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permanently disabled are supported at the expense of the Colony, till opportunities occur of restoring them to their native country.
In NEWFOUNDLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER ISLAND, Natal, New South WALES, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, QUEENSLAND, WESTERN AUSTRALIA, TASMANIA, and New ZEALAND, no indemnity bonds for immigrants are required.
. } Tísubject in either Colony
EFFECTS OF PASSENGERS DYING ON THE VOYAGE.
New South WALES.—The goods and effects of emigrants dying on the voyage are, on the arrival of the vessel, collected by a Curator of intestate estates, appointed under a Colonial Act (11 Vict. No. 24, Oct. 1847) and disposed of by public auction, after payment of debts and expenses: the residue, if under 501., may be paid over by the Curator, under a Judge's order, to any person claiming to be entitled, without any probate or letters of administration being taken out, or any legal proof adduced of the right or title of the party claiming; sect. 12.
QUEENSLAND.-In the case of the death of assisted and free passengers, who may have no near relatives on board, the Surgeon Superintendent is required to take an inventory of their effects in the presence of the Captain. The effects and inventory so taken are sent through the Agent General for the Colony to the friends of the deceased upon the return of the ship, or by other convenient opportunity.
In the case of other passengers dying on the voyage, their goods and effects are handed over, upon the arrival of the vessel, to the Curator of Intestate Estates appointed under a Colonial Act (31 Vict. A. 10) by whom they are disposed of by public auction. After payment of debts and expenses, the residue, if under 50l., may be paid over by the Curator, under a Judge's order, to any person claiming to be entitled, without any probate or letter of administration being taken out.
VICTORIA. --The goods and effects of passengers who may die on their voyage to Victoria are, in default of any legitimate claim thereto made within 7 days, to be handed over by the master (under a penalty not exceeding 1001.) within fourteen days after arrival, to the Immigration officer, and by the latter to the persons entitled, under any will of the deceased, or,
case of intestacy, to the Curator of intestate estates in the Colony.—28 Vict. No. 255, sect. 35.
South AUSTRALIA.-The effects of Government Emigrants dying on the voyage to South Australia, and having no near relatives in the Colony, are publicly sold by the Government Auctioneer ; ceeds, together with any money belonging to the deceased, are remitted to England, for the benefit of the next of kin.
The Curator of intestate estates administers to the estates and effects of persons dying in the Colony without having made a will. Full particulars are published half yearly in the province, and are transmitted annually to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
WESTERN AUSTRALIA.-By a Colonial Ordinance, the Supreme Court is empowered to grant Letters of Administration to its Registrar, to administer to the effects of parties dying intestate, and without any person in the Colony having interest in them : but the Registrar in himself has no power over the effects of passengers dying on the voyage out.
NEW ZEALAND. -The Supreme Court grants probate or administration to the effects of a person dying at sea within the jurisdiction of the court.
There are no regulations on this NATAL.
DOMINION OF CANADA.—The effects of passengers dying on their voyage to Canada, unaccompanied by relatives or other persons entitled to take charge thereof, are to be accounted for and paid over, under a penalty not exceeding 250l. currency, by the master, to the Collector of Customs at the port of arrival, who is to grant a receipt to the master, containing a full description of the nature or amount of the property.-Vide 32 g. 33 Vict. cap. 10. sec. 10.
In the case of effects of immigrant parents dying and leaving children, the Minister of Agriculture will depute some person to take charge of such effects, and to deliver them over, or to dispose of them to the best advantage, as in his discretion may seem expedient, to any institution or person assuming the charge of such children.
NEWFOUNDLAND.--BRITISH COLUMBIA.—VancouVER ISLAND.—No regulations in force on this subject.
JAMAICA.-Law 34 of 1869 provides that it shall be the duty of the Sub-agent of Immigration to collect and take possession of the property, monies, or assets of any Immigrant who shall die in this island ; and, with the sanction of the Governor, to deliver or pay all such property, monies, or assets to any person in the island who shall establish a right to the same; or, in the absence of any such person, to convert the said property into money, and pay the proceeds into the Island treasury, in order that the same may be remitted to the person or persons, in India or elsewhere, who shall be entitled thereto.
BRITISH GUIANA.—The estates of deceased Immigrants are taken charge of by the Administrator General of unrepresented estates, an officer whose duties are regulated by special Ordinance and performed under the supervision and control of the Supreme Court of Civil Justice.
TRINIDAD.—The effects of Immigrants dying on board ship are handed over to their immediate relations, if any, otherwise they are taken in charge by the surgeon superintendent, who delivers them, at the port of debarkation, to the Agent General of Immigrants, for the benefit of whom it may concern.
GRENADA.-Upon the death of any indian immigrant his employer is required to make an inventory of the property of the deceased, and to take charge of it until it is handed over to the Immigration Agent, who is to distribute it amongst the relatives of the deceased in the Island, or to transmit the proceeds to India for the benefit of his relatives there.Regulations by Governor in Council, 17th May 1871.
HINTS TO EMIGRANTS TO AUSTRALIA. 1. Length of Voyage.--The usual length of the voyage to the Australian Colonies in sailing ships is about 90 days, and to New Zealand a little longer; and as, at whatever season of the year it may be made, passengers have to encounter very hot and very cold weather, they should be prepared for both. The steamers to Melbourne usually make the voyage in about 60 or 65 days.
2. Outfit.— The following is a list of the principal articles required; but it cannot be too strongly impressed, as a general rule, that the more abundant the
and the pro
OOO OO OO 10 NA
stock of clothing each person can afford to take, the better for health and comfort during the passage:Single Man's Outfit to Australia.
8. d. 1 moleskin jacket (warm lined)
11 0 1 ditto waistcoat with sleeves
6 0 i ditto trowsers (warm lined)
10 6 1 duck ditto
3 I coloured drill jacket
3 9 1 ditto ditto trowsers
3 1 ditto ditto waistcoat
2 7 1 blue pilot over-coat or jacket
10 0 Or, 1 oilskin coat
9 6 2 blue serge shirts or Jersey frocks, each 4 6 1 felt hat
2 0 i tweed or Scotch cap
1 0 6 blue striped cotton shirts, each 1 pair of strong boots*
8 6 1 pair of light shoes
5 4 coloured pocket handkerchiefs, each 0 64 4 pair worsted hose, per pair
1 0 2 pair cotton half hose, per pair 1 pair braces or belt
8 4 towels, each
6 Razor, shaving-brush, and glass in box 1 6
Single Woman's Outfit to Australia. i warm cloak, with hood
6 0 1 bonnet, trimmed
5 0 1 sun hat, not trimmed
2 0 1 stuff dress
6 2 cotton print dresses, each
8 0 6 shifts, each
4 2 coloured flannel petticoats, each
3 0 I stuff over ditto
4 6 2 twill cotton do, do.
3 1 pair of stays
2 6 4 pocket handkerchiefs, each -
0 31 4 night caps, each
8 4 sleeping jackets each
2 6 2 pairs worsted hose, per pair
1 2 4 cotton do., each
0 105 1 pair of leather shoes
2 9 i ditto boots
5 0 6 towels, each
6 Assortment needles, buttons, thread, &c.- 1
Each person would also require,1 bowl and bottle, ls. 9d., knife, fork, deep tin plate, 1 tin mug, table-spoon, and teaspoon, ls. 6ı. 2 lbs. of the best yellow soap, per lb. 4d. 1 hair brush and comb, 1s. 3 pairs of brown cotton sheets, each 28. 9d. 2 tins blacking, each 4}d. 2 shoe brushes, each 7d. 1 pair of blankets, 78. 6d. A married couple re1 coloured counterpane, 25.9d. quire but one set of I strong chest, with lock, 88.9d. these articles, only 1 soiled-linen clothes-bag, 2s. of a larger size. 1 bed and pillow, 58.
Cost of Outfit for a Single Man, about £5 10 0
Ditto ditto Single Woman 5 15 0
Married Couple 10 10 0 The cost of an outfit for children varies with their size. Generally speaking, three children under 7, or two between that age and 14, may be clothed for about 51.; but a well grown girl or boy of 13 years of age will cost nearly as much as an adult.
3. Colonial Tax.—There is no tax on emigrants arriving in the Australian colonies. 4. Expense of erecting a Dwelling suitable to an
Agricultural Labourer. New South Wales.-Agricultural labourers are
generally provided with dwellings rent free by their
401. to 501. Dwellings are always provided for agricultural
and other servants. Victoria
151. to 601 Country labourers are always provided with dwell
ings rent free, by their employers. WESTERN AUSTRALIA
501. and upwards. South AUSTRALIA, from
• 201. to 60% Labourers on stations are as a rule provided with
dwelling houses rent free, by their employers. TASMANIA.–Agricultural and other labourers in the
country are usually provided rent free with dwellings by their employers; but when such is not the case, a hut fit for a labourer can be put up for from 101. to 15l. ; a slab hut in the bush for shepherds for 51. In the towns, a decent building of brick
or stone costs from 301. to 401, New ZEALAND.-In the country, cottages built of
split slabs of wood or of “ toi toi” (a native grass), which can be made very comfortable and quite impervious to the weather, can be put up for from 51. to 101. In the towns, a weather-boarded cottage of two rooms can be built for about 401. or 501., or one can be rented for from 8s. to 10s.
For use on the voyage, shoes or slippers are much more convenient than boots. The following is a cheap and excellent coinposition for preserving leather from the bad effects of scawater; Linseed oil, 1 gill; spirit of turpentine, 1 oz., bees' wax, 1 02.; Burgundy pitch, t 02.; to be well melted together and kept covered in a callipot; lay it on boots or shoes, rubbing it in well, and set them in a hot sun, or before the tire., .
10s. Western Australia, about
78. South Australia, from
58. to Ss. Tasmania,
from 38. 6d. to 108, New Zealand
Ss. to 10s. CAPE OF Good Hope:
In Cape Town, from 10s.
25s. Country Districts
58. to Sos.
HINTS TO EMIGRANTS TO BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
1. Caution to keep Contract Tickets.—Emigrants to every British colony ought to keep their contract tickets, as otherwise, if the ship is prevented by any accident from reaching her destination, or if the passengers, for any other reason, are not landed at the place named in the tickets, they may have a difficulty in obtaining a return of their passage money, to which in that case they would by law be entitled.
2. Caution to provide_means for subsistence and transport after arrival. ---Emigrants are warned that they have no claim of right for assistance out of the public funds of the colonies ; they should, therefore, provide themselves with sufficient means of their own for their subsistence and conveyance into the interior from the port where they land.
3. Tools. It is not generally considered desirable that agricultural labourers should take out implements of husbandry, as these can be easily procured in the colonies; but artisans are recommended to take such tools as they may possess, if not very bulky.
4. Time to arrive in North America. -- The best period is early in May, so as to be ready to take advantage of the spring and summer work, and to get settled before the winter sets in. During the past year (1872) however, the demand for able-bodied labourers (agricultural or navvies) was so great that they were sure of employment at any time of the year. This demand still continues, and is greatly in excess of the supply.
time the ship should quit the port in the prosecution of her voyage. As regards those bound to the Dominion of Canada, the “ Immigration Act of 1869 " imposes a penalty on the master who compels passengers to leave before the expiration of 48 hours, and provides that they shall be landed free of expense and between six in the morning and four in the afternoon.
7. Advice to Emigrants arriving in Quebec.Emigrants are particularly cautioned to avoid the too free use of intoxicating drinks and all other excesses after leaving the ship. It is stated that the water of the river St. Lawrence, until it is beyond the influence of the salt water, has a tendency to produce bowel complaints in strangers. It should, therefore, be drunk sparingly. Emigrants should also avoid exposure to the great heat of the sun by day and the dews and noxious vapour by night. All emigrants who wish to know the distance to any part of the province, the way to get there, what it costs, and the best places to find work, should ask the Government Immigration Officer who will board the ship they arrive in. Those arriving by steamer will land at Point Levis, where there is also a Government Office. Emigrants should not listen to the opinions or advice of persons hanging about the places of landing, whose business it is to make profit out of them. Many young females and unprotected persons have been deceived and suffered from acting on such advice. For the better protection and convenience of emigrants desiring to wash their clothes, sleep, and obtain food, or to obtain information as to their future journey, a large Immigrant Station has been built at Point Levis, opposite Quebec, where they will be allowed to remain for a period not exceeding 48 hours. Emigrants who go out to join friends or relations already settled in the country should proceed at once to their destination. Farm labourers will get plenty of work in the farming districts. Any offer of work had better be at once accepted, even if the wages are not as much as the emigrant thought they would be, because, until he gets into the ways of the country, he is not of so much use to the farmer as older settlers and has a great deal to learn. Mechanics who do not get work at their trades, had better take the first offer that is made to them than be idle.
Clerks, shopmen, or persons having no particular trade or calling, and unaccustomed to manual labour, or females above the grade of domestic servants, should not emigrate to Canada, unless going to situations previously engaged, as the supply is already greater than the demand for persons of these classes.
Any complaints of bad treatment on the passage out should, in the first instance, be made, upon landing, to the Immigration Agent at the port of disembarkation.
Caution.-Newly arrived immigrants are frequently tempted by the promise of high wages held out by agents from the United States to leave Canada for the States. These promises should not be entertained without much caution and inquiry.
10. Caution not to refuse good wages.
Until emigrants become acquainted with the labour of the country, their services are of comparatively small value to their employers. They should therefore be careful not to fall into the common error of refusing reasonable wages on their first arrival.
11. Expense of erecting a log hut.—The cost of a log hut, such as settlers usually erect, may be stated at from 51. to about 121. But when the chief part of the work is performed by the emigrant himself, the cost is much less. These huts, if properly constructed, are very warm and comfortable.
VANCOUVER ISLAND.—The expense of erecting a suitable dwelling for an agricultural labourer may be estimated at from 251. to 301.
The rent of a town lodging for mechanics and labourers is about 6s. per week.
British COLUMBIA.—The cost of such a building varies according to the rate of wages in the different parts of the colony. But a good hut can be built and fitted up by the immigrant at a cost of 10%. or 151,
Protection of Passengers.—The 17th and subsequent sections of the “ Immigration Act, 1869,” contain stringent provisions for the protection of passengers. They are allowed by law to remain on board 48 hours after arrival in port, during which time no berthing or accommodation may be removed without the sanction of the Medical Superintendent. Passengers and their luggage are to be landed between the hours of six in the morning and six in the evening, free of expense, at landing places appointed by the Governor.
The 20th section secures to foreign immigrants the observance by the masters of vessels of the laws of the country from which they are conveyed.
No persons, without being duly licensed, may recommend lodgings or railway or steamboat routes to immigrants, or book passages or take money for inland fares, or for the transportation of baggage. (Sect. 22.)
Lists of prices per day and week for board and lodging, or both, and also the rates for separate meals, are required to be displayed in taverns, hotels, and boarding houses receiving inmigrants; and no keeper of a boarding house or tavern can have a lien on immigrants' goods for any sum exceeding five dollars,—about il. sterling. (Sect. 23.)
Licensed persons selling tickets or orders for passages to immigrants for more than their value or buying them of immigrants for less than their value, are liable to a penalty of 20 dollars under Act 35 Vict. cap. 28. sec. 7.
Emigrants arriving at Quebec, holding through tickets for their inland transport, and desiring to obtain information, may delay their journey for that purpose, as the railway or steamboat company to whom they are addressed will take charge of their luggage until they are ready to proceed.
8. Colonial Tar on Emigrants :
Canadian DoMINION.-By the Provincial “Immigration Act of 1872," the Capitation Tax of one dollar for every passenger over the age of one year arriving from Europe in the Dominion of Canada is repealed. But, (1.) if the vessel has not been cleared under the sanction of the Imperial Commissioners of Emigration, (2.) if she does not carry a surgeon, and (3.) if proper measures for the preservation of the health of the passengers and crew have not been observed on the voyage, a tax of two dollars in respect of each passenger is levied on the Master. But the tax is not levied in respect of passengers not landed from ships calling at ports of the Dominion.
9. Personal Effects exempt from Duty.-By a Canadian Act (8 & 9 Vict. c. 31.): -“Wearing apparel in actual use, and other personal effects not merchandise, - implements and tools of trade of handicraftsmen used in the occupation or employment of persons coming into the province for the purpose of actually settling therein;" are exempt from Customs' duties. A similar provision is in force in New Brunswick.
The English halfpenny is equal to one cent.
In Upper Canada the English sixpence is generally called in retail dealings “one York shilling” or a shilling ; emigrants often believe one shilling sterling or currency is meant.
Emigrants should bring their money in gold or good Bills of Exchange Silver and bank-notes are liable to discounts.
Post Office Orders can be obtained in Great Britain on any of the towns in Canada.
13. Route for Emigrants to Ontario and Quebec.Emigrants intending to settle in Canada will find it in all respects more advantageous to proceed by Quebec.
As there is often competition among the Steamboat and Railway Companies at Quebec and the Forwarding Companies at Montreal, emigrants should exercise caution before agreeing for their passage, and should avoid those persons who crowd on board ships and steam-boats, offering their service to get passages, &c.
Emigrants for the Province of Ontario should not pause at Quebec or Montreal, but proceed at once on their journey. If, however, they require advice or direction, they should apply only to the Government Agents, whose names and addresses are given at page 2, who will furnish gratuitously all requisite information.
14. For the route to the north-west territories, see
14. DISTANCES and FARES* from QUEBEC ; SEASON 1873. Explanation of Abbreviations.-G. T. R., Grand Trunk Railway, Quebec. N. R., Northern Railway, Toronto. G, W. R., Great Western Railway, Toronto. C. & P. R., Coburg and Peterboro' Railway, Port Hope. P. &0.
R., Prescott and Ottawa Railway, Prescott. B. & O. R., Brockville and Ottawa Railway, Brockville. B. & L. H. R., Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway; Canadian route connections, Paris and Stratford. E. T., Eastern Townships, Lower Canada, the district of the British North American Land Company. P. H. & L. R., Port Hope and Lindsay Railway. Throughout these passages children between 3 and 12 are charged half price, under 3 years old no charge is made.
N. R. 565
Carron Brook | Chatham
G. W. R. 655
G. T. R. 457
N. R. 544
B. & L. H. 628
G. T. R. 522
G. W. R. 571
G. T. R. 559
G. T. R. 293
G. W. R. 525
B. & 0. 340
B. & L. H. 616
G. W. R. 679
Via G. T. Rw.
Brockville, 52 m.
thence by G. W. Rw. Toronto and Rail, 63 m. G. T. Rw. to London,
thence by G. W. Rw.
to Chatham, 29 m.
Guelph, 14 m.
milton,per rail 140 m.
* N.B.-The fares given in this Table are the usual Summer rates; in Winter they are much higher.