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lar lines of steamships from London, Liverpool, and Glasgow, calling at Cork and Londonderry and at the Channel Ports, to Quebec and Montreal, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. And railroads and steamboats convey passengers to all points inland.
Emigrants at every step should depend upon the advice of regular authorized agents, and beware of plausible sharpers, who will impose on them,
without work, unless they have independent means to live on, in which case they can live cheaply and educate and settle their children comfortably, with the best prospects.
The condition of success in Canada is hard work ; and what the country wants above all things are resolute workers. For these there is room for a practically unlimited supply.
An emigrant to Canada should be stout-hearted and prepared for disappointments. He will find many things new and strange; and if an artisan, he should be ready to take any employment if he does not immediately find a chance in his own calling. By degrees he will get accustomed to the country, and then he could not be induced to leave it. Men who have inade money in Canada can never be induced to go back to the Old Country. This fact has passed into a proverb.
The kinds of immigrants wanted in Canada are:1st. Labourers of all kinds, and especially agricultural. Too many of these cannot come.
2nd, Mechanics and Artisans accustomed to common trades. 3rd, Domestic Servants, particularly females. 4th, Boys and Girls over 15 years will get ready employment. 5th, Tenant Farmers have especial facilities. They can get a good farm for the price of rent in England. And 6th, Persons with Capital sufficient to to live on the interest of their money.
Professional Men and Clerks should not emigrate to Canada unless to take places already engaged.
A large number of works will be going on in the Dominion during next summer, and for some years to come, causing an unusual demand for common labourers, masons, bricklayers, &c., at good wages.
CARE OF IMMIGRANTS.
Agents in Dominion. Every attention is paid to immigrants on their arrival in Canada, by Government agents stationed at all the important points, to furnish them with inforination and to assist them to obtain work. There are large and commodious stations where they can wash and rest at Quebec, Montreal, Kingston, and Toronto; and others will be provided as need requires. The agents in the Dominion are-E. Clay, Halifax, N. S.; R. Shives, St. John, N.B.; W. Wil. kinson, Chatham, Miramichi, N.B.; L. Stafford, Quebec'; J.J. Daley, Montreal; W.J. Willis, Ottawa; R. Macpherson, Kingston ; J. A. Donaldson, Toronto; R. H. Rae, Hamilton ; G. McMickon, Winnipeg; and J. N. Provencber, North-West Territory.
The Emigration Agents of the Canadian Government in the United Kingdom are:- London, William Dixon, ll, Adam Street, Adelphi, W.C.; Belfast, C. Foy, 11, Claremont Street.
How and When to Emigrate. The time to arrive in Canada is in the spring, unless in special circumstances, so as to be in time for harvest. The best way to come is by steamship. The price of fare is higher by steamship than by sailing vessel, being 61. 6s. against 41. 10s. by sailing vessel ; but the greater comfort and saving of time more than make up the difference. There are regu
THE FALKLANDS, From a Report made by Capt. Maxwell of the ship “Dido," to the Admiralty, it appears that the Falklands offer advantages to homeward-bound ships from the Pacific not possessed by the ports in Brazil generally resorted to. The « Dido" left East Falkland on the 5th December 1848, and arrived at Spithead in 49 days, and as the average passage from Rio Janeiro at that period of the year is 50 days, the time required for the passage from the Falklands to Rio (about three weeks) may be considered as aved.
Capt. Maxwell states that in the voyage direct from the Falklands, a ship proceeding to the northward is enabled to cross the southern tropic about the meridian of 25 degrees west, with the full advantage of the S.E. trades; whereas, in sailing from Rio, a vessel is 20 degrees to the westward, on the same parallel, and is often compelled to proceed 6 or 8 degrees to the south, before making sufficient easting to weather the Brazil coast. The Falklands furnish a cheap and abundant supply of cattle, which can be obtained at Port Stanley.
The following is an extract of a letter to the Governor from Rear Admiral Hastings. “Haring called at the Falkland Islands in Her Majesty's Ship • Zealous' on my way to the Pacific, it affords me great pleasure to inform your Excellency that « Messrs.
supplied this ship with 408 tons of good coal in less than 16 working hours, and that I have found every facility at Port Stanley in obtaining all supplies and provisions. I consider that any ship bound to the Pacific would find it advantageous to call at the Falkland Islands to obtain any supplies which may be required."
The following is taken from a despatch of the 3rd July 1867: “European vegetables thrive exceedingly well. The Falkland Islands Improvement Society (a society recently formed for the encouragement of market gardening) held its firstmeeting in April last. I never saw, in any part of the world, finer potatoes, turnips, caulifowers, &c., than were then exhibited. Every house in Stanley has its plot of garden ground attached, and, owing to the number of vessels that call here during the year, the cottagers find a ready and profitable sale for their surplus produce. Rabbits abound in various parts of the Islands, and wild geese and waterfowl are everywhere plentiful. The harbours swarm with excellent fish, and trout are found in the rivers of the interior. With high wages and food in abundance, the settlers, it is almost superfluous to say, are prosperous and contented. Poverty and distress are unknown, sickness rarely visits the Colony, the
people are loyal, the laws are respected, and harmony and good feeling prevail amongst all classes of society.
Provision has also been made by the Legislature for promoting education by means of primary and grammar schools, and in the towns ample means exist for public worship for all denominations.
Information respecting the climate, mode of disposing of the public lands, demand for labour, rates of wages, and prices of agricultural produce, &c. in Queensland, will be found under their several heads in this publication.
QUEENSLAND. Queensland comprises the entire north-eastern portion of the Australian continent. On the 10th December 1859 it was formally proclaimed a separate colony under Letters Patent from the Crown, dated 6th June, 1859. It extends from Point Danger in south latitude 28° 8' to Cape York, the north-eastern extremity of Australia, and from the Pacific to the 138th meridian of longitude in the Gulf of Carpentaria; an area of about 678,000 square miles, more than five times larger than that of the United Kingdom, and three times larger than that of France.
The colony possesses numerous harbours, of which Moreton Bay is the principal. Anchorage may be found in almost any part of it, under shelter of the numerous shoals. It is about 40 miles long north and south by 17 miles wide, and receives the waters of five navigable rivers, viz. : the Arrowsmith, the Logan, the Brisbane, the Pine, and the Cabulture, Most of these rivers have, however, a bar entrance. Besides Moreton Bay, there are Keppel Bay, Hervey's Bay, Port Curtis, Port Bowen, Port Denison, Cleveland Bay, Rockingham Bay, Port Albany (near Cape York), and several other smaller harbours on the eastern sea-board of Queensland. The principal harbour at the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria is at Investigator Road. There are already settlements at or near all the above-named ports.
The upland plains and downs of the interior afford excellent cattle and sheep pasturage throughout the year. The agricultural capabilities of Queensland are also great. Wheat, maize, and other cereals, potatoes, cotton, the sugar cane, tobacco, indigo, coffee, rice, and almost all the English and Tropical fruits are successfully cultivated in suitable situations. In the uplands beyond the mountain range the wheat is of the finest quality, sometimes weighing above 60 lbs. to the bushel, and yielding about 30 bushels to the acre. The average yield of maize is 40 bushels, and of potatoes about three tons to the acre.
East of the main range of mountains the climate and soil are reported to be peculiarly adapted to the growth of the finest kinds of cotton; and owing to the absence of frosts the plant is perennial, and not an annual, as it is in America. It is estimated that some millions of acres are well suited to the production of cotton.
To encourage immigration land warrants for the selection of 40 acres of land are issued to each adult emigrant direct from Europe who may pay his own passage, or the passage of any member of his family. Aland order for the selection of 20 acres of land is granted on account of a child between 1 and 12 years old.
Besides its agricultural and pastoral resources the colony is stated to possess much mineral wealth. Gold has been found in several localities, also copper and tin in a very pure state. Coal of good quality is abundant, and is accompanied as usual with iron ores.
SOUTH AFRICAN DIAMOND AND GOLD FIELDS. Pending the adjustment of boundaries and the passing of a law by the Legislature of the Cape of Good Hope for the annexation of the Diamond Fields, the Governor, as High Commissioner, has issued six Proclamations, dated the 27 October 1871, for the provisional Government, the maintenance of order, the administration of justice, and the collection of revenue, in the Diamond Fields. (I.) Sets forth (conditionally on the Parliament of the Cape consenting), Her Majesty's assent that the territory of Griqualand west shall become part of the Cape colony, and provides for its government and defence.
The territory is bounded on the south by the Orange river, from the point nearest to Kheis; on the west to the point nearest to Ramah; on the east, thence in a northerly direction to David's Grave, near the junction of the Modder and Riet rivers, thence in a straight line in a northerly direction to the summit of the Platberg, from thence along the line or lines determined by the award of Governor Keate, to the northerly point of Langeberg, that is to say, from the summit of the Platberg in a straight line in a north-westerly direction, along the northeast of Roeloff's Fontein, cutting the Vaal and Harts rivers to a point north of Boetsap, thence in a straight line in a westerly direction, running between Nelson's Fontein and Koning, thence passing along south of Marenane and north of Klip Fontein in a south-westerly direction, in a straight line to the northerly point of Langeberg, and thence in a straight line in a southerly direction to Kheis, and thence to the nearest point on the Orange river.
(II.) The laws and usuages of the Cape Colony are to be deemed the laws of the territory, especially the laws relating to magistrates' courts, the liquor laws, and all laws imposing stamp and license duties, fees, &c.
(III.). The territory is divided into three districts, Klipdrift, Pniel, and Griquatown, and a of resident magistrates is established in each.
(IV.) A high court, under presidence of a recorder, is erected temporarily for Griqualand west, with power to determine all causes, whether civil, criminal, or mixed, with a right to suitors of appeal to the High Commissioner or to Her Majesty in Council.
V. The fifth proclamation provides for regulating, digging operations at the Diamond Fields, laying out and registering of claims, settlement of disputes, payment of license dues, and for confirming local rules already made by the diggers, until amended by competent authority.
An inspector is appointed in every proclaimed diamond field, whose duty it is to keep a register of claims, and to receive the license money, royalty ; or
rent; to determine all disputes as to claims and to register transfers. In Diamond Fields occupied by more than 25 registered persons, the occupiers may make rules for their mutual advantage, which, when approved by the High Commissioner or by the Civil Commissioner, the inspector will carry into effect. Claims not worked for eight days are forfeited. The dimensions of claims are 30 feet by 30 feet, or not exceeding in any case 900 square feet each. The license fee is 5s. per month for a number of workers not exceeding three. Compensation for opening diamond diggings is to be made to the owners of private lands, where the right of minerals and precious stones is reserved. Private persons whose land is rot subject to such reservation, may establish diamond diggings on their property; but when the number of claims exceeds 24, or the property is worked to the extent of 20,000 square feet, or by more than 70 persons, or has a population of more than 100 persons, the place is deemed a public diamond field, and the regulations affecting such fields are to be enforced, except that the owner may fix, but at rates not lower than on the public land, the license money, rent, or royalty to be paid, which is to be collected by the inspector, and the amount, less 10 per cent. after payment of the expenses of maintaining order, is to be paid over to the owner.
VI. The sixth proclamation confirms the rights and quiets the possession of lands held under titles considered valid by the State or Government under which the holders lived, reserving, however, for consideration grants by the Orange Free State or South African Republic made since the 1st of January 1870.
The South African Diamond Fields are, it is believed, reached from this country easiest by way of Natal. The following distances from Pieter Maritzburg, the capital of the colony, are taken from the Natal Almanack and Register for 1872. Pieier Maritzburg is distant from 52 to 54 miles from Durban, the chief town at Port Natal, the Port of disembarkation.
Distances through Natal to the Vaal River Diamond Fields. Viâ Harrismith.
Miles. From Pieter Maritzburg to Estcourt
62 Estcourt to Colenso
22 Colenso to Dodd's
17 Dodd's to Good Hope
20 Good Hope to Wilge River
20 Wilge River to Harrismith
12 Harrismith to Bethlehem
The distance from Durban to the Tatin Gold Fields at Manch's Station between 22o and 23° S. latitude is estimated at from 700 to 763 miles. The distances to the gold fields in the neighbourhood of Leydenburg, Transvaal Country, have not been ascertained.
The time occupied by these journeys would depend on the season of the year; but whenever they are made they must occupy a considerable time, and be attended with considerable expense.
No official information has reached the Commissioners of the yield of diamonds at the diamond, fields, of the gold raised in the Tatin gold fields. or of the cost of living, or average earnings of the people employed at either place.
Hong Kong. The total area of the Colony is estimated at 18,720 acres; of this quantity 774 acres only had been alienated on lease, up to the beginning of the year 1871 ; but the larger portion of the Island is of such a rocky and barren nature as to be of little worth except for building sites. In the neighbourhood of Victoria and in the out villages, Aberdeen, Stanley, Sowkuvan, Sywan, &c. there are small patches of land cultivated as paddy and vegetable grounds.
DISPOSAL OF WASTE LANDS IN THE
COLONIES. The control of the Home Government over the management of the Crown lands has been given up in all the land-granting Colonies except British Columbia, Western Australia, and Natal. It was surrendered in Canada by a Provincial Act passed in 1841, vesting the management in the Governor and Council; in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia by local Acts previous to 1858 (see Revised Statutes of New Brunswick, cap. 5, p. 22, and of Nova Scotia, cap. 28, p. 124), and in Newfoundland by local Act in 1844, establishing sale by auction ; in New Zea-land by an Imperial Act in 1852, granting a constitution to the Colony; and in the Australian Colonies (except Western Australia) in 1855, by the Imperial Act is & 19 Vict. cap. 58, repealing the Land Sales Act.
The general rule for the disposal of Crown land in the British colonies is sale in fee simple. The exceptions are, Mineral lands, Lands used for pasturage, and Lands in Hong Kong and Labuan, and free grants in certain Colonies. The reason for the first exception is obvious; the second is the necessary consequence of the small value of land for purposes of pasture. Where it requires, as in Australia, four or five acres to feed a sheep, it can never be worth while to buy the land at any price which could be reasonably put on it. It is, therefore, let at rents varying from less than £d. to about 1d. an acre, subject to conditions of resumption when required for settlement. The third exception arose from the necessity of obtaining a public revenue in Hong Kong and Labuan, without the imposition of Customs duties, which would interfere with its value as an entrepôt. In this difficulty, the rent of Crown land offered the most obvious resource, while the special circumstances of the colony and the class of persons who alone were likely to settle there, removed the difficulty which would be felt in other colonies in collecting such rents.
The rule, then, being sale, there is some difference in the mode of sale in different colonies. Generally speaking, the land is put up to auction at an upset price, and sold to the highest bidder. Land that has been once put up and not sold, may, within certain limits as to time, be purchased for the upset price by private contract. In some colonies, however, all surveyed land is open to purchasers at fixed prices.
In order to facilitate transfers and to prevent frauds, a system of registration of all transactions connected with land has been established in all the colonies.
In the following pages will be found a more detailed statement of the modes of disposing of the waste lands of the Crown in the various colonies.
The disposal of the public lands in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario is regulated by the Canada Act, 23 Vict. cap. 2, 1860, and by the Ontario Acts, 31 Vict. cap. 8. and 32 Vict. cap. 20. The last two Acts are to secure to actual settlers Free Grants and Homesteads in certain districts. Under the first Act the Governor in Council is empowered to fix the price of the public lands and the terms and conditions of sale and of settlement. The following, it is understood, are substantially the principal Land Regulations in the two provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
In Townships which have been surveyed and laid out into lots, and where lands are now offered for sale at four shillings per acre, or where no lands have as yet been offered for sale, and in Townships under survey or yet to be surveyed into lots, Lands are sold under the following regulations :
1. Price.--If sold for cash at seventy cents per acre,—if on credit at one dollar per acre, one fifth to be paid at the time of the sale, and the remaining four fifths in four equal annual instalments, with interest on the unpaid purchase money.
2. Auction.- When the lands in a township have remained open for sale for one year after public notice thereof, such as then remain unsold shall, at a time to be fixed, and after reasonable notice given by the Commissioner of Crown Lands, be offered for sale by public Auction at the upset price fixed for their sale as above, or at such other upset price as under special circumstances may be named by the Commissioner of Crown lands. Such Public Sales of all lands which shall remain unsold in the meantime shall take place semi-annually at times to be named by the Commissioner of Crown lands, until the whole of the lands in the township shall have been disposed of; the lands remaining unsold after any such public sale are to continue open for Private Sale at the said upset price until the period of one week next before the time at which the next public sale shall take place.
3. Settlement Duties.-All lands (except those now exempt) shall be subject to Settlement Duties, and no Patent in any case (even though the land be paid for in full at the time of purchase) shall issue for any such land to any person who shall not by himself, or the person or persons under whom he claims, have taken possession of such land within six months from the time of sale, and shall from that time continuously have been a bonâ fide occupant of and resident on the land for at least two years, and have cleared and rendered fit for cultivation and crop, and had under crop within four years at farthest from the time of sale of the land, a quantity thereof in the proportion of at least ten acres to every one hundred acres, and have erected thereon a house habitable and of the dimensions at least of sixteen by twenty feet.
4. Auction.—All other lands not embraced in the foregoing category are to be exposed to sale by public auction annually, or in the discretion of the Commissioner of Crown lands half yearly, for cash, at such times and places and at such upset prices as the Commissioner of Crown lands shall fix.
5. Clergy Reserves.—The lands known as “Clergy Reserves are to be sold on the same terms and in the
CANADA. The Dominion of Canada has no control over the Crown Lands in the Provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, but it has in its possession the lands of Manitoba, the North-West Territory, and a large tract in British Columbia. The price of good farming land ranges from 50 cents (28. Id. sterling) tolf dollars (68.3d. sterling) peracre.
same manner as other public lands in the townships in which they respectively lie.
6. Punctual Payment.—Prompt payment is to be the essence of the contract, and any default will entail forfeiture of all previous payments and of all right in the lands.
Restriction of Prices to Ontario.-- The prices above fixed apply to Upper Canada only.
The prices of lands in the Province of Quebec are regulated by Orders in Council from time to time.
Free Grants. The Acts of 1868 and 1869 passed by the Legislature of Ontario are intended to secure Free Grants and Homesteads to actual settlers on public land The Lieut. Governor in Council is empowered to make free grants not exceeding 200 acres to actual settlers of the age of 18 or upwards, within the districts of Algoma and Nepissing, and within a district lying between the Ottawa River and Georgian Bay, called the Muskoka district. But no title deed is to be issued until the expiration of 5 years from the date of the location, nor unless the settler shall have cleared and have under cultivation at least 15 acres of land, two acres of which at least are to be cleared and cul
tivated annually, and shall have built a habitable
In the township of Ryerson, province of Ontario, the local government, as an experiment, expends a sum of 200 dollars in clearing a few acres, and building a one storey house. This expenditure the settler is expected to repay, but he gets the land free.
PROVINCE OF ONTARIO. Lands open for location as free grants under “The Free Grants and Homestead Act of 1868," with
the Names and Post Office Address of the Crown Land Agents, and the number of acres at their disposal.
Acres. Agency of John Bowker, Bruce Mines, P.O., St. Joseph's Island
60,000 J. D. Beatty, Parry Sound, P.O., townships of McDougall, Foley, Humphry, Cardwell, Christie, McKellar, Fergusson, Hagerman
100,000 C. W. Lount Bracebridge, P.O., townships of Muskoka, Draper, Medora, Monck, Macaulay, McLean. Stephenson, Brunel, Watt, Stisted, Chaffey
60,000 James Reeves, Eganville, P.O., townships of Grattan, Wilberforce, South Algona, Hagarty, Richards, Sherwood
80,000 A. Kennedy, Pembroke, P.O., townships of Alice, Fraser, Petewawa, McKay, Buchanan, Wylie, Rolph, Head
190,000 The following lands are sold at the rate of 50 cents (or 28. 1d.) per acre, cash, or 60 cents (or 28. 62.) per acre, payable one third at the time of sale, and the balance in two equal annual instalments, with interest, subject to settlement duties.
Acres. Agency of J. McKibbin, Lindsay, P.O., townships of Dalton and Digby
40,000 W. Halpenny, Renfrew, P.O., townships of McNab, Bagot, Blythfield, Matarwatchan, Horton, Admaston, Ross
70,000 F. Holterman, Clontarf, P.O., townships of Sebastopol, Brougham, Griffith, Lyndoch, Raglan, Brudenell, Radcliffe, Jones
100,000 Department of Crown Lands, Toronto, Canada,
R. W. Scott, 12th February 1872.
Commissioner of Crown Land.
Crown LAND AND TIMBER AGENCIES IN THE
PROVINCE OF QUEBEC. The area of the province of Quebec is estimated at 134,402,800 acres, of which 19,089,357 acres bad been alienated previous to the 31st December 1865.
It is stated in a return of the Department of
Crown Lands, Quebec, dated the 1st March 1971, that up to the 30th June 1870, the number of acre alienated in TowNSHIPS was 7,187,301, and the estimated number of'acres of sub-divided land remaining for alienation was 6,168,239, of which about one hali was available for settlement ; whilst the total quale