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DEMAND FOR LABOUR IN THE WEST INDIES.

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WEST INDIES. JAMAICA.-W. M. Anderson, Esq., the late Immigratior. Agent, in a Report, dated 5th March 1868, which is still applicable, says :

“ Agricultural labour is still very much wanted in several districts of the island, but employers hesitate to apply for immigrants in consequence of the bad class of people introduced last year, and also on account of the high rate they have to pay for them, in addition to the export duty on produce, and the expense of medical attendance, food, &c., until they get acclimated.

“The importation of immigrants into Jamaica was suspended from 1863 to 1867. In June and July of the latter year 1,625 Coolies were introduced from Calcutta, but these are reported not to have given satisfaction to the planters, owing, it is said, to their being ill-selected."

The demand for labour still continues.

Applications were received in the Colony in 1871 for 1,645 immigrants, and in 1872 for 2,400.

British GUIANA. The following official Report from Mr. Walker, the Assistant Government Secretary, dated 4th March 1869, is considered to be still applicable.

“ There is a steady and increasing demand for agricultural labourers; but, from the nature of the climate, Europeans are totally unfit to be so employed. European tradesmen, if thoroughly competent, would no doubt obtain constant and remunerative employment; and, if their trade be such as could be carried on within doors, might entertain a reasonable hope of succeeding and saving money, provided they avoided intemperance, to which the climate and the circumstances in which they would be placed offer great temptations. The field for the employment of such persons is very limited."

The number of Indian immigrants for whose introduction during the season 1872-3, applications have been received from the colonial authorities is 9,030.

TRINIDAD. The Colonial Secretary, in a letter dated the 24th January 1872, adopts the report of the Agent General of Immigrants, Henry Mitchel, Esq., M.D., which states

“ The demand for continuous agricultural labour is considerable, otherwise labour would not be im. ported from India at a cost of more than 211. per head, with further promise of return passage, free, after the termination of 5 years under contract, and an additional service of 5 years without contract, or of a free grant of 10 acres of land in lieu of the return passage. The demand is great for this species of labour, because the peasantry, who are free agents, will not furnish continuous labour for the ordinary wages of from 10d. to 1s. and 1s. 3d; and tolerable ploughmen are paid at the rate of one dollar per day, with house and garden free.”

The number of immigrants for whose introduction application has been made during the season 1872-3, is 5,500.

St. Kitt's. The demand for labour is reported to be moderate. A small annual immigration will, it is considered, suffice to stimulate native industry.

BERMUDA. The Colonial Secretary, in a letter dated 7th December 1871, says :

“ Tithes do not exist among us; religious freedom is complete; taxation is very light; social tranqui:lity is never disturbed; the soil is generous, and yields to a culture which scarcely deserves the name of labour almost everything which either the temperate or the tropical zones can produce; the clinate is indeed relaxing, but for this its very pleasantness is to blame; in no place are instances of longevity more numerous in proportion to the population; fish is very abundant, and the fisheries very imperfectly worked; the commercial situation is unsurpassed geographically; the agricultural, or rather the market-gardening resources of Bermuda are such as to offer a certain reward to horticulture, and the demand for the New York market is equal to any supply that can be produced.

" Agricultural labourers are much wanted, and two or three whitesmiths would find work; but domestic servants and mechanics, such as carpenters, masons, coopers, saddlers, &c., would not meet with much encourageinent.”

RETURN of IMMIGRANTS and LIBERATED AFRIcans introduced into the WEST INDIA COLONIES and MAURITIUS

for each Year since the Abolition of Slavery, so far as known.

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517

427

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65,546

3,025

3,644

4,466

3,592

1,978

* This number includes 35,938 intercolonial emigrants.

5. For the purposes of the Act, the prescribe d length of voyage to the following places is,

For Sailing

For

Vessels. Steade To North America (except the West Coast thereof)

Days. Days If the ship clears between the 16th both

of January and 14th October - days If the ship clears between the 15th incluOctober and 17th Jannary - ) sive,

80 To the Coast of Africa south of the Equator! the Falklands, or the East Coast of South America southward of the 25th degree of

105

ES South Latitude To Western Australia

120

85 To the other Australian Colonies

140

$0 To New Zealand and the Western Coast

of Anerica between the Equator and the 150 40th degree of North Latitude To the Western Coast of America, north of

182 the 40th degree of North Latitude, and the Islands adjacent thereto

ABSTRACT OF THE PASSENGERS' ACTS, 1855, 1863, AND

1870, 18 & 19 VICT. c. 119, 26 & 27 VICT. c. 51. AND

33 & 34 VICT. C, 51. N.B.—The Sections quoted refer to the Act of 1855,

unless the Act of 1863 is specified. 1. TheseActs apply equally to foreign and to British vessels, except such parts of the Act of 1855 as relate to the Rules to be prescribed by Orders in Council for preserving order and for securing cleanliness and ventilation on board, which Rules are binding only in “ Passenger Ships” proceeding to the British Colonies. But by the bond required by the 63d Section of the Act of 1855 to be given to the Crown, before clearance, by the masters of all “passenger ships for the due observance of the law, the Masters of foreign passenger ships proceeding to the British colonies engage to submit themselves to the jurisdiction of the colonial tribunals for any violation of the law, in like manner as British Masters. In case the Owners and Charterers of the vessel reside abroad, this Bond is to be for 5,0001. instead of 2,0001., and is to contain an additional condition for repaying any expenses to be incurred in rescuing and forwarding shipwrecked passengers.-Sect. 17 of the Act of 1863. Mail Steamers are no longer exempt from the operation of the Acts if they carry other than cabin passengers.

2. The Acts do not apply to cabin passengers except in the few cases where they are specially, mentioned or included in the term persons. No persons are to be deemed cabin passengers unless the space allotted to their exclusive use be not less than 36 clear square feet to each statute adult; nor unless they shall be messed at the table of the master or first officer of the ship; nor unless the fare contracted be paid shall be in the proportion of at least 30s. for every week of the prescribed length of the voyage for sailing vessels, proceeding from the United Kingdom to any place south of the Equator, and of 20s. for those proceeding to any place north of the Equator, nor unless they shall hold a duly signed “contract ticket.”. The term “statute adult” means each passenger of the age of 12 years and upwards, or two passengers between the ages of 1 and 12 years. A "passenger ship” means any vessel carrying more than 50 passengers in all, or more than in the proportion of one statute adult to every 33 tons, if a sailing vessel, or more than one to every 20 tons, if a steamer, of the ship’s registered tonnage.

3. A marked distinction is made between “passenger ships” and ships not coming within that definition. To the former all the provisions of the Act apply; to the latter only six clauses, viz., the 10, 16, 17, 48, 49, and 56, which require that facilities of inspection shall be afforded to the Emigration Oficers; that lists of passengers (however few) shall be delivered to the Custom-house Officers; that passage-money shall be returned, with compensation, if passages are not provided according to contract; that subsistence-money shall be paid to passengers in case of delay in sailing; and that passengers shall not be landed at the wrong place.

4. The duties imposed on the Emigration Officers are to be performed in their absence by their assistants, if any; and at ports where there are no such officers, or in their absence, by the Chief Officer of 1 Customs,-Sec. 9.

6. Parties contracting to provide cabin passengers in “ passenger ships," or emigrants in any ships, with passages to any place out of Europe, not being in the Mediterranean Sea, are bound to give contract tickets in the form prescribed by the Act, or by the Emigration Commissioners, containing an acknowledgment for the money received, under a penalty not exceeding Fifty Pounds nor less than Fire Pounds, and the forfeiture of licence in the case of a passage broker.-Secs. 71 & 67.

7. Any person fraudulently altering, after issue, contract tickets, or inducing passengers to part with or destroy them during the existence of the contract, is liable to a penalty not exceeding Twenty Pounds in each case. -Sec. 72.

8. Cabin and other passengers may recover in 2 summary way, before Justices of the Peace, damages for the breach of any stipulation in their contract tickets, not exceeding, with the costs, the amount of their passage money and Twenty Pounds.--Sec. 73.

9. Cabin and other passengers are bound, under a . penalty not exceeding Ten Pounds, to exhibit, on demand, to any Emigration Officer, their contract tickets.-Sec. 74.

10. Facilities for inspecting all ships, either fitting for or carrying passengers, are to be afforded to the proper officers at home and abroad.–Sec. 10.

11. No “ passenger ship ” is to clear out without first obtaining from the Emigration or Cus! tom-house officer, as the case may be, a certiticate that the requirements of the Act have been complied with, and that the ship is seaworthy, and with her passengers and crew in a fit state to pro ceed; nor without the master having given a bond to the Crown.-Sect. 11. The penalty for breach of this regulation is the forfeiture of the ship, if found within two years in any port of the United Kingdom. or in the British possessions abroad. But the secre tary of State may, if he thinks fit, release the ship on a money payment not exceeding Two Thousias Pounds.--Sect. 13 of the Act of 1863.

* The Emigration Commissioners have issued, under the previsions of the 30th section of the Act, a notice, dated 4JE 1864 (published in the London Gazette of the Tth Judei. re ducing, by tight days, the len th of voyage to North Amer for steamers capinble of steaming at a rate of not less the statute miles an hour. The declared voyage, therefore, tes by for steamers clearing between the 16th January an 16 October, inclusive, 32 days and between the 15th Octes i 13th January, inclusive, 37 days.

| The 17th is an error in the Act; it i have been teru

12. No ship is to carry passengers on more than 9 decks, except in the case of cabin passengers, where the number does not exceed 1 to every 100 tons register. No ship is to carry in the poop, round-house, or deck-house, or on the 6 “upper passengers' deck” more passengers than in the proportion of i statute adult to every 15 clear superficial feet, or on the “lower passenger deck," than in the proportion of 1 to every 18 feet of deck allotted to their use. But if the height between the lower and upper passenger deck be less than 7 feet, or if the apertures for light and air (exclusive of side scuttles) be less in size than in the proportion of 3 feet to every 100 superficial feet of the lower passengers' deck, then only 1 statute adult to every 25 feet can be carried on the lower deck. No ship is to carry more passengers in the whole than 1 to every 5 superficial feet clear for exercise, on the upper deck or poop, or on the round or deck-house, if the latter be fitted on the top with a proper railing. The Master is liable to a penalty not exceeding Five Pounds for each passenger in excess.-Secs. 13 & 14 of the Act of 1855, and Sect. 5 of the Act of 1863.

13. Any person found on board a “Passenger Ship” with intent to obtain a passage without the knowledge and consent of the owner, charterer, or master, and all persons aiding and abetting, are liable to a penalty not exceeding Twenty Pounds, and in default of payment to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, for a period not exceeding three months.-Sec. 18 of the Act of 1855, and Sec. 7 of the Act of 1863.

14. The master of every ship before clearance must sign, and deliver to the Officer of Customs at the port, a list in duplicate of his passengers, including the cabin passengers, in the form prescribed by the Act, and if after clearance he embark other passengers, lists of these are also to be delivered to the Chief Officer of Customs at the place of embarkation; or if no such officer be there, then to the officer at the first port at which the ship touches. These lists are to be countersigned by the Emigration Officer, when there is one, at the port of embarkation, and are ultimately to be deposited with the Chief Officer of Customs if the final port of discharge be in a colony, but if in a foreign country, with Her Majesty's Consul.-Secs. 16 and 17 of the Act of 1855, and Sec. 6 of the Act of 1863.

15. No “Passenger Ship” is to clear out until surveyed, and reported seaworthy and fit in all respects for the voyage, by two or more competent surveyors approved either by the Emigration Commissioners or by the Commissioners of Customs, as the case may be.-Sec. 19.

16. The decks on which passengers are carried are not to be less than 14 inch' in thickness, and to be properly secured to and supported by beams of adequate strength, forming part of the permanent structure of the vessel. The height between decks is not to be less than 6 feet. There are not to be more than two tiers of berths on any deck, and the bottom of the lower tier must be at least 6 inches above the deck, and the interval between each tier of berths and between the uppermost tier and deck above it, at least 2 feet. The berths are to be securely constructed, at a distance of at least 9 inches from any water-closet, and not to be of less dimensions than after the rate of 6 feet in length by 18 inches in width for each statute adult, and sufficient in number for

the proper accommodation of the passengers contained in the “ Passengers' Lists." Single men of the age of fourteen and upwards are to be berthed in a separate compartment in the fore part of the ship, or in separate rooms, if the ship be divided into compartments and fitted with enclosed berths. Not more than one passenger, unless husband and wife, or females, or children under 12, are to occupy the same berth. No berths are to be taken down for 48 hours after the arrival of the ship at her destination, unless all the passengers shall within that time have voluntarily quitted her.-Secs. 20, 21, 22, and 23.

17. In every “Passenger Ship” there must be a hospital or hospitals set apart, under the poop, or in the round-house or deck-house, or on the upper passenger deck and not elsewhere, not less in size than 18 clear superficial feet for every 50 passengers, and properly supplied with bed-places, beds, bedding, and utensils. -Sec. 24.

18. There must be two privies in each Passenger Ship, with two additional privies on deck for every 100 passengers on board ; and where there are 50 female passengers, with at least two waterclosets under the poop or on the upper deck, for the exclusive use of the women and children. The whole number of privies need not exceed 12, and they are to be placed in equal numbers on each side of the ship, and to be maintained in a serviceable and cleanly condition throughout the voyage.--Sec. 25.

19. In • Passenger Ships,” passengers are to have the free use of the whole of each hatchway situated over the space appropriated to them, and over each hatchway there must be a booby-hatch or other substantial covering. If there are as many as 100 passengers, there must also be an adequate and proper ventilating apparatus, to be approved by the Emigration Officer. -Sec. 26.

20. Suitable and seaworthy boats, to be kept clear for immediate use, are to be carried according to the following scale, viz. :-For a ship of less than 200 tons 2 boats.

200 and less than 400 tons 3
400 and less than 600 tons 4

600 and less than 1,000 tons 5
,, 1,000 and less than 1,500 tons 6

» 1,500 tons and upwards - 7 But no slip is bound to carry more boats than the Emigration Officer may think sufficient to hold all the persons on board. One of the boats must be a Long-boat, and another a properly fitted Life-boat. The latter is to be carried where the Emigration Officer

may

think it will be most available for immediate service. There must also be 4 properly fitted Life-buoys kept ready for immediate use; one, or two chronometers according as the ship is bound to the northward or southward of the Equator; three steering and one azimuth Compass; and some adequate means for making Night and Fog Signals: and a Fire Engine with or without some apparatus for extinguishing fire.-Sec. 27.

21. No ship is to clear out until manned with an efficient crew, which must not be changed without the consent of the Emigration Officer or Shipping Master.-Sec. 28.

22. No gunpowder, vitriol, lucifer-matches, guano, green hides, or other article likely to endanger the safety of the ship or the health of the passengers, is to be taken as cargo or ballast, and no part of the

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cargo, water, provisions, stores, or passengers' luggage, is to be carried on the upper or passenger decks, unless stored and secured to the satisfaction of the Emigration Officer, and the space deducted in calculating the Tonnage Check.-Sec. 29. A limited number of horses and cattle, may, under certain conditions, be carried in passenger ships.-Sect. 8 of the Act of 1863. And by sec. 3 of the Passengers Act Amendment Act, 1870, (33 & 34 Vict. c. 90.) the Secretary of State may authorize the carriage as cargo in any passenger ship of naval and military stores for the public service.

23. The provisions and water* are to be surveyed by or under the direction of the Emigration Officer, who may mark and reject such as not of wholesome quality, or in a sweet and good condition. The provisions and stores for the crew are also to be surveyed, and such as are of the like kind as those intended for the passengers must be of not inferior quality.-Secs. 31 and 32.

24. During the voyage, including the time of detention at any place, the master must issue daily before two o'clock in the afternoon, to each passenger, or, where they are divided into messes, to the head man of each mess, pure water, and sweet and wholesome provisions, according to the subjoined scale. All articles which require cooking must be issued in a cooked state. The first issue must be before two o'clock on the day of embarkation. Each mess must consist of not more than 10 statute adults.

Weekly Dietary Scale. Per Statute Adult.

The following substitutions for articles in the above dietary scale may be made at the option of the Master of any.“ Passenger Ship,” provided that the substituted articles be set forth in the contract tickets of the passengers; that is to say, 1 lb. of preserved meat for 1 lb. of salt pork or beef ; 1 lb. of four or of ! bread or biscuit, or } lb. of beef or of pork, for 11 lb. of oatmeal, or 1 lb. of rice or 1 lb. of peas; 1 lb. of rice for 1} lb. of oatmeal, or vice versa; { lb. of preserved potatoes for 1 lb. of potatoes; 10 oz. of currants for 8 oz, of raisins; 3} oz. of cocoa or of coffee roasted and ground, for 2 oz. of tea; { lb. of treacle for } lb. of sugar; 1 gill of mixed pickles for 1 gill of vinegar.--Secs. 35 and 36. 14 lbs. of soft bread for 1 lb. of flour or biscuit or rice or peas, or 14 lbs. of oatmeal.-Sec. 10 of the Act of 1863.

25. Vessels carrying as many as 100 passengers must be provided with a seafaring person to act as passengers' steward, in messing and serving out provisions to the emigrants, and in assisting to maio. tain cleanliness, order, and good discipline among them. There must also be on board a seafaring person to act as passengers' cook. If there are more than 300 statute adults, there must be two such cooks A convenient place must be set apart on deck for cooking. A sufficient cooking apparatus and a proper supply of fuel must be shipped for the voyage. The whole to be subject to the approval of the Emigration Officer.-Secs. 38 and 39.

26. Foreign ships, where one half of the passengers are British subjects, must carry one interpreter if the number of passengers does not exceed 250; and two interpreters where it exceeds 250; unless the master and officers, or not less than three of them, understand and speak intelligibly the English language.-Sec. 40.

27. A duly authorized Medical Practitioner (or when the majority, oras many as 300 of the passengers are foreigners, then any medical man), whose name has been notified to the Emigration Officer at the port of clearance, and not objected to by him, must be carried in the following cases : 1. When the prescribed length of royage for

sailing ships exceeds 80 days, or for steamets 45 days, and the number of passengers on

board exceeds 50. 2. When the number of persons on board

(including cabin passengers, officers, and

crew,) exceeds 300. Secs. 41 and 42.* 28. A supply of medicines, medical comforts, disinfecting Huid, instruments, &c., sufficient for the voyage, in the opinion of the Emigration Officer, with printed or written directions for use, are to be put on board at the expense of the owner or charterer of the ship, and to be placed under the charge of the medical mali, when there is one, to be used at his discretion.-Sec. 43.

29. No “ Passenger Ship" is to proceed until a Medical Practitioner, to be appointed by the Emigration Officer, shall have inspected the medicine chest, passengers, and crew, and certified that the medicines,

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• By an Order in Council, dated 6th May 1857, steamers (and, by an Order in Council, dated 5th December 1865, sailing vessels) which carry an etticient apparatus (approved by the Einigration Otticer) for distilling fresh from salt water, at the rate of not less than one gallon per diem for ench person on board, neel only carry, in tanks or cusks, one-half the water prescribed by this Act.

| Instead of Scale B. the Emigration Commissioners hare, by a notice in the London Gazette, dated 29th April 1856, authorized shipowners to use another victualling scale.

In the tropics. Out of the tropics at the discretion of the Surgeon.-Sec. 9 of 1863.

* But by an Order in Council dated 9th August 1866, and isson under the 69th section

of the Act, every ** Presenger Shop rying more than 50 passengers on any voyage to which the ad extends, whatsoever be the duration of the voyage, wast cry > duly qualified medical man.

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