—By the Colonial “Immigration Act of 1869,"the Capitation Tax is fixed at one dollar, payable by the master, for every passenger over the age of one year arriving from Europe in the Dominion of Canada. If embarked, however, without the sanction of the Government of the country from whence the ship has sailed, ascertained by a certificate of the proper authority in Europe, the tax is one dollar fifty cents for every passenger so embarked. But the tax is not levied in respect of passengers not landed from ships calling at ports of the Dominion.

9. Personal Effects erempt from Duty.-By a Canadian Act (8 & 9 Vict. c. 31.): -“Wearing apparel in actual use, and other personal effects not merchandise, – implements and tools of trade of handicraftsmen used in the occupation or employ. ment of persons coming into the province for the purpose of actually settling therein;" are exempt from Customs' duties. A similar provision is in force in New Brunswick.

The English halfpenny is equal to one cent.

In Upper Canada the English sixpence is generally called in retail dealings “one York shilling" or : shilling ; emigrants often believe one shilling sterling or currency is meant.

Emigrants should bring their money in gold or good Bills of Exchange. Silver and bank-notes are liable to discounts.

Post Office Orders can be obtained in Great Britain on any of the towns in Canada.

13. Route for Emigrants to Ontario and Quebec.Emigrants intending to settle in Canada will find it in all respects more advantageous to proceed by Quebec.

As there is often competition among the Steamboat and Railway Companies at Quebec and the Forwarding Companies at Montreal, emigrants should exercise caution before agreeing for their passage, and should avoid those persons who crowd on board ships and steam-boats, offering their service to get

passages, &c.

Emigrants for Upper Canada should not pause ai Quebec or Montreal, but proceed at once on their journey. If, however, they require advice or din tion, they should apply only to the Government Agents, whose names and addresses are given s: page 2, who will furnish gratuitously all requisite information.

14. For the route to the north-west territories see page 15, post.

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