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fully once a week till the end of May, and up the countless hosts of the stellar universe. then they should be left alone to finish Some must be as much faster than others their career without further help. Where as an elephant is bigger than an ant. hyacinths are required in quantity for the spring decoration of the parterre, the cultivator should have three beds at work-one

SPRING. for offsets, the next for weak bulbs, and

WRITTEN AT THE AGE OF 15. the next for bulbs enjoying a second year's Taxy tell me that winter hath far more charms, growth without bloom. The suppression With its ice-bound rivers and snowy plains, of the bloom for one entire season has its hearths at home in the winter time, magical effect in swelling the bulb, and While abroad all is fetter'd in icy chains; preparing it for blooming superbly when But give me my own, my favourite spring; allowed to do 80.-Gardener's Weekly

The beautiful, joyous, fairy-like spring! Magazine.

They tell me that summer hath far more charms,

With its melting heat and loaded trees,

With its fruitful beds and gaudy flow'rs, RECENT SPECULATIONS ABOUT THB Oh, it cannot make glad the heart with these; STARS.-It is strange how we have to give I own it is lovely, yet long for spring, up, one after another, our old notions, even

The beautiful, joyous, fairy-like spring! on scientific subjects. Mr. Glaisher's ex- They tell me that autumn hath far more charms, periences during his balloon ascents seem When its corn-fields teem with glitt'ring grain, to have proved that “our hitherto estimated When the golden hue of tree and sky velocities of the air are erroneous," that

Tells that far-famed autumn nears its wade. "our instruments on the earth do not

give Bat give me the heavenly sky of spring, any indication of the real velocity of the

The beautiful, joyous, fairy-like spring! air,” and that “our theories of vapour re- There's a charm in the morn of spring's sweet quire to be reconsidered ;” and a German

time, astronomer has just upset our old ideas re- When the clos'd buds welcome the sun's soft specting the comparative nearness of the ray; various fixed stars. Hitherto, Sirius, being When the dew-drop lies on the waving grass; to our eyes the brightest, and possessed of

Oh, 'tis dearer than summer's brightest day. the greatest apparent size, has been re- There's a charm in the noon of spring's sweet garded as the nearest of the stellar bodies;

time, while the next brightest, as Polaris and When the sun from the blue sky is beaming; Arcturus, have been regarded as the next The flow'rs send forth perfume from valley and nearest. M Kruger, however, has demon

hill, strated, by means of parallax observations,

And the air with their fragrance is teeming. that this is a mistake. He has found the There's a charm in the eve of spring's swert time, parallax of several stars of the eighth, ninth, When the sun sinks to rest on the distant hill, and tenth magnitudes--starsin visible to the all nature is silent, so full is its joy! naked eye-to be much greater than that Oh, yes! it is dearer, far dearer still ! of those stars of the first and second magni- The silence that reigns o'er wood and mead tndes which are the most prominent objects

Extends to the soul as it looks above. in our firmament; and, of course, the stars Thankfulness springs to the heart and the lip whose parallax are greatest are the stars To Him, the Creator of life and loves which are the nearest to us. Of two stars Then give me the gentle, holy spring, in the constellation Cygnus, one of which,

The beautiful, joyous, fairy-like spring! plainly visible to the naked eye, Sir William

Daisy H. Herschell, founding his estimate solely on comparative visibility, supposed to be placed Goon libraries are the shrines where all the relies at only one-twelfth of the distance from us of the ancient heroes, full of true virtue, and that of the other, which is a star which the naked without delusion or imposture, are preserved and eye can scarcely distinguish at all, M. Kruger repose. has proved that to be the nearest which ir A FALSE friend is like a shadow on a dial. It William Herschell supposed to be twelve appears in clear weather, and vanishes as soon as a times the farthest off All this indicates storm approaches. that there must be a wonderful variety in Love is a morning dream, whose memory gilds the respective sizes of the globes--each sup- the day. posed to be a sun, and, like our sun, the A KIND word is more valuable to the lost than a centre of a planetary system which make ' mine of gold.

PHOTOGRAPHY; EDUCATIONALLY, HISTORICALLY, AND PRACTICALLY CONSIDERED.

BY AN OLD HAND.

"Ars longa, vita brevis est." " As our art is not a divine gift, so neither is it a mechanical trade. Its foundations are laid in solid science ; and practice, though

essential to perfection, can never attain that to which it aims, unless it works under the direction of principle."-SiR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. 1.- INTRODUCTION.

note the many shops of importance almost PHOTOGRAPHY, as the word implies, is exclusively devoted to the sale of photoi compound of two Greek words, phos graphs; neither can we resist the fact and grapho, and signifies writing or draw. that all these results of the magic artist ing by the agency of light. This “band- have emanated from labours so recent as maid of the sciences” has become, during Daguerre, Archer, Hunt, and Mr. W. H. the past few years, universally recognised Fox Talbot. We can, a la Blondin, withas a most necessary adjunct wherever out endangering our lives, proceed to truthful and distinct representations of cross the foaming cataracts of mighty objects. are required, either animate or Niagara, climb the snow-capped mountain inanimate. During the short period of of Mont Blanc, and icy crests of Mont its existence its growth has been most Maudit, without the assistance of guides; rapid, and the innumerable blessings con- ascend and admire the intercepting ferred upon us by its means are un verdant valleys of the Alps, take a cruise accountable, the greatest of its wonderful down the Chamounix and Mer de Glace, powers being that of accurately delineat. without even braving the dangers of the ing the human form; for by its aid the channel. One moment we see the remother possesses the image of her darling liable records and horrors of war, and child when all that is earthly of it may in the next are ushered into the presence have perished, and keeps alive a spring of of royalty-without uncovering, stateseverlasting affection within her breast men, and the greatest of the great; sat at which diffuses itself to all around her. the councils of the mighty, from thence Az Dr. Watts truly asserts that

transported to the Pyramids of Egypt, Sounds, which address the ear, are lost and die

Japan, and wink at the pig-tails with In one short hour, but that which strikes the eye

impunity, and become at a glance familiar Lives long upon the mind, the faithful sight with the kings, queens, emperors, primaEngraves the image with a beam of light.

donnas, well-graced and athletic actors, It has entered into every grade of and the pets of the ballet. society, from the Queen on the throne to Photography, technically speaking, is the peasant in his humble cottage. How the Child of Chemistry, although, since inany of us have friends and relatives at its birth, it has called into existence some far distant clime, in a manner several totally new combinations of entirely lost, but ever present in another watter; and has been the means of form, through the instrumentality of this wonderfully cheapening the cost of proone of the most powerful of scientific duction of many of the most useful divining-rods! Who amongst us does not chemicals and drugs ; but notwithstandpossess the fashionable carte de visite ing all this, photographic researches could album, containing the tiny but life-like not be prosecuted without that all-importraits of all whom we hold dear, either portant agent, light. In fact we recognise of those present, or those lost for ever? in light one of Let us take a stroll in the heart of the “The vast magazine of means, great Metropolis, passing through Regent- Formed at His word, and ready at His will." street, Oxford-street, and the Strand, and It is difficult to say where the action of

was

light really ends ; for we know that plants, the contract being given to the London when grown in the dark, do not develope Stereoscopic Company, for the enormous the qualities, and proximate principles sum of 1500 guineas, which sum was which belong to them as members of afterwards increased to nearly 2000 natural orders, but are found bleached, guineas for additional privileges. This watery, and almost entirely devoid of Company's photographic results have long colouring matter or chlorophyll

. It is since been given to the public in somealso a recognised fact that animalculæ where near 250 different subjects, views, grow in water much more readily in the &c., large and small, cartes de visite, plain light than in the dark. Considering and coloured, and views expressly for the photography, in relation to its educa- stereoscope. The subjects mostly in deiional and practical value, it cannot be mand were statuary, chiefly the “Reading too highly dwelt upon. Photography Girl,” of which subject alone nearly 200

a scientific curiosity at our first gross of its copies were sold per week. Exhibition of 1851, at which there were The “ Sleep of Sorrow and the Dream of not more than a dozen daguerreotypes Joy,” Gibson's "tinted Venus,” the and talbotypes on view, grouped with "veiled figures of Monti," and others of the philosophical instruments; and with the "chef d'æuvre of the collection.” printing and applied design at the Paris Altogether there have been over 2319 Exhibition of 1855. Consequently, in the gross of the above photographs disposed first, a photographic landscape was con of during the year 1862, and which will sidered properly located if placed behind hand down to posterity an everlasting a sextant or voltaic battery; in the next memento of the second of England's among candlesticks and children's toys. Great Industrial World's Fairs. But owing to the rapid advances made In a letter which Daguerre wrote to during the interim of the two Exhibitions, Mr. Robert Hunt, in 1841, he says, “By that era of confusion was no longer means of my new process it shall be allowed to exist, and photography, as it possible to fix the images of objects in deserved, obtained a distinct place in the motion, such as public ceremonies, market arts; was allowed to rank as a separate places covered with people, cattle, &c.," class in the Exhibition of 1862, and re- and such has been realised, not with the cognised as an independent art; and daguerreotype, but by the collodion proalthough tolerably well represented at cess, which, in the fraction of a second, the last world's show, still it was far from enables the prepared plates to become being the display it might have been had impressed with all the thousand details of not certain restrictions been put upon buildings, and their exquisitely chiselled exhibitors by the Commissioners, in adornments. Who has not seen the addition to the damp and dingy garret. wondrous instantaneous scenes of busy looking place assigned to them for such life in London, and the exquisite seaa delicate class of goods, undoubtedly views, by Blanchard, which so faithfully perishable where much dampness is depict that watery element in all its calm evident. It is a question whether there and stormy grandeur, with its huge are many, nay, even a single photograph silvery. tipped waves careering onwards, existing, which records the interior of the and angry-looking cumulus towering high then-considered gorgeous palace of Hyde- in the heavens above, forming, as it were, park, with the truth and accuracy belong- a fringe to that majestic element ? the ing to photography alone. That such street views of Paris and America by Mr. should not be the case for the future, the England, containing hundreds of people Commissioners of 1862 resolved upon in motion, some idly lounging, while calling for tenders to be sent to obtain the men and horses with uplifted legs are sole right of photographing the interior rapidly hurrying forward at the velocity and all articles therein exbibited, and of a “Deerfoot," as well as women, chil. which, as was anticipated, caused great dren, carts, omnibuses, and cabriolets, all and active competition among the chief of which have left their images firmly photographers, which, at last, ended by fixed upon the tablet ! and the still more light;

wonderful moonlight photographs by tains and valleys, indicating a period of Breese, of Birmingham ! Nay, even the terrific disturbance long since passed away. ponderous projectiles sent forth booming The sun with his own undulating brushes from the mouth of the immense artillery, of light has supplied us with many of his with the speed of a flash of lightning, most strange luminous visages. It will have been most faithfully recorded; even be remembered, that on July 18th, 1860, to the very bursting of a shell upon its there was an eclipse of the sun visible contact with “mother earth," is plainly in England and other portions of the globe, visible upon the photographs taken by and previous to this occasion Mr. Warren Mr. Skaife, with his miniature apparatus De la Rue and a few scientific gentlemen he so aptly terms a "pistolgraph." took their departure on a photgraphic

Taking, now, photography in an edu- expedition for Spain, fully equipped with cational sense, the artist cannot fail to photographic paraphernalia and the Kew glean from his preconceived enemy many photoheliograph, to secure photographs useful lessons and bints, and still further of the solar eclipse in all its various penetrate some of the mysteries of light phases. Their observations were made and shadow. In photographic copies of at Rivabellosa, a village near Miranda del nature, a tree, no matter whether an oak, Elro, and the station selected was at an å sycamore, an elm, or a fir, or some elevation of 1572 feet above the mean special member of our vegetable kindgom, level of the sea, being bounded by a can be at once recognised by its correctly beautiful panorama formed by the disformed leaves, each leaf lying in a dif- tant Pyrenean mountain range. Mr. ferent position, relative to the incident Warren De la Rue says

but can we say this much in praise “Just before and after the eclipse sunof many examples produced by some of pictures were made, and during the proour leading artists? In fact, no artist dare gress of the eclipse thirty-one photopretend to cope with Dame Nature in her graphs were obtained, the

times of which artistic moods.

are carefully registered. These will serve The architect is enabled to preserve hereafter to determine the path of the views of existing edifices, remarkable alike moon across the sun's disc and other data for grandeur of conception, or for com- with considerable accuracy. prehensiveness of design, combined with “The serrated edges of the moon is perthe greatest fidelity and most artistic fectly depicted in all the photographs, effect. He can arrest for a time the pro- and in some of them one cusp of the sun gress of decay in many of the now crum- may be seen blunted by the projections bling memorials of the genius of a past of a lunar mountain, while the other age; can obtain examples of the most remains perfectly sharp. I continued ancient floriated doorway, of each figured during the eclipse to observe the sun by corbel or grotesque gorgoyle, previous to means of a telescope of three inches the destructive hand of time defacing aperture, by Dallmeyer, and I am enabled the beauty of the original. Take as an to confirm the results obtained photoillustration the beautiful series of photographically: As I observed the progress graphs by Frith, Bedford, and others, of of the eclipse, I gave the signal from the Egyptian temples, tombs, and chiselled time to time for the taking of a photo obelisks, with their myriads of hierogly- graph, so that some have been procured phic characters, and arrow-headed in just as the moon passed across my conscriptions, and also the beauties of spicuous solar spot. Greece and Rome.

“ When the sun was reduced to a small The astronomer has long since become crescent, the shadows of all objects were greatly indebted to the art, for by its aid depicted with wonderful sharpness and the moon has been compelled to lend her blackness, and as I cast my eyes on the illuminative powers in order that the now silent crowd, they and the landscape public may possess faithful portraits of appeared as if illuminated by the electric herself at various ages ; and upon her light, so brilliant were the lights, so black surface are clearly depicted those moun-I and sharp were the shadows.

“When the disc of the sun had quickly other military and naval operadiminished to a small crescent, prepara- tions. For strategical purposes in time of tions were made for the totality. As I war, aërial photography will be called into could collect no reliable data as to the requisition from cars of balloons, which intensity of the light of the luminous will enable us to reconnoitre the enemy's prominences and corona previous to the plans and fortifications out of range of expedition, I was working under great gun-shot. Several attempts have been disadvantages, and I confess from all that made to test the practical value of photoI could learn previously I had very faint graphy in conjunction with aërostation, and hopes of depicting the corona at all; and with partial success, by Mr. H. Negretti, I was led to think from the colour of the in Mr. Coxwell's balloon--ably piloted prominences, that if I did get a picture of by that gentleman-who has established the corona, my only hope was to get the the fact that photography is almost as prominences as dark markings, on the feasible an idea at an elevation as it is on supposed more brilliant corona. Although terra firma. my own observations during the totality Machinery, no matter of what magni. gave me greater hopes of success, it was tude, is constantly copied by photography, with a thrill of pleasure that, in answer which, in the impulse of a single moment, to my questions, I learnt from Mr. renders the most complicated and elaboReynolds [his assistant) that the picture rate system of cranks, wheels, piston-rods, was coming out under the influence of eccentric motions, &c., easily and correctly the developing fluid.”

copied, whilst to make even an inferior A very successful impression of Donati's drawing would occupy the most skilful comet of 1859 was secured by Mr. Usher.draughtsman days or even weeks. It is wood, an artist residing on Walton-com- most gonerally useful in furnishing copies mnun, whose residence is situated about of portions or parts of machinery as 700 feet above the sea-level. This is the patterns, which are easily transmitted valy instance recorded of a photograpb by post, thereby economising time and of that comet being obtained.

expense. Photographs of Saturn, the double star The engraver readily seeks the aid of Mizar, and its companion a Lyre, and the camera to reduce or enlarge drawings, other luminus globes, have been faithfully that he may with greater facility and registered. To Mr. Warren De la Rue correctness transfer the same to steel, great praise is due for the assiduity and copper, or wood; but photography propreseverance with which he has laboured mises to become a most formidable rival for the science of astronomy.

to the steel and copper engraver, inasThe botanist cannot fail obtaining much as there are already several promuch valuable information by the use of cesses, which, in almost one operation, the camera, being enabled to produce copies or views from nature are photocopies of every form of vegetable life in graphed and engraved by the joint agency all its minuteness of perfection, from the of light and chemistry, without even the coarse ligneous structure of the stalwart remotest touch of the burin or graver ; tree, to the almost imperceptible fibre of still photography is held in tow to a the tiniest mogs and fungi.

certain extent, owing to its inability in The calico printers multiply their pat creating ideas, consequently rendering our terns and designs, and there is a great art in that capacity little more than a probability of the art-itself being made mere copyist. available for various purposes of orna. The ethnologist will also become more mentation.

familiarly acquainted with the physiogThe engineer, either military, civil, or nomy of the various races of mankind by practical, has long since availed himself the assistance of photographic portraiof the utility of the camera by securing ture. drawings of land and coast fortifications The geologist can obtain accurate de at home and abroad; recording the effects lineations of fossil formations, of stone of fire upon breaches, and chronicling lor minerals, landslips, volcanic craters,

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