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33,000 34,000

30 cents. Sandy and clay loam, much of it

of inferior quality. Vales of excellent land; white

pine timber. Stoney, with valleys of good land Mountains and broken vales of

good land; white pine timber. Mountains and broken vales o

good land; white pine timber.
Loam and clay soil.
Rocky; white pine timber.
Medium quality of land.
Valleys of good land; white pine

Light sandy soil.
Some good land in front part of

the township; other parts broken; white pine timber. Light soil, with much rock. Valleys of good land, white pine

Valleys of good land ; white pire

Generally of inferior quality.
Light soil; white pine timber.
Light soil and rocky; white pine

Hilly and rocky; soil varied,
Some good land; white pine time-

ber. Uneven surface, light soil and

rocky; white pine timber. Intervals of good land; white pink

timber. Some good land, uneven surface.





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4,600 Dorion Huddersfield Litchfield

1,100 Leslie

19,700 Mansfield 9,800 Onslow

13,500 Sheen

10,400 Waltham 6,200 Pontefract 42,000 Thorne

10,700 Esher Graham Gladstone Hastings

None. Kirkaby Labouchère

Total Recapitulation 5,333,429

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PROVINCE OF QUEBEC. Mining for the precious metals is regulated by the " Gold Mines Aci” 27 & 28 Vict. cap. 9, passed 30th June 1864; amended by 29 Vict. cap. 9 (1865.) Under these laws, two gold mining divisions have been established ; one called “ Chaudière," the other "St. Francis," in the Province of Quebec. The Governor may appoint officers; and two inspectors have been appointed, one for each division.

No person is to mine without a licence. There are two kinds of licences, one “ Crown Lands Gold Licence,” $2 per month, for unsold crown land, and the other * Private Lands Gold Licence,” $i per month, for private lands, the miner first obtaining the consent of the proprietor. Crown lands gold licensee may stake out and work claim on unsold crown lands, as follows:

Alluvial Mines.-On a river or large creek, 20 feet front by 50 from water's edge. On small do. 40 by 50 feet from centre of stream. In gully, 60 feet along same, and from hill to hill. On surface or hill side 60 feet square. In case of hill tunneling, inspectors may grant larger claim. In bed of river, inspector to determine size and position of claim.

Quartz Mines.- To each miner 100 feet along lead by 100 on each side. For companies, 25 feet additional along lead for every additional miner, but not to exceed 500 feet altogether. Crown lands licensee to work continuously and renew licence. Discoverer entitled to free licence for one year. Party walls to be left between claims on crown lands. Crown lands licensees not to cause damage to others. General use of water reserved opposite claim on crown lands. Registration of claim on crown lands, temporarily unworkable, allowed, fee gi. Penalty provided for removal of stakes on crown lands claims. All licencees to make returns. Quartz crushing machines to be licensed. Books to be kept, and returns furnished. Fee 85 per month. Sale of liquor prohibited except under licence; monthly fee 85. Provision made for appointment of constables and policemen and for preservation of peace. Persons working under gold mining patents to furnish returns and pay royalty, &c. (Only one such patent exists, viz., for the seigniory of Rigaud - Vaudreuil, in the Chaudière-one of the divisions erected.) Governor in Council to make regulations. Officer may convict on view.

Inferior Metals. The following are the Regulations, dated Department of Crown Lands, Quebec, 3rd March 1864 :

1. The tracts shall comprise not more than four hundred acres. II. The dimensions of the tracts in unsurveyed territory to be forty chains in front by one hundred chains in depth, and bounded by lines running due north and south, and east and west, or as near to these dimensions as the configuration of the locality will admit. III. The applicant for a tract in unsurveyed territory must furnish a plan and description thereof by a provincial land surveyor. IV. The price shall be one dollar an acre, payable on the sale. V. Tax or duty of one dollar per ton to be charged on all ores extracted from the tract, payable on removal from the mine. This condition applies to all mining lands sold since the 1st day of April 1862, and is in lieu of the royalty of

two and a half per cent. chargeable on the ores from these lands. VI. In surveyed townships, lots presenting indications of minerals, are to be sold on the above conditions, but at not less than one dollar per acre in any township, and at the same price as the other lands in the township when it is more than one dollar per acre.

VII. Not more than one tract of four hundred acres is to be sold to one person. VIII. The above regulations do not apply to mines of gold and silver. IX. All previous regulations inconsistent with the above are cancelled.

PROVINCE OF ONTARIO. The Mining Regulations for Ontario are contained in an Act, 32 Vict. cap. 34, called the General Mining Act of 1869, passed by the Legislature of the Province. It repeals the Gold and Silver Mining Act of 1868; and all royalties, taxes, or duties reserved in any Patent on ores or minerals. It rescinds all reservations of gold and silver mines in any Letters Patent already issued granting lands in fee simple, and prohibits any reservation of minerals of any kind in any future Crown Grants of lands sold as“ Mining Lands.” It provides that any one may explore for minerals on Crown lands surveyed or unsurveyed, and Crown lands supposed to contain minerals can either be sold as mining lands, or if situated in a mining division be occupied as mining claims under miners' licences. It prescribes the size of “mining locations" which if situated in the unsurveyed territory bordering on Lakes Superior, Huron, and the River St. Mary, are to be sold in blocks of either 320 acres, 160 acres, or 80 acres; if in townships in surveyed territory, the location is to consist of a half section, a quarter section, or an eighth of a section, with a reservation for roads of 5 per cent. of the land granted, and of all pine trees, excepting such as may be required for building, fencing, anıl fuel, or to be removed for clearing the land for cultivation. The price of each mining location is to be 1 dol. per acre. The LieutenantGovernor in Council is empowered to declare any tract of country as a “Mining Division” and to appoint an inspector for each division who is to settle summarily and finally all questions between licensees which may arise under the Act. The inspector is authorized also on payment of a fee of 5 dols. to issue non-transferable annual licences, which however are renewable on payment of a like fee of 5 dols. The licensee may then personally mine for one year on his “mining claim,” which is to be marked out by him and not to exceed for one person 200 feet along a vein or lode by 100 feet on each side of the centre thereof.

For two or more licensees working a claim jointly an additional 100 feet in length is allowed for each person, not exceeding in the whole 1,000 feet in length. No person is to occupy at the same time more than one “mining claim,” except the discoverer of a new mine, who is to be entitled to two mining claims. On the same vein no discovery will be considered as new, unless the mine be distant at least 3 miles from the nearest known mine. The Act makes other subordinate provisions for carrying out the requisite details. It came into operation on the 2d of April 1869.

9. The price of Water lots varies from those on the

Upland. A reasonable extent is generally granted in front of a proprietor's lot for the sum of $50. The same forms are observed in making the application.

10. All persons are strictly prohibitel by law from entering upon Crown lands and cutting the wood without authority—the same law applies to the interfering with the mines or minerals.

11. The Governor in Council is authorized to order surveys whenever required of large blocks of land, to be laid off in lots of 100 acres for the accommodation of settlers.

By an Act passed 29 April 1863 (2 Vict. c. 26.). “ To provide for the distribution and settlement of “ industrious Immigrants," the Governor in Council may direct lands to be laid off in 100 acre lots, with convenient roads, and placed at the disposal of the Immigration Agent for actual settlement. These lots may be sold either to the inhabitants of the province or to industrious immigrants for actual settlement on a credit of three years. Immediate possession is to be given, but no grant issued until payment of th

purchase money, which is to be expended in opening roads for the formation and improvement of the settlement.

Nova SCOTIA. 1. The Commissioner of Crown Lands in Nova Scotia conducts the business of the department in the Provincial Building, city of Halifax, where all the original records and plans are kept.

2. Deputy surveyors reside in every county, whose duty it is to execute orders issued by their principal and to protect Crown property from trespassers; they are furnished with plans of their respective counties and are required to keep a record of their own surveys.

3. All plans and surveys made under orders, together with reports, are transmitted by deputies to the head of this department, where all proceedings are reviewed.

4. The duties of principal and deputies are partially defined by the Act relating to Crown lands, cap. 28, revised statutes.

5. The system of disposing of the Crown lands is as follows:

The applicant presents at the office of the Commissioner a petition to his Excellency the Lieutenant Governor, praying a grant of a specified number of acres, with a general description of the locality, and at the same time pays into the office of the Receiver General a sum of money at the rate of 844 for 100 acres. No distinction is made in the price between 100 acres and smaller lots, as the difference in cost of the survey is very trifling. The cost of survey is paid by the Province.

Upon receipt of the petition and money an order of survey forthwith is issued to the Deputy Surveyor of the county to survey the lot.

It is the duty of the Surveyor to proceed immediately with the survey, and, in compliance with his general instructions, to report every particular descriptive of the lot—whether occupied or vacantwhether improved or otherwise—as well as any objections made to the passing of the grant-together with such remarks of his own as will aid in forming a just decision in case of controversy..

The order of survey gives but an incipient right to the applicant-the report is for the information of the office and the Government.

Upon a return of survey and report, a careful examination is made of all the particulars—the plan is compared with the general map of the county, and a report then drawn up by the Commissioner and submitted to the Government, who decide to whom the grant shall issue, in case the lot is claimed by more than one.

6. The prevailing practice of squatting upon Crown lands frequently occasions disputes-an examination into such cases sometimes leads to delay --but time is afforded to parties for the fullest explanation before a decision is given.

7. The money is repaid to applicants if grant be refused.

8. Grants, after being completed, are forwarded for registry to the Registrars of Deeds in the several counties where the lands lie, and are afterwards delivered by them to the Grantees.

Mining Regulations. Mining within the Colony is regulated by an Act passed on the 14th of June 1869, intituled - An Ad to consolidate the Statutes relating to Mines and Minerals.” This Act empowers the Governor in Council (sect. 10), on being satisfied of the discovery of gold in any locality, by proclamation to declae it to be a "gold district,” within which quartz mines are to be laid off by the Chief Commissioner of Mines, in areas of 150 feet along the lode, by 250 feet across. Alluvial mines are to be laid off in a similar manner. Applications for leases of these areas are to be accompanied by a payment of two dollars for each (sects. 11, 13, and 17). The leases are to be for 21 years, and are to be determinable at any time by the lessee (sect. 31). They reserve a royalty of 3 per cent. upon the gross amount of god mined (sect. 49); and require, with an exception in the case of large holdings, that there shall be employed on each area 100 days' labor in every year (sect. 34). Lessees cannot enter on private lands without making an arrangement with the owner (sect. 18). Persons building efficient crushers of eight stamps, are entitled to a lease for 21 years of ten mining areas, free from advance payment, but must take out a license and give bond to the Crowy for 2,000 dols. before working the mill. The licensed millowners are required to collect the royalty of $ per cent. on all gold obtained by crushing ai theo respective mills (sects. 50, 56).

According to the existing mining laws, aprü cants for mining areas are required to pay, sta making application, an advance sum of two dollar per superficial area of 250 feet by 150 feet; le must also pay a royalty of three per cent, upon al! gold mined. This royalty is collected and pudly the quartz mill owners, who are required to be licensed; quartz mill licences are granted fres; and licensed mill owners are entitled to a commission of five per cent. upon all royalty collected by them and paid to the Gold Commissioner.

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The discoverer of any new mine is entitled to a lease for 21 years, free from advance payment or royalty, of such an area as above described. But no discovery will be recognised as new, unless at least three miles from the nearest known mine on the same lode, or at least one mile at right angles from the course of a lode.

Exploring Licenses. Licenses for 12 months for exploring for minerals other than gold, over tracts not exceeding five square miles in extent, are issued on payment of 20 dollars (sects. 87-8); and the licensee may, on payment of 50 dollars and the cost of the survey, select from such land one square mile, for the purpose of working mines and minerals, for which he will obtain a license for two years (sects. 94, 95). And if the mines have been worked satisfactorily, the licensee may at or before the termination of his license obtain a lease, if for coal mines terminable on the 25th August 1886, if for other mines at the end of 21 years, with the right of surrender at any time (sects. 99-102).

at least 10 acres, and performed the labour in the manner herein-before prescribed, or paid 20 dollars in advance, a grant shall issue to him of the 100 acres located to him. If, however, his means be limited, he may for reasonable periods absent himself in order to procure the means of support for himself and family without forfeiting his claim to constant residence.

“ 4. The locatee may, after having built a house and cleared and cultivated 2 acres of the land, and paid the 20 dollars advance, or performed labour on the roads and bridges to the extent of 10 dollars or upwards, cut and haul lumber and timber from the lot; but he cannot sell or otherwise dispose of the standing timber until he has obtained a grant of the lot.

“5. Every actual settler who is indebted to the Crown on account of the lot occupied by him, and has resided on such lot for three years next preceding, and has cleared and cultivated 10 acres thereof, and has paid 20 dollars in cash, or performed 30 dollars worth of labour on the roads as herein-before provided, shail be entitled to a grant of such lot."


NEW BRUNSWICK. By an Act of the Local Legislature passed on the 16th of March 1868, to facilitate the settlement of Crown lands,

“1. The Governor in Council may cause eligible portions of the vacant Crown lands to be selected for settlement in various parts of the Province, and public roads to be made to and through such lands, and may have the said lands surveyed and laid off in one hundred acre lots on both sides of such road.

“ 2. These and all other lots of Crown land which have been surveyed and are eligible for settlement are to be reserved for actual settlers, and shall not be disposed of to speculators or for lumbering purposes.

"3. One hundred acres of land so surveyed may be located to Immigrants or other male persons of the age

of eighteen years and upwards, who do not own any other land in the Province, upon the following terms and conditions.

(a) On payment of 20 dollars cash in advance, lo aid in the construction of roads and bridges in the vicinity of his location, or upon his performing labour on 'such roads and bridges to the extent of ten dollars per year for three years.

(6) The locatee to commence improving his location immediately after obtaining permission to occupy the same, and within two years thereafter satisfy the Governor in Council that he has built a house thereon of not less dimensions than sixteen by twenty feet, and is residing thereon, and that he has cleared at least two acres of said land.

"(c) He must continue to reside upon the land for three consecutive years, at the expiration of which time, provided he shall have cleared and cultivated

The disposal of the public lands in this colony is regulated by Ordinance, No. 18, passed the 7th June 1870, which amends and consolidates the laws affecting Crown lands in British Columbia.

The Ordinance makes a differences in the mode of dealing with unsurveyed and surveyed country lands. The former may be acquired by what is termed pre-emption, and the latter by auction; or, if the land be not sold at auction, by private contract at the upset price of one dollar (48. 2d.) per acre.

The following is the substance of the principal provisions of the Ordinance.

Pre-emption of unsurreyed lands. Any male British subject of the age of 18 or up. wards, and, with the permission of the Governor, any chartered company or aboriginal native, may acquire a right to pre-einpt and occupy Crown lands, not being an Indian settlement, to an extent not exceeding 320 acres (sects. 3 and 4.) Application to enter upon the land must be made to the Commissioners of Crown lands, accompanied by a plan; and (sect. 6) after pe ssion is obtained, the preemptor must enter on the land within 30 days, mark the boundaries, and apply to have his claim recorded; —which record the Commissioner (sect. 7) is to make, and to give a certificate of it on payment of a fee of 2 dols. Pre-empted lots (sect. 8) are to be of a rectanguiar shape,-ine shortest line twn-thirds of the longest,-ail running as nearly as possible to the cardinal points of the compass, except (sect. 9) where there are natural boundaries or public highways which offer better lines. Lands already pre-empted (sect. 10) may, if the Commissioners of Lands think necessary, be surveyed, and their boundaries rectified. On a pre-emptor proving (sects. 11 and 16) that he has been in continuous personal occupation of his land since the date of his record, and that he has made permanent improvements to the value of 2.50 dols. an acre, he is to be entitled to a certificate of improvement, after which (sect. 13) the pre-emptive right becomes transferable, subject to the provisions of the Ordinance as to occupation, forfeiture, and payment of purchase money. If a pre-emptor (sect. 15) permanently ceases to occupy his claim, the Commissioners may cancel the claim summarily, -in which case all deposits paid, and all improvements made, are forfeited to the Crown, and the land reopened to pre-emption. Personal occupation, however, (sect. 16) is not required beyond four years; and every pre-emptor (sect. 17) is entitled to two months leave of absence each year, and (sect. 18) may obtain from the Commissioners a special leave not exceeding two months additional. He may also, on cause shown, obtain permission (sect. 19) to place a substitute on the land for any period not exceeding six months. No person (sect. 20) can hold more than one claim by pre-emption, and any person preempting a second claim forfeits his first, with all improvements, &c. When the Government survey (sect. 21) comes up to pre-empted land, the preemptor, on showing continuous occupation, and producing a certificate of improvement, is entitled to purchase at a price not exceeding one dol. an acre, payable in four equal annual instalments, subject to forfeiture, if the instalments are not duly paid. But (sect. 23) upon payment of the whole of the purchase money, and production of a certificate of the posting of the notices without any objection being brought forward, a Crown grant is to issue, reserving, however, certain rights to the Crown to take without compensation building materials for public works. In case of the death of a pre-emptor (sect. 24) his heirs, if resident in the Colony, are to be entitled to a Crown grant, on payment of the purchase money ; but if his heirs are absent from the Colony, the Commissioner is to make such arrangements for them as he deems just. Pre-emptors to the north and east of the Cascade Range may make up deficient claims to 320 acres (sect. 25).

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Sale of surveyed lands. Surveyed lands (sects. 43–45) other than town, suburban, and mineral land, is to be sold by public auction at an upset price of one dollar an acre. The upset price of town and suburban lands is to be fixed by the Governor. Land put up and not sold may subsequently be purchased by private contract, at the upset price.

Miners' rights. The rights of free miners to search for minerals are reserved (sect. 48.)

Immigration. The Governor in Council is empowered (sect. 49) to make free or partially free grants of the unoccupied and unappropriated lands of the Colony for the encouragement of immigration, and for other purposes of public advantage.

Applications respecting the disposal of Crown lands should be made to the Hon. J. W. Trutch, Chief Commissioner of Lauds and Works.

Gold Regulations. The gold mining regulations in British Columbia are contained in an Ordinance, No. 14 of 1865, passed on the 28th of March of that year, entitled * An Ordinance to amend and consolidate the gold mining laws.” Without attempting to enter upon the numerous details comprised in the Ordinance, it may be sufficient to state here a few of the most salient points.

The Governor is empowered to appoint one or more Gold Commissioners and to establish mining districts. In the “Mining Court" of each district the Gold Commissioner is to preside, and to be the judge of law and fact. Every person over 16 years of age may be a " Free Miner," and may obtain

from the Gold 'Commissioner a free miner's certificate, which shall be valid for one or three years according as he pays for it, either ll. or 31. The certificate is not transferable, but may be renewed within three clear days after its expiration. It confers the right to enter and mine upon any of the unoccupied Waste Lands of the Crown, and also upon lands occupied for other than mining purposes, provided payment be made of full compensation, to be determined by the nearest Stipendary Magistrate or Gold Commissioner, with or without a jury of not less than five. The Free Miner's claims must be registered in the Gold Commissioner's office of the district withis three days after location, within 10 miles of the office, with an additional day for every additional 10 miles' distance. They must be re-registered annually, and priority of rights is governed by priority of registration. A Free Miner may bold any number of claims by purchase, but only two by pre-emption in the same locality except in certain

Claims are to be deemed abandoned if they remain unworked for the space of 17 hours (exclusive of Sundays and holidays) unless for sickness or other reasonable cause shown.

The sizes of Claims are for “ Bar Diggings (between high and low water mark), 100 feet wide at high-water mark. For“Dry Diggings” and “Renk claims ” respectively 100 feet square; for “ Creed claims,” 100 feet long, in the direction of the stream, and from base to base of a hill on each side. But if the valley is more than 300 feet in width the Claim is to be only 50 feet in length, but not to exceed 600 in width. If the valley is not 100 feet wide, the Claim is to be 100 feet square. For “Hill claims," a frontage of 100 feet. For “ Quartz claims," 150 feet in length

Mining leases may be granted by the Gold Commissioner for mining purposes only on para ment of a deposit of 25l. ; but the lease cannot be assigned or sub-let, and is not, in general, to be fur a longer term than 10 years, or for a larger area than-in dry diggings, 10 acres; in bar diggings unworked, ' a mile in length along the high-221mark; or in worked and abandoned, it miles; quartz reefs unworked, } a mile in length; or in worked and abandoned, 14 miles.

Leases will not be granted of land available fur or occupied by, individual Free Viners.

An assay office has been established at New Wesminster and Cariboo. The cost of assay at (arihe is ) per cent, and at New Westminster per cent


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