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the pressure employed. A few grafns, struck Powder NAQAZINE, a bomb-proof arched with a hammer on an anvil, explode with a noise building, to contain powder in fortified places. like that of a musket, and torrents of purple POWEL (David), D. D., a Welsh divine light appear round it. Thrown into concentrated and antiquary, born in Denbighshire, about sulphuric acid, it takes fire and burns with a 1552, and educated at Oxford, where he graduwhite flame, but without noise.

ated. He became vicar of Ruabon, in DenbighSix parts of the chlorate, one of sulphur, and shire. He published Caradoc's History of one of charcoal, detonate by the same means, but Wales, with annotations, in 1584; and several more strongly, and with a redder flame.

other works. He died at Ruabon in 1590. Sugar, gum, or charcoal, mixed with the chlo- POWELL (Sir John), a judge of the common rate, and fixed or volatile oils, alcohol, or ether, pleas and king's bench, was born at Gloucester, made into a paste with it, detonate very strongly which city he represented in parliament in 1685. by the stroke, but not by trituration. Some of In 1687 he was made one of the justices of them take fire, but slowly, and by degrees, in the common pleas, from which he was removed to sulphuric acid.

the king's bench the following year, when he disAll those mixtures that detonate by the stroke, tinguished himself on the trial of the seven bishops, explode much more loudly if previously wrapped and was in consequence deprived of office; but up in double paper.

he was restored to it at the revolution. He was a Fulminations of the most violent kind require sound lawyer, and a man of humor. An old the agency of azote or nitrogen; as we see not woman being tried before him on the charge of only in its compounds with the oxides of gold, witchcraft, among other things it was stated that silver, and platina; but still more remarkably in she could fly. Prisoner,' said the judge,' is it its chloride and iodide.

true that you can fly?' 'Yes, my lord.' "Well, A fulminating antimonic powder has been then, you may; for there is no law against ilyprepared by M. Serullas in the following man- ing;'and he directed the jury to acquit her. He ner :-Grind carefully together 100 parts of tartar died a judge in 1713. ernetic and three parts of lamp-black, or ordi- POW’ER, n. s. Fr. pouvoir ; Span. tary charcoal powder. Crucibles capable of Power’ABLE, adj.

poder. Command ; do holding about three ounces of water, to be only Power'FUL,

minion; authority ; inthree-fourths filled, are to be ground smooth on Power'FULLY, adv. fluence arising from their edges, and rubbed inside with powdered Power'FULNESS, n. s. greatness ; ability ; cbarcoal, so as to dust lightly their surface, and Power'less, adj. strength ; motive ; prevent the subsequent adherence of the carbo- force : hence motion of the mind; faculty; one naceous cone which remains after the calcination. invested with power; host; army; divinity: The above mixture, being introduced into the powerable is an obsolete adjective for capable crucible, is to be covered with a layer of pow- of performing : powerful, forcible; mighty; indered charcoal ; and the joinings of the cover Auential : the adverb and noun-substantive must be luted. After exposure for three hours corresponding: powerless, weak; impotent. to a good heat in a reverberatory furnace, the

After the tribulation of those days shall the sun crucible must be removed, and left to cool for be darkened, and the powers of the heavens shall be six or seven hours. This interval of time is ne- shaken.

Matthew. cessary to allow the air, which always penetrates Care, not fear; or fear not for themselves, altered a litle way into the crucibles, to burn the exte- something the countenances of the two lovers : but rior coat of the fulminating mass ; otherwise, if so as any man might perceive, was rather an assemit be taken out too recently, there is always an bling of powers than a dismayedness of courage. explosion. We must then hastily enclose it,

Sidney. without breaking, into a glass with a wide opening.

He, to work him the more mischief, sent over his After some time, it spontaneously breaks down brother Edward with a power of Scots and Redshanks into fragments of different sizes, retaining all its into Ireland, where they got footing.

Spenser's State of Ireland. properties for years. When the calcination has

That which moveth God to work is goodness, been conducted as above, the product is exces- and that which ordereth his work is wisdom, and sively fulminating, so that, without the least that which perfecteth his work is power.

Hooker. compression, it gives rise to a violent detonation

Gazellus, upon the coming of the bassa, valiantly on contact with water. 100 parts of antimony, issued forth with all his power and gave him battle. seventy-five of carbureted cream of tartar, and

Knolles. twelve of lamp black, triturated together, form If law, authority, and power deny not, also an excellent mixture. A piece of the size of It will go hard with poor Anthonio. a pea of this fulminating compound introduced


If ever into a mass of gunpowder explodes it when thrown into water. It is to the presence of po- Then you shall know the wounds invisible,

You meet in some fresh cheek the power of fancy,

Id. Sixty parts of carbureted cream of tartar, 120 That

love's keen arrows make.

I was in the thought, they were not fairies, and of bismuth, and one of nitre, treated as above, yet the guiltiness of my mind, the sudden surprise yield an alloy very rich in potassium, of which of my powers, drove the grossness of the foppery into the smallest portion cut with scissars sparkles. a received belief.

Id. When bruised it melts and Chim.

Merciful powers! Oct. 1822.

Restrain in me the cursed thoughts, that nature POWDER, JAMES's. See James's Powder. Gives way to in repose.

Id. Macbeth.

Who leads his power ?

'Tis not in the power of want or slavery to make Under whose government come they along ? them miserable.

Addison. Shakspeare. Henry II., endeavouring to establish his grandMy heart, dear Harry,

father's laws, met with powerful opposition from Threw many a northward look to see his father archbishop Becket.

Ayliffe. Bring up his powers, but he did long in vain. Id. The grain-gold upon all the golden coast of Gui

I give you welcome with a powerless hand, nea, is displayed by the rains falling there with in-
But with a heart full of unstained love. Id. credible force, powerfully beating off the earth.
This man had power with him, to draw him forth

Wooduard. to his death.

Bacon's Essays. Though it be not in our power to make affliction He died of great years, but of strong health and no affliction ; yet it is in our power to take off the powers.

Bacon. edge of it, by a steady view of those divine joys preThat you may see how powerful time is in altering pared for us in another state.

Atterbury. tongues, I will set down the Lord's prayer, as it was Maintain the empire of the mind over the body, translated in sundry ages.

Camden. and keep the appetites of the one in due subjection Cast down thyself, and only strive to raise to the reasoning powers of the other.

Id. The glory of thy Maker's sacred name;

Power is no blessing in itself, but when it is emUse all thy pow'rs, that blessed power to praise, ployed to protect the innocent.

Swift. Which gives thee pow'r to be and use the same. T'he design of this science is to rescue our reason

Davies. ing powers from their unhappy slavery and darkness. So much he stands upon the powerfulness of the

Watts. Christian religion, that he makes it beyond all the POWNALL (Thomas), F.R.S. and F.S.A., rules of moral philosophy, strongly effectual to ex

an ingenious writer, was born at Lincoln in 1722, pel vice, and plant in men all kind of virtue.

and became secretary to the commissioners for Hakeuill on Providence. What beast, what worm, wherein we may not see

trade and plantations in 1745. In 1753 he went the footsteps of Deity? Wherein we may not read

to America, where he prevented the formation of infiniteness of power and skill ? Bp. Hall. a congress in the seven years' war. For this he

By understanding the true difference betwixt the was made governor of Massachusetts, whence he weight and the power, a man may add such a fitting removed to New Jersey, and next to South Casupplement to the strength of the power, that it shall rolina, where he continued till 1761, when he move any conceivable weight, though it should never was recalled, and made director-general of the so much exceed that force which the power is natu- office of control with the rank of colonel. He rally endowed with.

Wilkins. died at Bath in 1805. His works are: 1. On My labour

the Administration of the Colonies. 2. DescripHonest and lawful, to deserve my food Of those who have me in their civil power. Villon.

tion of part of North America, folio. 3. Treatise We have sustained one day in doubtful fight,

on the Study of Antiquities, 8vo. 4. Memorials What heaven's Lord hath powerfullest to send

addressed to the Sovereigns of Europe and the Against us from about his throne.


Atlantic. 5. On the Antiquities of the ProvinThe sun and other powerfully lucid bodies dazzle cia Romana of Gaul, 4to. 6. Descriptions of our eyes.

Boyle. Roman Antiquities dug up at Bath, 4to. 7. InBefore the revelation of the gospel, the wickedness tellectual Physics, 4to. and impenitency of the heathen world was a much POX, n. s.

Sax. poccas. See Pock. Pro more excusable thing, because they had but very ob- perly pocks, which originally signified small scure apprehensions of those things which urge men bags or pustules; pustules ; efforescences. It most powerfully to forsake their sins. Tillotson. is used of many eruptive distempers.

Dejected ! no, it never shall be said, Tbat fate had power upon a Spartan soul;

0! if to dance all night and dress all day

Charm'd the small pox, or chac'd old age away. My mind on its own centre stands unmov'd

Milton. And stable as the fabric of the world.

Wilt thou still sparkle in the box,

Dorset. With indignation thus he broke

Canst thou forget thy age and por ? His awful silence, and the powers bespoke. Id.

Though brought to their ends by some other apIt is not in the power of the most enlarged under. parent disease, yet the pox had been judged the


Wiseman. standing to invent one new simple idea in the mind, not taken in by the ways aforementioned. Locke. Pox, Small. See MEDICINE, Index. Observing in ourselves that we can at pleasure POZE, v. a.

To puzzle. See Pose. move several parts of our bodies, which were at rest ; the effects also that natural bodies are able to And say you so ? then I shall poze you quickly. produce in one another occurring every moment to

Shakspeare. our senses, we both these ways get the idea of power.

Of human infirmities I shall give instances, not

that I design to poze them with those common enigBy assuming a privilege belonging to riper years,

mas of magnetism, fluxes and refuxes. Glanville. to which a child must not aspire, you do but add PRACHIN, one of the sixteen circles of Bonew force to your example, and recommend the ac- hemia, occupies the south-west corner of the tion more powerfully.

If there's a power above us,

kingdom. Its area is 1820 square miles; and

on the borders of Bavaria it has a number of And that there is all nature cries aloud Through all her works, he must delight in virtue.

lofty mountains, covered with forests; the inteAddison.

rior is more level and fertile. The Moldau has "Tis surprising to consider with what heats these is source here, but the Wottawa is the larger two powers have contested their title to the kingdom stream. In the mountains are found precious of Cyprus, that is in the hands of the Turk. stones, and in the sands of the Wottawa some

Id. on Italy. gold dust and pearls. The Bohemian is the





prevailing language. Population 210,000. The use of physicians, unless in some acute disease, was chief town is Piseck.

a venture, and that their greatest practisers practised PRACTICE, n. s. า Fr. pratique ; Lat. least upon themselves.

Temple. PRACTICABLE, adj. practica; Gr. apak

An heroick poem should be more like a glass of PRACTICABLY, adv. Tun. Habit; cus

nature, figuring a more practicable virtue to us, than PEACTICABLENESS, 11. .

was done by the ancients. tom; use; method;

Dryden, PRACTICAL, adj.

Obsolete words may be laudably revived, when dexterity ; perform- they are more sounding, or more significant than Prac'TICALLY, adv. ance: practicable is those in practice.

Id. Prac'TICA LNESS, n. s. performable; feasi

This falls out for want of examining what is pracPractic, adj.

ble; assailable: the ticable and what not, and for want again of measurPRACʻTISE, v. a. & v. n. adverb and noun- ing our force and capacity with our design. Prac'TISANT, N. S. substantive corres

L'Estrange. PRACTISER,

ponding: practical Of such a practice when Ulysses told, Peac'TITIONER. and practick (the

Shall we, cries one, permit latter obsolete), relating to action ; not merely

This lewd romancer and his bantering wit?

Tate. speculative: the adverb and noun-substantive

There are two functions of the soul, contemplation that follow corresponding : to practise, to do habitually or constantly: as a verb neuter, to form and practice, according to that general division of oba habit of acting; transact; use; a profession; others also employ our actions ; so the understanding,

jects, some of which only entertain our speculations, ose bad or deceitful arts : practiser and practitio- with relation to these, is divided into speculative and ner, he who practises.


South. Incline not my heart to practise wicked works with He must be first an exercised, thorough-paced men that work iniquity.

Psalm cxli. 4. practitioner of these vices himself. Will truth return unto them that practise in her ? We will, in the principles of the politician, shew

Ecclus. how little efficacy they have to advance the practiser He sought to have that by practice which he of them to the things they aspire to.

Id. could not by prayer; and, being allowed to visit us, Few practical errors in the world are embraced he used the opportunity of a fit time thus to deliver upon the stock of conviction, but inclination.


Whilst they contend for speculative truth, they, Thereto his subtile engines he doth bend, by mutual calumnies, forfeit the practick. His practick wit, and his fair filed tongue,

Government of the Tongue. With thousand other sleights.


I've practised with him, There are some papistical practitioners among you.

And found a means to let the victor know,

Whitgifte. That Syphax and Sempronius are his friends. This disease is beyond my practice ; yet I have

Addison, known those which have walked in their sleep, who The meanest capacity, when he sees a rule practihave died holily in their beds. Shakspeare. cally applied before his eyes, can no longer be at a Shall we thus permit loss how it is to be performed.

Rogers. A blasting and a scandalous breath to fall

Tooth-drawers are practical philosophers, that go On him so near us? This needs must be practice; upon a very rational hypothesis, not to cure, but to Who knew of your intent and coming hither ? take away the part affected.

Steele. Id. After one or more ulcers formed in the lungs, I When he speaks,

never, as I remember, in the course of above forty The air, a chartered libertine, is still ;

years' practice, saw more than two recover. And the mute wonder lurketh in men's ears,

Blackmore. To steal his sweet and honied sentences ;

This is a practicable degree of christian magnaniSo that the act and practick part of life


Atterbury. Must be the mistress to this theorick.

Id. The author exhorts all gentlemen practitioners to If thou do'st him any slight disgrace, he will prac- exercise themselves in the translatory. Arbuthnot tise against thee by poison. Id. As You Like It.

Others by guilty artifice and arts Here entered Pucelle and her practisants.

Of promised kindness practice on our hearts;

Shakspeare. With expectation blow the passion up, Sweet practiser, thy physick I will try, She fans the fire without one gale of hope. That ministers thine own death if I die. Id.

Granville. Wise states prevent purposes

Unreasonable it is to expect, that those who lived Before they come to practice, and foul practices before the rise and condemnation of heresies, should Before they grow to act.

Denham's Sophy. come up to every accurate form of expression which True piety without cessation tost

long experience afterwards found necessary, to guard By theories the practick part is lost.

Denham. the faith, against the subtle practices, or provoking Ai practised distances to cringe, not fight.

insults of its adversaries.

Waterlund. Milton. Some physicians have thought, that if it were pracThey shall practise how to live secure. Id. ticable to keep the humours of the body in an exact Oft have we wondered

balance of each with its opposite, it might be immorHow such a ruling spirit you could restrain, tal ; but this is impossible in the practice. Swift. And practise first over yourself to reign. Waller. I do not know a more universal and unnecessary

Religion comprehends the knowledge of its prin- mistake among the clergy, but especially the younger ciples, and a suitable life and practice; the first, be- practitioners.

Id. ing speculative, may be called knowledge ; and the

Practice, in military education, or gunlatter, because it is practicable, wisdom. Tillotson.

I never thought I should try a new experiment, practice. In the spring, as soon as the weather being little inclined to practise upon others, and as permits, the exercise of the great guns begins, little that others should practise upon me.

with an intention to show the gentlemen cadets,

Temple's Miscellanies. at the royal military academy at Woolwich, and I had reasoned myself into an opinion that the private men, the manner of laying, loading. pointing, and firing the guns. Sometimes in- Rome, under pretence of her supremacy and the struments are used to find the centre line, or two dignity of St. Peter's chair, took on her to bepoints, one at the breach, the other at the muz- stow most of the ecclesiastical livings of any zle, which are marked with chalk, and whereby worth in England, by mandates, before they were the piece is directed to the target: then a quad- void. These provisions were so common that rant is put into the mouth to give the gun the at last Edward I., in the thirty-fifth year of his required elevation, which at first is guessed at, reign, made a statute against papal provisions, according to the distance the target is from the which, Coke says, is the foundation of all the piece. When the piece has been fired, it is subsequent statutes of præmunire.

In the reign sponged to clear it from any dust or sparks of of Edward II. the pope again endeavoured to fire that might remain in the bore, and loaded ; encroach, but the parliament withstood him; and then the centre line is found as before; and if it was one of the articles charged against that unthe shot went too high or too low, to the right or fortunate prince that he had given allowance to to the left, the elevation and trail are altered ac- the pope's bulls. But Edward III. to remedy cordingly. This practice continues morning and these grievances, in conjunction with his nobievening for about six weeks, more or less, ac- lity, wrote an expostulatory letter to the pope; cording as there are a greater or less number of but receiving a menacing answer, acquainting recruits. In the mean time others are shown him that the emperor and the king of France the motions of quick-firing with field-pieces. had lately submitted to the holy see, Edward Mortar-practice is generally acquired thus : a replied, that if both the emperor and the French line of 1500 or 2000 yards is measured in an king should undertake the pope's cause, he was open spot of ground from the place where the ready to give battle to them both, in defence of mortars stand, and a flag fixed at about 300 or the liberties of the crown. Hereupon more 500 yards : this being done, the ground where sharp and penal laws were devised against prothe mortars are to be placed is prepared and le- visors, which enact, that ihe court of Rome shall velled with sand, so that they may lie at an ele- present or collate to no bishopric or living in vation of forty-five degrees; then they are loaded England; and that whoever disturbs any patron with a small quantity of powder at first, which in the presentation to a living by virtue of a pais increased afterwards by an ounce every time, pal provision, such provisor shall pay fine and till they are loaded with a full charge ; the times ransom to the king, and be imprisoned till he of the flights of the shells are observed to deter- renounces such provision; and the same punishmine the length of the fuzes. The intention of ment is inflicted on such as cite the king, or any this practice is when a mortar battery is raised of his subjects, to answer in the court of Rome. in a siege, to know what quantity of powder is And, when pope Urban V. attempted to revive required to throw the shells into the works at a the vassalage and annual rent to which king given distance, and to cut the fuzes of a just John had subjected his kingdom, it was unanilength, that the shell may burst as soon as it mously agreed by all the estates, 40 Edw. III., touches the ground.

that king John's donation was null and void, PRADON (Nicholas), a French dramatic being without the concurrence of parliament, poet, born at Rouen in the seventeenth century. and contrary to his coronation oath; and all the He affected to be the rival of Racine; and, nobility and commons engaged that, if the pope through the support of a party, his tragedy of should endeavour to maintain these usurpations, Phædra and Hippolytus appeared for some time they would resist him with all their power. In to balance the reputation of Racine's tragedy of the reign of Richard II. it was found necessary the same title. He died at Paris in 1698. to strengthen these laws; and therefore it was

PRÆCOGʻNITA, n. S. Latin præcognita. enacted by statutes 3 Ric. II. c. 3, and 7 c. 12, Things previously known in order to understand that no alien shall be capable of letting his benesomething else.

fice to farm; or of being presented to any eccleEither all knowledge does not depend on certain siastical preferment, under the penalty of the præcognita or general maxims, called principles, or statutes of provisors. By stat. 12 Ric. II. c. 15, all else these are principles.


liegemen of the king accepting of a living by any PREMUNIRE, in law, is taken either for a foreign provision are put out of the king's prowrit so called, or for the offence whereon the tection, and the benefice made void. To which writ is granted; the one may be understood by the statute 13 Ric. II. st. 2, c. 2, adds banishthe other. It is named, from the first words of ment, and forfeiture of lands and goods : and, by the writ, ' Præmupire facias, A. B.-Cause A. B. c. 3, any person bringing over any citation or to be forewarned—that he appear before us to excommunication from beyond sea, on account answer the contempt wherewith he stands of the execution of the foregoing statutes of procharged;' which contempt is particularly recited visors, shall be imprisoned, forfeit his goods and in the preamble to the writ. It derived its ori- lands, and suffer pain of life and member. The gin from the exorbitant power claimed and ex- next statute, which is referred to by all subsequent ercised in England by the pope; and was ori- statutes, is called the statute of præmunire. It ginally ranked as an offence immediately against is the statute 16 Ric. II. c. 5, which enacts that the king ; because it consisted in introducing a whoever procures, at Rome or elsewhere, any foreign power into this land, and creating impe- translations, processes, excommunications, bulls, rium in imperio, by paying that obedience to instruments, or other things which touch the papal process which constitutionally belonged king, against him, his crown and realm, and all to the king alone, long before the Reformation persons aiding and assisting therein, shall be put in the reign of Henry VIII. The church of out of the king's protection, and their lands and goods forfeited to the king's use, and they shall præmunire, and incapable of the king's pardon, be attached by their bodies to answer to the king to send any subject of this realm a prisoner into and his council; or process of præmunire facias parts beyond the seas. 8. By stat. 1 W. & shall be made out against them, as in other cases M. stat. 1, c. 8, persons of eighteen years of of provisors. By stat. 2 Henry IV. c. 3, all age, refusing to take the oaths of allegiance and persons who accept any provision from the pope, supremacy, upon tender by a magistrate, are to be exempt from canonical obedience to their subject to the penalties of a præmunire; and by proper ordinary, are also subjected to the penal- stat. 8 and 9 W. III. c. 24, serjeants, counsellors, ties of pramunire. In the reign of Henry VIII. proctors, attorneys, and all officers of courts, the penalties of præmunire were extended to practising without having taken these oaths, and more equal abuses; as the kingdom then entirely subscribed the declaration against popery, are denounced the authority of the see of Rome. guilty of a præmunire, whether the oaths be tenAnd therefore, by the several statutes of 24 Hen. dered or not. 2. By stat. 6 Ann. c. 7, to assert VIII. c. 12, and 25 Hen. VIII. c. 19 and 21, to maliciously and directly, by preaching, teaching, appeal to Rome from any of the king's courts, or advised speaking, that the then pretended to sue to Rome for any license or dispensation, prince of Wales, or any person other than acor to obey any process from thence, are made cording to the acts of settlement and union, has liable to the pains of præmunire. To restore to any right to the throne of these kingdoms, or that the king the nomination of vacant bishoprics, the king and parliament cannot make laws to and yet keep up the established forms, it is en- limit the descent of the crown; such preaching acted by stat. 25 Henry VIII. c. 20, that if the teaching, or advised speaking, is a præmunire: dean and chapter refuse to elect the person as writing, printing, or publishing the same docnamed by the king, or any archbishop or bishop trines, amounted to high treason. 10. By stat. to confirm or consecrate him, they shall fall within 6 Ann. c. 23, if the assembly of peers of Scotthe penalties of the statutes of præmunire. By land, convened to elect their ten representatives stat. 5 Eliz. c. 1, to refuse the oath of supremacy in the British parliament, shall presume to treat will incur the penalties of præmunire; and to of any other matter save only the election, they defend the pope's jurisdiction in this realm is incur the penalties of a præmunire. 11. The a præmunire for the first offence, and high trea- stat. 6 Geo. I. c. 18 (enacted after the infamous son for the second. By stat. 13 Eliz. C. 2, to South Sea project), makes all unwarrantable unimport any agni Dei, crosses, beads, or other dertakings by unlawful subscriptions, then comsuperstitious things pretended to be hallowed by monly known by the name of bubbles, subject to the bishop of Rome, and tender the same to be the penalties of præmunire. 12. The stat. 12 Geo. used; or to receive the same with such intent, III. c. 11, subjects to the penalties of præmuand not discover the offender; or if a justice of nire all such as knowingly and wilfully solemthe peace, knowing thereof, shall not within four- nise, assist, or are present at, any. forbidden teen days declare it to a privy counsellor, they marriage of such of the descendants of the body all incur a præmunire. But importing or selling of king George II. as are by that act prohibited mass books, or other popish books, is by stat. to contract matrimony without the consent of the 3 Jac. I. c. 5, sec. 25, only liable to a penalty of crown. The punishment of præmunire may be 405. Lastly, to contribute to the maintenance gathered from the foregoing statutes, which are of a Jesuit's college, or any popish seminary thus summed up by Coke: That, from the conbeyond sea, or any person in the same, or to con- viction, the defendant shall be out of the king's tribute to the maintenance of any Jesuit or protection, and his lands and tenements, goods Popish priest in England, is by stat. 27 Eliz. and chattels, forfeited to the king ; his body shall c. 2, made liable to the penalties of præmunire. remain in prison at the king's

. pleasure or during Thus far the penalties of præmunire kept within life. These forfeitures do not bring this offence the bounds of their original institution, depressing within felony; being inflicted by particular the power of the pope ; but they have since statutes, and not by the common law. But so been extended to other heinous offences. Thus odious, Sir Edward Coke adds, was this offence 1. By the stat. 1 and 2 Ph. & M. c. 8, to mo- of præmunire, that a man that was attainted of lest the possessors of abbey lands granted by it might have been slain by any other man withparliament to Henry VIII. and Edward VI. is a out danger of law; but this was soon held unpræmunire. 2. So likewise is the offence of act- tenable, and explained that it is only lawful to ing as a broker or agent in any usurious contract, kill him in the heat of battle, or for necessary where above ten per cent. interest is taken, by self-defence. And, to obviate such savage notions, stat. 13 Eliz. c. 10. 3. To obtain any stay of the stat. 5 Eliz. C. 1, expressly provides that it proceedings, other than by arrest of judgment or shall not be lawful to kill any person attainted writ of error, in any suit for a monopoly, is like- in a præmunire. But still such delinquent, wise a præmunire, by stat. 21 Jac. I. c. 3. 4. To though protected as a part of the public from obtain an exclusive patent for the sole making or public wrongs, can bring no action for any priimportation of gun-powder or arms, or to hinder vate injury, how atrocious soever; being so far others from importing them, is also a præmunire, out of the protection of the law that it will not by statutes 16 Car. I. c. 21, and 1 Jac. II. c. 8. guard his civil rights, nor remedy any grievance 3. To assert, maliciously and advisedly, by which he as an individual may suffer. And no speaking or writing, that parliament has a legis- man, knowing him to be guilty, can with safety lative authority without the king, is declared a give him comfort, aid, or relief. præmunire by stat. 13 Car. II. c. 1. 7. By the PRÆNESTE, in ancient geography, a town of habeas corpus act, also, 31 Car. II. c. 2, it is a Latium, south-east of Rome, towards the terri

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