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14. DISTANCES and FARES* from QUEBEC; SEASON 1872.

Explanation of Abbreviations. G. T. R., Grand Trunk Railway, Quebec. N. R., Northern Railway, Toronto. G. W. R., Great Western Railway, Toronto. C. & P. R., Coburg and Peterboro' Railway, Port Hope. P. & O. R., Prescott and Ottawa Railway, Prescott. B. & O. R., Brockville and Ottawa Railway, Brockville. B. & L. H. R., Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway; Canadian route connections, Paris and Stratford. E. T., Eastern Townships, Lower Canada, the district of the British North American Land Company. P. H. & L. B., Port Hope and Lindsay Railway.

Throughout these passages children between 3 and 12 are charged half-price, under 3 years old no charge is made.

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Waterloo
Oxford

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Railway.

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G. T. R.
B. & O.
G. W. R.

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G. T. R.
G. W. R.

N. R.
G. W. R.

G. T. R.
G. T. R.

G. W. R.
G. T. R.
N. R.
B. & L. H.

G. T. R.

G. W. R.

G. T. R.

G. T. R.

G. T. R.
G. W. R.
B. & O.
B. & L. H.

G. W. R.

B. & L. H.

G. T. R.

G. T. R.

G. T. R.

N. R. R.

G. T. R.
G. T. R.
G. T. R.
G. W. R.

Huron
B. & L. H.
Northumberland G. T. R.

G. W. R.
G. T. R.
G. T. R.
G. W. R.
G. W. R.

G. T. R.
G. W. R.

G. T. R.

G. W. R.

G. T. R.

G. W. R.

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G. W. R.

Waterloo
Oxford

577
596

6 40
6 95

G. W. R.

N.B.-The fares given in this Table are the usual Summer rates; in Winter they are much higher.

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Route.

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Brockville, 52 m.

G. T. Rw. to London,
24 m.
Toronto, 72 m.

G. T. Rw. to London,
thence by G. W. Rw.
Toronto and Rail, 63 m.
G. T. Rw. to London,
thence by G. W. Rw.
to Chatham, 29 m.
G. T. Rw. or steamer.
G. T. Rw., Toronto and
Guelph, 14 m.
London, 42 m.

G. T. Rw. or steamer.
Toronto, 41 m.
Hamilton and Paris,8m.
Toronto, 21 m.
G.T. Rw. Guelph, 21 m.
Toronto and Berlin,5m.
Kingston, 69 m.
G. T. Rw. or steamer.
Toronto, 25 m.
Brockville and railroad.
Stratford, 18 m.
London 64 m.; or Ha-
milton,per rail 140 m.
Rail Goderich 13 m.
G. T. Rw.

G. T. Rw. or steamer.
G. T. Rw.

Toronto and N. R. R.

94 m.

G. T. Rw..

G. T. Rw. or steamer.
G. T. Rw.

G. T. Rw. to London,
10 m.

G. T. RW.

G. T. Rw. to Hamilton,

6 m.

G. T. Rw.

Guelph, 15 m.

Toronto, 29 m.

G. T. Rw. to London,
30 m.

Stratford, 45 m.
G. T. Rw.
Hamilton, 17 m.
G. T. Rw.

Toronto, 75 m.

G. T. Rw. or steamer. G. T. Rw. to Guelph, 27 m.

G.T. Rw.to Guelph, 8m.
Woodstock, 9 m.

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St. Andrew's St. John's

Halifax

Places.

NEW BRUNSWICK NOVA SCOTIA, AND GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE, 1872.

Gaspe Basin

Quebec

Dalhousie, Bai de Chaleur New Brunswick

Miramichi Shediac Pictou

Charlotte Town

Boston
Buffalo

Chicago
Detroit
New York

Portland

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Prince E. Island
New Brunswick

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Fares.

Distance
from

Quebec. 1st Class. 2d Class.

480

610

560

620

720

760

629

679

800

Miles
from

Quebec.

423

573

D. C.

12

0

14 0

14 0

14 0

1007

734

530

316

16 0

18 0

14

O

16 0

17 50

From Shediac by Railway to St. John's, 108 miles.

Pictou Stage to Truro, 40 miles, and railway to Halifax, 61 miles.
St. John's per steam to Windsor, thence 93 miles to Halifax.
Distance stated is that travelled over the direct distance; Miramichi, Shediac, and Pictou are 180 miles less.
Halifax is the nearest port in America to Great Britain at which mail steamers stop.

PLACES IN UNITED STATES.

D. C.

4 0

5 50

6 0

7 0

7 50

8.50

8 0
8 50

9.00

13 15

20 50

14 50

9 0

Fare by Railway
or Steamer;
Season 1872.

9.00

8 75

1st Class. 2d Class.
D. C.

D. C.

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Route.

By steamer weekly.

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By Gulf steamer from Quebec to
Shediac, thence by E. & N. A.
Rw.

By steamer to Pictou, N. S.; thence by N.S. Rw.

Route.

or steamer.
or do.

do. or do.

Portland or Montreal
G. T. Rw.

Throughout these passages, children under 12 years of age are charged half price, and those under three years are free.

USUAL MAIN ROUTES FROM QUEBEC. CANADA. For Richmond, Sherbrook, Lennoxville, Compton Bury, and Stanstead, in the Eastern Townships, by Grand Trunk Railway.

For Ottawa City, by railway or steamer to Prescott, and thence by railway.

For Upper Ottawa District, by railway and steamer, and thence by railway to Arnprior, and thence by steamer to Renfrew and Portage du Fort.

For Woodstock, London, and Lake Erie District, by Great Western Railway from Hamilton.

For Goderich and Huron District, by Grand Trunk Railway to Stratford, and thence by Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway.

For Georgian Bay District, Sault Ste. Marie, Green Bay, and Lake Superior, by Northern Railway from Toronto, and thence by steamer from Collingwood.

UNITED STATES.-For Boston and other places in Eastern States, by Grand Trunk Railway viâ Richmond and Portland.

For ports on Lake Champlain, Troy, Albany, New York, Philadelphia, &c., by railway and steamer from Montreal. For Ogdensburg, Oswego, Rochester, Buffalo, Cleveland, and northern parts of the states of New York, Pensylvania, and Ohio, by railway or steamer, and by Great Western Railway via Hamilton.

For Detroit, Cincinnati, Chicago, Milwaukie, and the Western States generally, by Grand Trunk Railway or steamer or by Great Western Railway from Toronto or Hamilton.

ROUTE TO THE NORTH WEST TERRITORIES FROM TORONTO. After the 15th day of June 1872, emigrants will be sent to Fort Garry, at the following rates: Toronto to Fort William; adults, 5 dollars: children under 12 half price. 150 lbs. personal baggage, free. Extra luggage, 25 cts. per 100 lbs.

Fort William to Fort Garry: emigrants, 25 dollars; children under 12, half price. 850 lbs. personal baggage, free. Extra luggage, 15 05 dollars per 100 lbs. (No horses, oxen, waggons, or heavy farming implements can be taken.) MODE OF CONVEYANCE.-96 miles by railroad from Toronto to Collingwood; 532 miles by steamer from Coilingwood to Fort William; 45 miles by waggon from Fort William to Shebandowan Lake; 310 miles broken navigation in open boats from Shebandowan Lake to north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods; 95 miles by cart or waggon from north-west angle, Lake of the Woods to Fort Garry. Between Fort William and Fort Garry, huts and tents will be provided for the accommodation of emigrants on the portages. Passengers should take their own supplies. Provisions will, however, be furnished at cost price, at Shebandowan Lake, Fort Frances, and the north-west angle, Lake of the Woods.

COMPARATIVE TABLE as to the REVENUE, EXPENDITURE, Debt, IMPORTS, &c. per Head of the Population in each of the North American Provinces; Approximate only.

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DEMAND FOR LABOUR.

CANADIAN DOMINION.
ONTARIO AND QUEBEC.

A large number of works will be going on in the Dominion during the season of 1872, and for some years to come, causing an unusual demand for labour.

#5 32

The classes recommended to emigrate to Canada are (1) persons with capital seeking investment; (2) tenant farmers with limited capital who can buy and stock a freehold estate with the money needed to carry on a small farm in England; (3) agricultural labourers, skilled and unskilled, for whom there is a large and increasing demand; (4) mechanics of various descriptions, but more particularly, blacksmiths, carpenters, railway navvies, shoemakers, tailors, printers, stonecutters and masons, gardeners, bricklayers, millwrights, and machinists, for whom there is always a steady demand. Canada offers great facilities for domestic servants and needle women; boys and girls over 15 years of age, and for flax growers, dressers, spinners, &c., but this industry requires to be developed. Families with fixed incomes will find in Canada, with much less difficulty than amidst the crowded population of the mother country, a suitable and pleasant home, with every facility for educating and starting their children in life. Persons living on the interest of their money can easily get from 7 to 8 per cent. on first-class security. Money deposited in the Post Office Savings Banks (Government security) draws 4 per cent. interest. The rate allowed for the deposit of money on call in other savings banks and banks, is from 4 to 5 per cent. with undoubted security."

The inducements to emigrate to Canada are not simply good wages and cheap living, among kindred people, to a naturally rich country, possessing a pleasant and healthy climate; but the confident

£ 1

s. d. 310 12 0

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The north-west territory is not included in this calculation. + The information as regards these two colonies is for 1870.

£ s. d. 19 1 18 114

D. C.

27 51

29 01

36 16

20 83

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£ s. d. 5 19 64 3 14 7

D. C.

16 80

19 30

32 74

14 24

£ s. d. 518 5 314 7

prospect which the poorest may have of becoming a possessor of the soil, earning a comparative competence for himself, and comfortably settling his children. Large numbers of rich and independent farmers all over the Dominion were poor emigrant labourers, without any means whatever, a few ' years ago.

The following are the wages paid in a few trades or callings:-Agricultural labourers, 48. to 6s. a day without board, and 50s. to 80s. per month with board; carpenters, 6s. to 9s. per day; bricklayers, 10s. to 14s.; plasterers, 10s. to 148.; stonemasons, 12s. to 15s.; blacksmiths, 6s. to 9s.; wheelwrights, 68. to 9s. per diem; general female servants, 208. to 33s.; and cooks, 29s. to 41s. per month with board. -See also p. post.

Persons who should not emigrate are clerks, shopmen, or those having no particular trade or calling. and unaccustomed to manual labour. Females above the grade of domestic servants, should not emigrate to Canada, unless going to situations previously engaged, as the country is fully supplied, and, in fact, overstocked with persons of this class.

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NEW BRUNSWICK.

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The Emigration Agent at St. John, Robert Shives, Esq., in a report, received February 1872, says :

"During the past season there has been a great demand for all kinds of labour; and masons, plasterers, carpenters, joiners, and all other branches of mechanics, have had steady employment and good wages. In regard to agricultural labourers, so great has been the demand, that farmers who were unable to procure them have suffered much loss, both for want of hands to plant and to reap the harvest."

"Our great want, however, is that class known at home as small farmers. We have abundance of good land to offer them, and all they require to give them a start is a small amount of money. If

they do not desire to settle on the Government lands, there are always chances to purchase, at reasonable prices, partially improved farms, with log and framed houses, where they can locate themselves, and at once commence farming operations. The Government will give to each settler 100 acres for the small sum of 4l. 28. 2d. sterling; or he may pay for it,-if he does not wish to make a money payment-by performing labour on the roads at the rate of 21. 1s. 1d. sterling per year for three years, when he will receive a clear title to the land. He has likewise the privilege of selecting, adjoining his own lot, 100 acres on the same terms for each son over 18 years of age."

"There is every prospect of an increased demand for labour during the coming year, and for all the branches of mechanics already named, and to all such as may decide to make New Brunswick their home, there is every prospect of securing, not only a comfortable living, but by industry and sobriety attaining to affluence."

NOVA SCOTIA.

The following has been received from the Provincial Secretary in a communication bearing date Halifax, 3rd January 1872:-"A good class of farmers who have sufficient means wherewith to purchase small farms, already under cultivation, would do well in the western parts of the province. Fruit growers in particular could make money; but this is no place for paupers. What is required is more capital and industry, and there is a good opening for the expenditure and employment of both.

"In Halifax female servants are, at present, in demand, and a number of good cooks who could come well recommended, would command from 208. to 25s. sterling per month."

NEWFOUNDLAND.

J. Bemister, Esq., Colonial Secretary, in a report dated 6th October 1866,* says: "This colony has very little demand for labour, except during the fishing season, which may be said to last from May till October. During that period every ablebodied operative is fully employed, and it is upon the success or otherwise of that fishery that the condition of the people during the ensuing winter in a great measure depends, as, unfortunately, there is very little to be had by the people in the shape of employment during the winter, there being but very few manufactories or other sources of employment at those times when the fishery cannot be prosecuted. The seal fishery in March employs a large number of the young and able-bodied men of the colony for a period ranging from 1 month to 6 weeks and 2 months. The taking of herring and salmon commences earlier than the cod fishery, which cannot be said to be fully engaged in earlier than the month of June. Agriculture is progressively increasing.

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND.

In a report from the Assistant Colonial Secretary (Mr. J. W. Morrison), dated 8th February 1869,* it is stated that:-" Labourers are in great demand, from the 1st of May to the 1st of December."

*No later return.

BRITISH COLUMBIA, INCLUDING VANCOUVER ISLAND. The demand for labor of all kinds appears to be considerable. The following, according to a report from the Colonial Secretary, dated the 23rd Nov. 1869, are the rates of wages then current in the Colony. Cooks from 41. to 87. a month; day labourers, 10s. a day; skilled mechanics, such as blacksmiths, carpenters, stone cutters, tailors, &c., 16s. a day. Female servants, who are very scarce indeed, 57. a month. Wages in the interior are still higher, labourers obtaining 127. a month, with rations, and miners 32s. 6d. a day. Indian and Chinese labourers receive 4s, a day.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

The following information has been received from G. F. Wise, Esq., the Agent for Immigration at Sydney, in a Despatch from the Colonial Secretary, dated 29th January 1872:

"Female domestic servants thoroughly acquainted with their duties, as well as farm labourers and shepherds, readily obtain situations on remunerative terms; but for educated persons, such as governesses, tutors, clerks, &c., there is no demand, and the emigration to the colony of such persons (unless for the purpose of joining friends or relatives able to maintain them for some time after arrival) is not encouraged.

"The Colonial Government makes the most careful provision for the protection and effective settlement of the single women who come to the colony under the auspices of the Emigration Commissioners, unaccompanied by friends or relatives, as well as of those who are so accompanied, but whose relatives desire that they should take advantage of the Government regulations.

"Each immigrant ship is, on arrival, immediately visited by the Agent for Immigration, who ascertains the capabilities and wishes with regard to employment of the immigrants on board; and instructs those coming to join relatives or friends as to the best modes of reaching their destination.

"The single women are at once landed, and received into the Depôt at Hyde Park, where they are comfortably located in large and well ventilated apartments, and are treated with the greatest care and attention by the matron, under the direction of the Agent for Immigration. After inspection by the Immigration Board, a hiring day is appointed, which is advertised in the daily papers. No person is admitted into the hiring-room who is not personally known to the officers of the department to be of good character, or who has not à certificate of respectability from a clergyman or magistrate."

The Immigration Agent, in a report dated Sydney, 28th November 1871, states that the only immigration during that year consisted of single females who, having been previously in domestic service, were provided with free passages to the colony by Her Majesty's Emigration Commissioners. Within a few days of their arrival they were engaged at an average rate of wages of 201. per annum. A continued influx of single women of the class of domestic servants would be of considerable advantage, and such

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