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The Blue Book of 1870 adds, “ These mines are progressing favourably, and have been worked to advantage during the year, the yield of coal for exportation having been about 30,000 tons. The price of coal at the pit's mouth is six dollars per ton. The coal contains 66 per cent. of carbon."

Mr. Hamley, the Collector of Customs at Victoria, furnished the following statement of coal exported during four years :

Tons.

Value. 1867

11,223 72,953 dollars. 1868

30,524 198,405
1869

19,970 119,820
1870
16,114

96,687

BRITISH COLUMBIA. Gold was known to exist in Queen Charlotte's Island in 1850, and in April 1856 Governor Douglas reported to the Secretary of State that considerable quantities of gold had been found in the Upper Columbia River. It was subsequently discovered in its natural state of deposit in the districts of Fraser River and of Thompson's River, commonly known as the Quaatlan, Couteau, and Shuswap countries. Rich and extensive gold fields were in the summer of 1865 discovered in that portion of the Columbia River known as the “Big Bend,” lying between 51° and 520 North Latitude.

Important discoveries of gold have been made on the Findlay branch of the Peace River, latitude 56° N. The diggings are considered very hopeful, and are known under the name of Omineca.

Statement of value of gold shipped from British Columbia by the Colonial Banks from 1862 to 20th September 1871.

Dollars. 1862

1,211,624 1863

1,376,547 1864

2,748,088 1865

2,618,404 1866

1,983,600 1867

1,860,651 1868

1,779,729 1869

1,324,884 1870

1,002, 717 1871 to 20th September 743,792

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This return is exclusive of gold carried out of the country by miners themselves, which has always been estimated at one third more in each year. (Signed) CHARLES GOOD,

Colonial Secretary.

COAL. The following is taken from the Report of the Minister of Public Works to the Governor General of Canada, dated Ottawa, March 1872.

The coal mines of British Columbia are reported to be very valuable and numerous. The mines of Nanaimo which yield bituminous coal are those which, at the present time, are most worked. They are very easy of access, and vessels can be loaded from them without difficulty. This coal abounds on the eastern coast of Vancouver Island, not only at Nanaimo but also at Departure Bay, Bayne's Sound, Isquash, and at Moskeemo near the end of the island.

The harbour of Nanaïmo is situated on the eastern coast of Vancouver Island, about 65 miles from Victoria.

The Blue Book of 1869 states that 200 men are employed in the mines of Nanaimo. The yield for 1869 was 40,883 tons, of which 19,700 tons were shipped to foreign ports. The price of coals at the pit's inouth is 24s. sterling a ton. The coal contains 66 per cent, of carbon. The area of the mine is 900,000 square yards. Three pits are worked. The seam is generally four feet thick.

Total 77,831 487,865 It is stated that veins of coal have been found in several parts of the Province. The coal is of excellent quality, but a deficiency of capital has prevented the veins being worked. On Queen Charlotte's Island excellent and valuable anthracite coal is found, containing 72 per cent. of carbon. Coal has been found not only in Vancouver Island, but also in the interior of Columbia, 160 miles from the sea near the Nicola River, a tributary of the Thompson, which is said to be superior to the coal on the sea coast.

Nova SCOTIA.

Gold and Coal Mining. The following statements are from the Report for 1871, of the Hon. William Garvie, Chief Commissioner of Mines and Works :

Gold. The gold mines have been worked steadily, and in many cases, profitably. The returns, indeed, show a smalí decrease in the yearly standard of production ; but they are quite as good as could be expected, taking into consideration the scarcity of men and the consequent high price of labour. There has, perhaps been no year since the commencement of gold mining in this Province during which the business has been of a more legitimate character than it was in 1871; there has been no unhealthy speculation, and the losses generally have been small, whilst in some cases the profits have been large. I still have to regret the absence of improvement in the appliances for amalgamating and saving gold. It is also a matter of regret that there are a number of mines, which have been proved capable of being worked at a profit, that have been allowed from one cause or another to remain idle. In one or two instances efforts are in progress to remedy this inaction, but to what extent, it would now be premature to judge."

Men

ozs. employed. The yield of gold in 1869 was 17,868 676 1870

555 1871

532 This year, 1872, will show a decrease in the number of ounces produced in consequence of a scarcity of labour; but the results are expected to be, at least, as favourable per man employed.

» 19,866 „ · 19,227

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There has been a steady increase in coal mining:
In 1869 there were sold 511,794 tons.
1870

568,276

600,418 »
» 1872 Probable sale 700,000
Owing to a want of miners our collieries this year
have been unable to supply the demand, and more
vessels are now waiting at some of the mines than
can be supplied before the close of the year.

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ness land, and 6s. 8d. currency on every 100 acres of
improved land in the possession of individuals,
11 Vict. cap. 7., and 24 Vict. cap. 35 (29th April 1861),
This tax in 1854 amounted to 4,9211

. currency, and
in 1863 to 4,5691. It is applied to free education.

NEWFOUNDLAND.—Land may be cleared by the ordinary mode at a cost of about 51. per acre, or if the stones are thoroughly removed, at from 6l

. to 61. 10s. per acre.

Cape of Good Hope.—The land generally requires little or no clearing. Fences are seldom required

. Lands already granted are liable to a road tax, which

, however, is not levied regularly, and cannot exceed one penny in the pound in any year.

New South WALES.—No useful information can be given, there being no fixed process where clearing is required, and the cost being dependent on the process, and the timber, if any, to be cleared.

South AUSTRALIA.—There is much good land, with little or no timber, and much more, free from underwood, with timber only in such quantity as is useful and desirable for fencing, fuel, and country purposes. The expense of ordinary fencing is from 3s. to 4s. per rod.

QUEENSLAND. — The average cost of cutting down and burning off the trees, leaving the stumps of those over two feet in diameter, is Å. per acre in the low lands, where the timber is thicker than in the upland.

Trees of smaller growth are usually grubbed " out by digging around the roots till they can be easily overturned by the weight of the branches, and then the roots are drawn out of the ground. The roots of the larger trees are left two or three seasons, and then got rid of by an easy and simple process called “ steaming." After the first omitted for several years. In many localities

, esper expense of clearing this further process may be well cially on the lands best suited for wheat

, there is
little timber, and the expense of clearing is very
much less. Generally there is enough timber of
the best description for fencing, having the double
advantage of being very durable and being easily split

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.
is from 21. to 5l. per acre.
patches of swamp lands, the average cost of clearing
cost of preparing heavy forest land for the plough:
TASMANIA.—The following is an estimate of the

1st year.–Scrubbing per acre, i.e.,
felling all trees not over a foot through,
and • ringing" all large standing ones £l 10

Burning off same

CHARGES ON LAND AND EXPENSES OF CLEARING,

The following statements as respects charges of clearing land, which vary with circumstances and localities, must be accepted as approximate only.

CANADIAN DOMINION, Quebec. — The cost of clearing waste lands is stated at about $16 (or about 31. 6s. 8d. sterling) per acre; the expense is, however, greater in the remote and unsettled districts, in consequence of the difficulty of procuring labourers. The only charge on land is a tax which seldom exceeds id. per acre on cultivated lands, and three eighths of a penny currency on wild lands.

Ontario.—The cost of clearing wild lands is about from 12 to 14 dollars per acre. The expense is, however, greater in the remote districts, in consequence of the difficulty of procuring labourers; but this work is generally done by contract. The only charge on land is a tax which seldom exceeds 1d. per acre. It is applied to local improvements alone, in which the person taxed has a direct interest.

New BRUNSWICK.—The average cost of cutting and clearing off the trees, leaving the stumps standing, is from 31. to 41. currency (21. 148. to 31. 12s. sterling) per acre. The proper season to commence clearing the land is the month of June. All underbrush should be cut down, and this is ir some cases done with a scythe; but the small trees require an axe. The large trees should then he felled, leaving a stump of two or three feet above the ground. The branches should be cut off before setting the fire, and such trees as may be of value for fencing or other purposes removed.

The timber thus levelled should be spread as evenly as convenient over the ground, in order that the fire may consume the whole. The proper time for setting the fire is any dry day in August or September. Such logs as remain after the burnings should be piled in heaps and consumed. The ashes should then be scattered over the land, when it will be ready for planting. The tax on a good farm of 100 acres with houses, barns, and stock, is about 48. 4d. sterling. The poll tax in the country districts is about 3d. sterling.

Nova Scotia.- Woodland can be chopperi, rolled, and burned for about 31. per acre. As a general rulc the first crop pays for such clearing. There is a moderate county tax upon all real and personal estate, the proceeds of which are applied to the county expenses.

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND.—The clearing expenses vary from 21, to 4l. per acre, according to the growth of the wood upon the land. The only charges are those made from time to time by local assessment. There is a tax imposed by the local legislature of 98. 2d. currency on every 100 acres of wilder

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2nd

year.—Burning off stubbles and grubbing up all small stumps left after last year's operations, which fits the

3rd. year.—Removing fallen logs,
grubbing roots, &c.

Total per acre
land, 21. to 51, for falling and burning, according to

NEW ZEALAND.-Fern-land, 10s. to 11. 108.; wood-
the size of the timber. This does not include the
breaking-up of the soil, or clearing out the stumps

0 100 £4 0 0

from timber land.

CHAPTER VII.

Climate.-Canadian Dominion.- Newfoundland.-Australian Colonies.- New Zealand. -South African Colonies.

Falklands and Hong Kong.

CLIMATE.--NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES.

DOMINION OF CANADA. Table of Mean Monthly and Annual Temperatures at Toronto, Province of Ontario, from 1840 to 1871,

and from 1859 to 1868. From the Records of the Magnetic Observatory, by Professor Kingston.

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Mean temperature of the year
Warmest month
Mean temperature of the warmest month
Coldest month
Mean temperature of the coldest month
Difference between the temperatures of the

warmest and the coldest months
Warmest day
Mean temperature of the warmest day
Coldest day
Mean temperature of the coldest day
Date of the highest temperature
Highest temperature
Date of the lowest temperature
Lowest temperature
Range of the year

43.81 August

67037 December

19.90

47.47 August 4

76.13 Feb.

--72 August 16

77.73

-1.05

July 14, 1868

84.50 Feb. 6, 1855 Jan. 22, 1857

-14.38 Aug. 24, 1854

July 31, 1844.

72 75 Dec. 22, 1842.

89.5 December 21

--21.0 110.5

992
Jan. 10, 1859

- 26.5
1182

9.57 Aug. 19, 1840.

82.4 Jan. 2, 1842.

1.9 87.0

90.8

--12:1
102.9

CLIMATE.

The following remarks have been received from the authorities of the Canadian Dominion respecting the Climate of the five provinces :

“ It is supposed that the long winter is unfavourable to agricultural operations; and though the period during which ploughing may be carried on is shorter than in more favoured climes, yet there are many compensating advantages in the excellence of the snow roads, and the great facilities afforded thereby in conveying produce to market, in drawing manure, and hauling out wood from the forest.

" If the real excellence of a climate depends upon the earth yielding in perfection and abundance the necessaries of life or those which constitute the principal articles of food for man and the domestic animals, then Canada East may compare favourably with any part of the world. The steadiness and uniformity of the summer heat causes all grains and fruits to mature well and with certainty."

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Province of Ontario, “In a country of such vast extent as Upper Canada, the climate varies materially. Throughout the agricultural or settled part of it along the St. Lawrence and the Lakes, and which extends from 50 to 100 miles in depth, the winter may be said to commence early in December. Snow usually falls in sufficient quantities in the eastern section of this range to afford good sleighing about the middle of that month, and to continue, with trifling exceptions, until the middle of March. In the western section, although we have occasionally heavy falls of snow, we are subject to frequent thaws, and sleighing cannot be depended upon except in the interior at a distance from the lakes. On the cleared lands the snow generally disappears about the middle of March, and the sowing of seed for the spring crops begins early in April and ends about the 10th of May. Ripe wild strawberries in abundance may be had by the last of June, and green peas and new potatoes are brought into market about the same time. In the southern parts the harvest commences about the last of July, and becomes general about the first week in August. The fall sowing of wheat and rye begins and should end in the month of September, as grain sown at a later period seldom does well. The weather during the fall months is generally remarkably pleasant except in November, during a part of which the climate resembles that of England during the same period.”

From the head of Lake Ontario, round by the Niagara frontier, and all along the Canadian shores of Lake Erie, the grape and peach grow with luxuriance, and ripen to perfection in the open air, without artificial aid.

The grape is likely to be more generally cultivated. A vinery of some 30 acres has been started at Cooksville, 16 miles west of Toronto, and there are several other vineyards now in operation in the Niagara district, where wine is made.

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New BRUNSWICK,

fog during the summer season, but this extends a

Province of Quebec. “ The climate of Canada East, like that of the Lower Provinces, is unquestionably the most healthy in North America.

“ Disease is unknown among the usual population, except that caused by inequality of diet or imprudent exposure to atmospheric changes. The extreme dryness of the air is shown by the roofs of the houses (which are covered with tin) remaining so long bright, and by a charge of powder remaining for weeks uncaked in a gun.

Although the winters are somewhat severe (less so, however, than those of Lower Canada), the climate is exceedingly healthy.

On the shores of the Bay of Fundy there is much short distance only into the interior. The city of St. John is frequently wrapped in a dense sea-fog, while a few miles only. the days are bright and cloudless at the distance of

There are no fogs on that coast of New Brunswick which is within the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the air there is particularly dry and bracing.

In the interior of the province, the air is much warmer in summer than on the sea coast; and there is a greater degree of cold in winter.

The ranges of temperature are:

At St. John, on the Bay of Fundy, from 150 below, to 88° above zero. St. Lawrence, from 16° below, to 90° above zero.

At Richibucto, on the Gulf of 950 above zero. At Fredericton, in the interior, from 200 below, to

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Course of the Seasons in New Brunswick. The winter is fairly established at Christmas. In January, as in the other North American colonies, there is the usual thaw; in February is the deepest snow; which seldom exceeds four feet on the average in the northern portion of the province, and three feet in the southern portion. In March, the sun acquires much power, and the snow begins to melt. In the cleared country the snow disappears in April, and spring-ploughing commences; seed-time continues, according to the season, from the last week in April until the end of May. In June, the apple trees are in full blossom; in July, wild strawberries of fine flavour are ripe and abundant; haying then begins. In August, early potatoes are brought to market, as also raspberries, and other wild fruits. In September, oats, wheat, and other cereal grains are ready for the sickle; these are generally secured before October. The autumn is long, and the weather is then delicious; this is decidedly the most pleasant portion of the year. There are usually heavy rains in November, but when not wet, the weather is fine and pleasant; the rivers generally close during the latter part of this month, and in December winter again fairly sets in.

The average interval between the earliest sowing and latest ploughing, or mean length of summer, is six months and twenty-two days. Of this period,

the growth of wheat and crops of spring corn requires an average of three months and seventeen days. After reaping the corn crops there are generally about seven weeks clear for ploughing before winter sets in. Before the average sowing time in spring there are usually about six weeks, during which ploughing and other preparatory treatment of the land can be carried on.

The severe frosts in winter generally penetrate so deep into the ground, especially when it is not covered with grass, as to raise up and separate the particles from each other, to a considerable depth; so that when the thaw comes, it is already so loose and open as scarcely to require ploughing at all, or if ploughed, to be done with little force and great speed.

The manner in which all root crops thrive in the province is remarkable, and the frost by opening and pulverizing the soil, is one of the agents by which the large product is brought about.

The meteorological observations from which the following seasonal summary is compiled (from a diary kept by Gilbert Murdock, Esq.). were made in the city of St. John, New Brunswick (latitude 450 15' north, and long. 66° 4' west), at an elevation of about 140 feet above high-water mark; and embrace a period of 12 years, commencing with December 1850, and ending with November 1862.

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