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provides that alien immigrants of African descent arriving from the United States or from the British North American Colonies who may have entered or may enter into a written contract of service for not less than a year shall, after 3 years' residence, enjoy all the privileges of a natural born subject upon taking the oath of allegiance before the Governor in the presence of the Secretary to the Government. This officer is to keep a register of the names, &c. of such naturalized immigrants, and the register or an official extract is, upon proof of the identity of the immigrant, to be evidence of his rights.

BAHAMAS.—By the Colonial Act, No. 11, 25 Vict. cap. 4, passed 22nd March 1848, aliens become naturalized upon taking the oath of allegiance and obtaining a certificate from the Governor in Council under the great seal of the colony that the oath has been taken. The certificate is obtainable on presentation to the Governor in Council of a memorial setting forth full particulars respecting the memorialist and the grounds on which the privileges of naturalization are sought, and when obtained the certificate must be recorded in the office of the Public Secretary and Registrar of Records. The fees are to be regulated by the Governor in Council and to be paid into the Public Treasury.

But by a subsequent Act 29 Vict. cap. 15 friendly aliens may without being naturalized hold lands and houses for the purpose of residence and trade, and with the same rights and privileges as a natural-born subject, except the privilege of becoming a member of the House of Assembly or of a Parochial Vestry, or of voting for such members,or of serving on a jury, except it be one de medietate linguæ. The Governor may also grant licences to companies composed of friendly aliens solely, or of such aliens and British subjects, to hold lands without restriction as to time, for purposes of trade, &c.

BARBADOS.—No general naturalization law. A special Act is required on each occasion. But by the Colonial Act, 28 and 29 Vict. cap. 4. aliens may hold leases not exceeding 21 years for the purposes of residence or trade. They cannot however vote at elections.

British GUIANA. — In this colony Ordinance No. 16 of 1871 gives effect to the Imperial “ Natu“ ralization Acts, 1870," of which a summary will be found at p. ; and enables the Governor by Proclamation to establish Rules and Regulations for giving effect to the Acts, and to fix the fees to be taken in respect of things to be done in the Colony in pursuance of the Acts.

GRENADA.-By the Naturalization Act, No. 296, of 1860, the Governor in Council is empowered to grant letters of naturalization under the great seal of the colony. Aliens becoming naturalized are capable of enjoying and exercising within the colony all the rights and capacities of natural-born subjects. The fees amount to 42s.

By Act No. 399, sec. 101, similar provision is made for naturalizing alien immigrants of African descent coming from British North America or the United States, as in the case of Antigua.

JAMAICA.- The Governor may, by instrument under the broad seal, naturalize with all the privileges in the colony of a natural-born subject any alien coming to settle and plant in the colony, who has taken the oath of allegiance, 35 C. 23 s. c. 1. The statute 13 Geo. 2. cap. 7. for naturalizing foreign Protestants and others settling in the colonies in America is by the Colonial Act Geo. 4. cap. 23. sect. 2. declared to be in force in Jamaica, except that no person naturalized under the Act shall become a Member of Council or of the Assembly. See Minot's Digest of the Laws of Jamaica (1865).

By the Colonial Act 14 Vict. cap. 40, passed in May 1851, children (wherever born) of a natural-born British mother may hold any estate real or personal within the colony. Wives of natural born subjects are to be deemed naturalized.

Aliens, the subjects of friendly States, may hold every species of personal property, except chattels real, as if they were natural born subjects ; and they may hold lands and houses, for the purposes of residence or trade, for any term not exceeding 21 years, with the same privileges as natural born subjects, except those of voting at elections for Members of the Assembly, or of becoming Members of the Council or Assembly. Aliens may lend money on mortgage on freehold or leasehold property. In case of non-payment, the legal estate of the land is vested in the President of the Council, the Speaker of the House of Assembly (Qy. now that there is no such House), and the Chief Justice in trust for the mortgagee, who may sue in their names; but the alien cannot enter into actual possession of the lands or foreclose the equity of redemption.--Col. Act George III. c. 16.

By Act No. 16 of 1871 real and personal property of every description may be taken, acquired, held, and disposed of by an alien in the same manner in all respects as a natural born British subject; but this law does not qualify aliens to own British ships.

By another Act, 22 Vict. cap. 1. sec. 32 (Nov. 1858) every Immigrant” born out of the British dominions, who may obtain or become entitled to a “certificate of industrial residence" under the Act, thereby becomes entitled to all the privileges of a natural-born subject within the island. An Immigrant is defined to be any person introduced at the public expense from certain specified places. See also 22 Vict, cap. 4. sec. 7.

Nevis.—By the Colonial Act 19 Vict. No. 77, (June 1866) children, wherever born, of a mother à natural born subject, may hold real or personal estate; and wives of natural born or naturalized subjects enjoy the same rights as their husbands.

Friendly aliens may acquire and hold either real or personal estate as effectually and with the same rights and privileges as natural born subjects, except that they cannot become Members of Council or of the Assembly, or vote for members to serve in the Assembly or in any Vestry. Alien physicians or surgeons need not take the oaths of allegiance to entitle them to practise as required by an old Act passed in 1701.

St. Lucia.—No general naturalization law.

St. Kitts and ANGUILLA.-By a local Act, No. 127, passed on 3rd February 1857, all domiciled or resident liberated Africans are to be deemed to be natural-born subjects, and capable of holding and conveying real and personal estate. The children, wherever born, of a mother a natural-born subject, are made capable of taking real or personal estate by purchase or descent ; and wives of natural born or naturalized subjects are to be deemed to be naturalized.

Colonial Act No. 152, 18th March 1859, provides for the naturalization of aliens of African descent coming from the United States or the British Provinces of North America after three years residence, upon taking the oath of allegiance.

Alicns, subjects of a friendly State, may acquire and hold either real or personal estate as effectually as natural born subjects, but they are not thereby made capable of becoming Members of the Council, or of the Assembly, or of voting at the election of Members of the Assembly.

St. Vincent.—By “The Aliens' Naturalization Act, 1866," (No. 251 of 1866,) the Governor in Council is empowered to grant, under the great seal of the colony, Certificates of naturalization. Aliens upon taking the oath of allegiance (which is to be administered by the Clerk of the Council in the presence of the Governor), and on obtaining and recording the certificate in the Colonial Secretary's office, become capable of enjoying and trans. mitting within the colony all the rights and capacities of natural born subjects. The fees amount to 40s.

By Act No. 139 of 1857, sec. 17, the same provisions are made for naturalizing alien immigrants of African descent arriving from British North America or the United States, as in the case of Antigua, p. 42.

TRINIDAD.-By an ordinance passed in 1868, aliens desirous of becoming naturalized present a memorial to the Governor, stating their age, profession or other occupation, and the duration of their residence in the island. The Governor thereupon, it' he sees fit, issues a certificate granting to the Memorialist all the rights and capacities in the island of a natural born British subject. Aliens on being naturalized are required to take the oath of allegiance, and to pay a fee of 101. for the issue of the certificate and il, for its enregistration.

Tobago.—No general law. A special Act is required in each case.

THE TURKS AND Caicos IslanES.-By the Colonial Act, No. 1 Vict. c. 4., passed 22 March 1848, aliens become naturalized upon taking the oath of allegiance and obtaining a Certificate from the President in Council, under the Great Seal of the Colony, that the oath has been taken. The Certificate is obtainable on presentation to the President of a memorial setting forth the grounds on which the privileges of naturalization are sought, and when obtained it must be recorded in the office of

the Public Secretary and Registrar of Records. The fees are to be regulated by the President in Council.

By ordinance No. 8 of 1857 (passed 17 October 1857, and confirmed 13 February 1858), aliens may hold lands, salt ponds, &c. (except salt ponds at Turks Island) on lease not exceeding 21 years, which lease may be renewed at the end of the term.

Ceylon.—No general law. Special ordinances are passed on each occasion,

GIBRALTAR.-By an Order in Council of 1859 aliens who have been resident and domiciled for 15 years, or for a less period with the Governor's special licence, may hold lands as if they were British subjects.

HONDURAS. The Naturalization Act for this Colony, 18 Vict. cap. 18, was proclaimed 19 July 1855. It is similar to the New South Wales Act. By the 23rd Section Immigration Act 24 Vict. cap. 5, passed in 1861, every immigrant born out of the British dominions, who shall have obtained or become entitled to a certificate of industrial residence, shall immediately thereafter become entitled to all such privileges as are conferred by the Act 18 Vict. cap. 18. on naturalized aliens, except the capability to become a Member of Assembly, which privilege, however, may be allowed by the Superintendent.

Hong Kong.–By the Colonial Ordinance, No. 2, of 1853, passed on the 17th November of that year, aliens, though not naturalized, may acquire and dispose of real estate within the colony as effectu. ally as natural born subjects. The Ordinance code fers no other rights on aliens.

MAURITIUS.—The Naturalization of Aliens is regulated by Ordinance No. 8 of 1868. Persons resi. dent in the colony desirous of being naturalized must furnish the Governor with such informatio? as he may desire respecting their names, age, place of birth, residence, and occupation, and take the prescribed oath of allegiance. The fees amount to vl.

SIERRA LEONE.—By the Imperial Act 16 & 17 Vict. cap. 86, (20 Aug. 1853) liberated Africans domiciled or resident in Sierra Leone are to be deemed, within the Colony, to be natural born subjects as from the date of their arrival, and to be capable of holding and transmitting any estate real or personal within the Colony. Power is given to the local Legislature to alter or repeal any of the provisions of the Act so far as they relate to the right to real property. Liberated Africans are also to be considered as British subjects for the purposes of treaties with native chiefs

INDIA.-- The Naturalization Act of India is No. 30 of 1852 passed by the Governor in Council on the 16th of July of that year. It is substantially the same as the English Act (7 & 8 Vict. cap. 66, now repealed,) with some slight additional reservations, The Certificate of naturalization is to be issued by the Government; and if any material statement in the alien's memorial be false, the Certiticate may be cancelled either wholly or in part. The alien on taking the oath of allegiance prescribed in the Act is to be deemed a natural born subject of

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or Consul in Foreign Parts. The passport confers on the bearer no claim to British protection in the country of his birth.

the Crown, as if he had been born within the East India territories, and to be entitled within them to all the rights of a subject of Her Majesty born therein. So far as the prescribed oath refers to the East India Company, now extinct, it is of course obsolete; but it does not appear that any other has been substituted for it.

Passports to Aliens naturalized in the Colonies. The Regulations respecting the issue of Passports to naturalized Colonists have varied at different times. The following are at present the instructions from the Colonial Office to Governors for the issue of passports for foreign travel to persons naturalized in the Colonies. These passports must be signed by the officer administering the Government and must contain an express declaration that the person receiving it is naturalized as a British subject, stating the period for which it is available, which must not exceed 12 months from the date of issue.

Form of Passport. This passport is granted to A.B. as a British subject of

, to enable him to travel in foreign parts, and is available for the period of months from the

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UNITED STATES. Aliens cannot acquire valid titles to real estate under the Preemption and Homestead laws. The privilege is restricted to citizens or those who have declared their intention to become citizens.

There have been several Acts of Congress for naturalizing aliens. The Act now in force for ordinary cases was passed on the 14th April 1802. It provides that any alien being a free white person may become a citizen of the United States, or any of them, on the following conditions :-(1.) He must have declared on oath or affirmation before some Court of Record, 3 years at least before his admission, that it was his bonâ fide intention of become a citizen and to renounce for ever all foreign allegiance whatsoever. (2.) He must, at the time of his application to be admitted as a citizen, declare on oath or affirmation before a Court of Record that he absolutely abjures all foreign allegiance whatsoever, naming particularly the prince or sovereignty to which he owed allegiance. (3.) That the Court admitting him is satisfied by evidence other than his own oath that he has resided within the United States at least 5 years, and within the state or territory where the court is held at least 1 year, and that during that time he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the constitution of the United States, and well disposed to good order and happiness therein. And (4.) He must renounce any hereditary title or order of nobility which he may possess.

Minor children of persons naturalized become citizens if dwelling in the United States at the time of their father's naturalization.

Children of citizens born out of the limits of the United States are citizens, but the right of citizenship is not to descend to persons whose fathers have never resided within the United States.

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Memorandum thereon. The passport accompanying this memorandum may, on the recommendation of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, be exchanged in London for a Foreign Office Passport, available for the unexpired portion of the period for which it was originally granted.

It can be renewed only at the Foreign Office in London, on the recommendation of the Secretary of State for the Colonies; but it may be exchanged, if run out, at any of Her Majesty's Missions or Consulates in foreign countries, for a passport strictly limited to such length of time as will enable the bearer to reach England or any of Her Majesty's possessions abroad. Such limited renewal may be

and once only, by a British Minister

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1

COOLIE IMMIGRATION INTO THE WEST INDIES

AND MAURITIUS. The leading principles which have been established in respect to immigration to the West Indies are, (1) that no colored immigrants are to be introduced except on the requisition of known and responsible persons; (2) that they should be brought in, subject to the provisions of the Immigration Laws of the Colony; (3) that a Government officer is appointed with a special duty of protecting the immigrants from ill-usage, and of enforcing their contract rights; and (4) that not more than one-third of the expense of the immigration should be defrayed out of the general revenue of the Colony, the remaining two-thirds being borne by the planting interest, in the shape of indenture fees, and by special export taxes on the staple commodities raised by the planters.

The following is an outline of the system and arrangements under which immigration to the West Indies and Mauritius from India is conducted.

The emigrants are collected in India, under the provisions of an Indian Act, No. 7 of 1871,* by agents appointed and paid by the respective colonies, but approved by the Government of India. They are received into depôts at the port of departure, and are there maintained at the expense of the Colony for which they are engaged till they can be embarked. Before embarkation they are subjected to a medical examination, and steps are taken to ascertain that they understand where they are going, and on what terms. They are conveyed to their destination in ships expressly chartered for the purpose, which sail under regulations prescribed by laws of the Indian Legislature. Every party of 100 males must be accompanied by at least 40 females.

On their arrival in the Colony the immigrants are indentured to employers for a period of tive years, during which they are to receive lodging, medical attendance, and wages. The wages in most of the colonies are required to be at the same rate as for unindentured labourers on the same estate. In British Guiana a small deduction is made from the money wages for lodging and medical attend

At the end of the third or fourth years' service, the immigrants may (except in British Guiana and Mauritius), on making a money payment, release themselves altogether from their engagement. This payment varies in the different colonies, the principle being to calculate it with reference to the expense of the introduction of the immigrant, so that each yearly payment should equal about th of that expensé. 'The Government has large powers of cancelling any contract in case of misconduct by master or servant, and estates to which coolies are allotted are visited periodically by a Government officer, called in the West Indies, the “Immigration Agent,” in the Mauritius the “ Protector of Immigrants,” who is empowered to enquire into complaints, and is required to report periodically to the Governor. At the end of his five years' service the coolie is at liberty to return to his own country at his own expense, and in

the West Indies, after a further five (in St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Antigua, three) years' residence, he is entitled to claim a back passage at the expense of the Colony. From Mauritius no back passage is, at present, given by the Colony.

The mode in which that portion of the Immigration into Mauritius which is imported exclusively at the expense of the employers is recruited and engaged in India is regulated by an Ordinance passed by the Legislature of Mauritius in 1867, and by regulations issued under it by the Governor. Into the West Indies there is no similar immigration. The Mauri: tius Ordinance legalizes contracts of service made in India for periods not exceeding five years; requires the employer to pay the passage of immigrants en gaged for him, and of their

proportion of females. The regulations provide that persons desirous of engaging immigrants shall make application for that purpos to the Protector, giving a bond for the expenses to be incurred; that they may also name special agents collect the immigrants, who, if not disapproved of bes the Protector in the Colony or the Emigration Agent in India, shall receive licences to recruit emigrants : that the Emigration Agent shall, however, have fu power to suspend or withdraw the licence of any agent who may misconduct himself; that the wages and allowances of emigrants so engaged shall be either according to the Government scale or equivalent to it; that where special agents are not employed the collection of the emigrants shall be conducied exclusively by agents employed by the Coloria! Government; and that in all cases the Emigration Agent shall ascertain before any contract is completed that the emigrant understands its nature and effect. The regulations further provide for the case of an employer failing to take up emigrants engaged for him, for the registering of contracts, and for other matters of detail.

Immigration Laws, BOUNTY, AND LABOUR

CONTRACTS IN THE WEST INDIES. The West India Colonies which have made provision for importing labour, are British Guian.. Trinidad, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, St. Kitts Grenada, Antigua, and Honduras.

The Immigration laws in all these Colonies are framed on the same general principles, and, with some modifications in minor details, are substantially alike.

British Guiana.
The ordinances relating to immigrants are :-
No. 4 of 1864, consolidating the law.

24 of 1864, immigration loans consolidation.
5 of 1865, facilitating the re-indenturing of

immigrants on bounty.
17 of 1864, for indepturing labourers on plan-

tations. 13 of 1866, amending Ordinance No. 4 of 1564. 9 of 1868, further amending No. 4 of 1864. 16 of 1869, regulating the festivals of Indian

immigrants. 16 of 1870, conferring powers on the Commir

sioners of Inquiry. 18 of 1871, increasing indenture fees for 1871-2

ance.

• For an abstract of this Act, see post.

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The first and principal Ordinance (No. 4 of 1864) repealed and consolidated with amendments and alterations 16 previous Ordinances. The following is an outline of its main features :

Any employer requiring emigrants to be introduced at the public expense, must before the S1st of May in each year, make a requisition to the Governor in a prescribed form for the number he wants for the next season but one. If his application is entertained (it is not compulsory on the Governor to entertain it), and emigrants are on their arrival allotted to him, he is bound to pay, whether he takes 'them or not, the full amount of the indeuture fees, and the cost of their maintenance at the depôt at the rate of 10d. a day per adult until he removes them. The indenture fees * are 50 dollars for Indian, and 80 dollars for Chinese immigrants (sections 15 and 16 of repealed Ordinance, No. 1 of 1860, which is kept alive to this extent) payable iyth down, another that the end of the first year, and the balance by 4 equal annual payments of įth. Promissory notes bearing interest at 6 per cent, are to be given for all the instalments except the first which must be in cash. These fees are made preferential charges on the plantation.

The employer is bound to pay wages to the Immigrants weekly at the same rate as to unindentured labourers on the same or the neighbouring plantation, and to provide them with suitable dwellinghouse and hospital accommodation, and when sick, with medical attendance, medicines, and maintenance.

If the employer fails to provide the Immigrants with work, or the Governor, on just cause shewn, thinks that the Immigrants should be removed from the plantation, he is empowered to cancel the indentures and re-indenture them to

some other employer.

Employers illusing Immigrants render themselves liable to a fine not exceeding 48 dollars, or to imprisonment with or without hard labor for not exceeding 2 months, or to both. The harbouring or employing indentured Immigrants by persons not entitled to their services, is an offence punishable with a fine not exceeding 24 dollars and compensation to the lawful employer at the rate of i dollar a day.

On each plantation suitable and well drained hospital accommodation must be provided, to which must be attached a duly licensed medical practitioner and competent nurses, or the Governor may remove the Immigrants.

Proprietors however of adjoining estates may, with the permission of the Governor and Court of Policy, establish and use a joint hospital. Managers of plantations are required to compel sick immigrants

to enter a hospital, and if the patients refuse to go, or if they quit the hospital without leave, they are liable to a penalty not exceeding 24 dollars.

Immigrants, if Indian, Chinese, or adult liberated Africans, are indentured for 5 years; but if from North America, Cape de Verde Islands, or the British West Indies for 3 years; and if from Madeira, the Azores, or Canary Islands for 2 years. They are bound to work 7 hours a day at out-door work, or 10 hours within doors, for 5 days in the week, or to perform 5 tasks in the week. But it appears that Immigrants from Barbadoes and Madeira have been exempted from indentured service in British Guiana,

On the completion of the indentureship the immigrant is entitled to a “certificate of Industrial Service ” and a passport, without which and due notice he cannot quit the Colony. Possessed of this certificate he is free to return home at his own expense or to do as he pleases. If he chooses to reindenture himself for a further term of 5 years he will, if able-bodied, receive a Bounty from the Colonial Government of 50 dollars, and if not ablebodied or a minor, of 25 dollars. In case of re-indenture his “certificate of Industrial Service” will be withdrawn until the completion of the 2nd Indentureship.

Indians (but not other immigrants) are entitled at the end of a ten years continuous residence in the Colony to a free passage back to India, and if detained after he claims it, to compensation at the rate of 5 dollars for every 6 months of delay.

Indentured immigrants who without reasonable cause shall fail to attend the daily muster, or shall refuse to work, or who shall absent themselves without leave, or get drunk at work, or use threatening orinsulting language to their employers or overseers, are liable to a penalty not exceeding 24 dollars, or iinprisonment with hard labour not exceeding one month, and to the forfeiture of not exceeding one week's wages. They cannot go more than 2 miles from their plantation without a “pass,” and desertion (i. e. absence without leave for 7 or more days) is punishable by fine not exceeding 24 dollars or imprisonment with hard labour for not exceeding one month, or to both. A second conviction for this offence within any one year subjects the offender to a penalty of not exceeding 48 dollars or imprisonment with hard labour for not exceeding 2 months, or both, or the justice may in lieu thereof increase the term of service for a period not exceeding twice as long as the desertion.

The penalty for damaging an employer's property is 24 dollars or one month's imprisonment with hard labour, or both, for the first offence, and 48 dollars or 2 months or both for the second offence.

Indian immigrants illtreating or threatening their wives with personal violence are liable to imprisonment with or without hard labour and to removal to another plantation.

Bounty. The Governor may proclaim the places from which immigration on bounty is permitted, and

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* Ordinance No.18 of 1871 increases by 10 dollars the bounty pay. able by employers under Ordinance No. 4 of 1864 to adult ablebodied immigrants, who re-indenture for a second term of five years, or by halt that sum for minors, and those who are not able-bodied. The duration of the Ordinance is limited to the financial ycar 1871-2,

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