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tepenultimate, and on the consonant f of that ively considered, shall we wonder that the syllable; and, therefore, it more rapidly inclines learned and ingenious author of the Elements of to an increased brevity.

Criticism should go so far as to assert that the Another difficulty to which we are liable in dactyls and spondees of hexameter verse, with our apprehension of the nature of ancient quan- respect to pronunciation, are merely ideal, not tity arises from that which is said to be long by only with us, but that they were so with the position. From this some have deduced an ancients themselves ? Few, however, will adopt objection against the attempt to conform the an opinion which will necessarily imply that the present pronunciation to quantity ; observing Greek and Latin critics were utterly ignorant of that, if we would be consistent and unexcep- the nature of their own language; and every tionable in our adherence to prosodial metre, we admirer of those excellent writers will rather have to recollect that the same word is often both embrace any explanation of accent and quantity, long and short; as něc, when single, or not fol- than give up Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Cicero, lowed by a consonant; which by posiiton we Quinctilian, and Longinus. Suppose then, as a find long, as Fulgura nēc diri toties arsere last refuge, we were to try to read a Greek or cometæ. Then, if we invariably echo the quan- Latin verse, both by accent and quantity, and tity, we must, pro re natâ, say něc, and nēc diri, see what such a trial will produce.

e. neek, and neck diri. And the improbability By quantity, let us suppose the vowel that the ancients were so ready on every occasion lengthened to express the long quantity; and by to pronounce the same word both long and the acute accent the rising inflexion; thus :short would incline us to infer that we have no idea of what they meant by quantity.'

Títyre, tú pátulæ récubans súb tégmine fági, This has given rise to the remarks in Mr. Sylvestrem ténui músam meditáris avena. Walker's Treatise on Classical Pronunciation, Tityrë, tū pătălæ rècũbāns sūb tēgmìně fāgi, which, if they are not in every instance the most Sylvēstrēm těnŭi mūsām mědītāris ävēnā. decisive, are at least the most ingenious that we Teétyre toó pátulee récubanes soób teégmine fági, have seen on the question.

Seélveestreem ténui moósame meditáris avena. • The long quantity,' says he, of the ancients, Μήνιν άειδε θεά, Πηληϊάδεω Αχιλήoς must arise either from a prolongation of the Ουλομένην, ή μυρί Αχαιοίς άλγε έθηκη. sound of the vowel, or from the delay of the

Μηνίν άειδε θέα, Πήληλαδεώ Αχίλης voice, which the pronunciation of two or more

Ουλομένην, ή μυρί Αχάιοις άλγε έθήκη. consonants in succession are supposed naturally to require. Now vowels were said to be either Mein-en á-eye-de The-ày, Pei-lei-e-á-dyo A-kil-leilong by nature, or long by position. Those vowels which were long by position were such Ow-lom-én-ein, heà moo-ré a-kay-oes al-ge éth-ei

kei. as were succeeded by two or more consonants ; as the first o in sponsor. If the long quantity Now there are but four possible ways of of the ancients was the same distinction of the pronouncing these verses, without going into a sound of the vowel as we make in the words perfect song. One is, to pronounce the accented cadence and magic, then the a in māter and syllable with the falling inflexion, and the unacpăter must have been pronounced like our a in cented with the same inflexion in a lower tone; paper and matter; and those vowels which were which is the manner in which we pronounce our long by position, as the a in Bācchus and cām- own words, when we give them the accent with pus, must have been sounded by the ancients as the falling inflexion. The second is to prowe hear them in the words bake and came. nounce the accented syllable with the rising But if the long quantity of the ancients was no inflexion, and the unaccented syllables with the more than a retardation of the voice on the con- same inflexion in a lower tone; which we never sonants, or that duration of sound which an hear in our own language. The third is to assemblage of consonants is supposed naturally pronounce the accented syllable with the falling to produce, without making any alteration in the inflexion, and the unaccented syllables with the sound of the vowel, of such long quantity as rising, in a lower tone. And the fourth to prothis an English ear has not the least idea. nounce the accented syllable with the rising inUnless the sound of the vowel be altered, we flexion, and the unaccented with the falling, in a have not any conception of a long or short lower tone. None of these modes, but the syllable; and the first syllables of banish, ban- first and last, do we ever hear in our own lanner, and banter, have, to our ears, exactly the guage; the second and third seem too difficult same quantity. The same may be observed of to permit us to suppose that they could be the senate, seminary, sentence, and sentiment;' and natural current of the human voice in any lanif, as an ingenious enquirer into this subject has guage. The first leaves us no possible means of asserted, the ancients pronounce both the con- explaining the circumflex; but the last, by doing sonants in callidus, fallo, &c., this seems to this, gives us the strongest reason to suppose shorten, rather than lengthen, the vowel of the that the Greek and Latin acute accent was the first syllable. “If, however, the quantity of the rising inflexion, and the grave the falling inancients lay only in the vowel, which was length- flexion in a lower tone.' ened and shortened in our manner by altering Concerning the question whether the ancient the sound, how strange must have been their poetry should be read chiefly according to accent poetical language, and how different from the or quantity, which has lately been much agitated, words taken singly! And, wh these observa- may we not then infer, that since the precise tions on the quantity of the ancients are collect- nature of accent does not seem to be determined,

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and therefore if, in reading, either must give way fore you venture to expose your parts in a city conto the other (for which, however, there is no gregation.

Swift. absolute necessity), it is certainly better that QUARANTINE may be ordered by the king, what is in some degree uncertain should yield with advice of the privy council, at such times, to that which is more accurately ascertained. and under such regulations, as he judges proper. By reading according to quantity is not, how- Ships ordered on quarantine must repair to the ever, meant the breaking down, splitting, or place appointed, and must continue there during destroying the words by attending to the feet 'the time prescribed, generally six weeks ; and only; but pronouncing the words of a verse so must have no intercourse with the shore, except as to give, as much as possible, its due quantity, for necessary provisions, which are conveyed with in real time, to every syllable. And as much as every possible precaution. When the time is to this mode of reading, we can add an attention expired, and the goods opened and exposed to to accent, emphasis, tone, pause, and cadence, the air as directed, if there be no appearance of inwhether metrical or sentential, insomuch, doubt- fection they are admitted to port. Persons giving less, will the pronunciation be the more correct false information to avoid performing quarantine, and harmonious.

or refusing to go to the place appointed, or escapThe nature of quantity as observed in the ing, also officers appointed to see quarantine English language is at once so simple, unique, performed deserting their office, neglecting their and, in general, so well known, that any enlarge- duty, or giving a false certificate, suffer death as ment on this part of the subject is unnecessary. felons. Goods from Turkey, or the Levant, may It is sufficient to observe that a vowel or sylla- not be landed without a licence from the king, ble is, in the English language, long, and re- or certificate that they have been landed and quires double the time of a short one, when the aired at some foreign port. See SANITARY accent is on the vowel; which occasions it to be Laws. slowly joined in pronunciation with the follow- QUARLES (Francis), the son of James ing letters; as fāll, bāle, hõūse, fēāture. And Quarles, clerk to the board of green cloth, and that a syllable is short, and only of half the purveyor to queen Elizabeth, was born in 1592. length of a long one, when the accent is on the He was educated at Cambridge ; became a memconsonant; which occasions the vowel to be ber of Lincoln's Inn; and was for some time quickly joined to the succeeding letters; as árt, cup-bearer to the queen of Bohemia, and chrobonnet, hunger.

nologer to the city of London. He went to IreQUANTONG, an extensive, fertile, and popu- land as secretary to archbishop Usher; but the lous province of Southern China, on the sea trouble in that kingdom forced him to return, coast, which bounds it E.S.S. Northward it is and he died in 1644. His works both in prose bounded by a high ridge of mountains, which and verse are numerous, and were formerly in separate it from Kyangsi. It contains the im- great esteem, particularly his Divine Emblems. portant port of Canton, and is the most commer

QUARRE, 1. 5. Fr. quarré. A quarry. Not cial of all the Chinese provinces. The mountains of the north frontier yield gold, copper, iron,

Behold our diamonds here, as in the quarre they and the timber called iron-wood: also a fine

stand.

Drayton. species of rose-wood and of osier. Southward, the country produces every kind of grain and fruits QUARÖREL, n. s. & v. n. Fr. querelle; in profusion, and two crops in the year. A great QUAR'ReLous, adi

Lat. querela. A number of ducks are bred in the waters. The QUAR'RELSOME.

breach of congovernor resides at Chao-king, and has a consi- cord ; dispute ; contest; cause of contest; ground derable military and naval force on foot to sup- of opposition or objection : Shakspeare uses it press the piracy of the neighbouring seas, and for a quarrelsome person : to quarrel is, to diskeep in awe the rude mountain tribes. Sir pute; debate, squabble; scuffle ; combat; disGeorge Staunton estimates the inhabitants at agree; object, urge frivolous objections : the 21,000,000.

adjectives correspond. QUANTONG, a town of the province of Ava, in Herodias had a quarrel against him, and would the Birman empire, on the south-east side of the have killed him, but she could not. Mark vi. 19, Irrawaddy, and only twenty-five miles distant

Wine drunken with excess, maketh bitterness of from the China frontier. The meaning of Quan- the mind, with brawling and quarreling.

Ecclus. tong, or Canton, is, in Chinese, a port or mart; He thought he had a good quarrel to attack him. a number of such dames, therefore, occur on the

Holingshed. boundaries of the empire, to wnich foreign mer- The quarrel which, in this present part, striveth chants are allowed to repair. It is probable this against the current and stream of laws, was a long town was either built or named by the Chinese; while nothing feared.

Hooker. it is still frequented by these merchants, who I love the sport well, but I shall as soon quarrel bring porcelain, tea, silks, fruit, &c., hither, and

at it as any man.

Shakspeare. exchange them for emeralds, rubies, iron, and

If I can fasten but one cup upon him, brown cotton.

With that which he hath drank to night already, QUARANTAIN, n. s. ) French quaruntain. As my young mistress' dog.

He'll be as full of quarrel and offence

Id. Othello. QUA RA NTINE. I The space of time

Better which a ship, suspected of infection, is obliged She ne'er had known pomp, though't be temporal; to forbear intercourse or commerce.

Ytt if that quarrel, fortune, do divorce Pass your quarantine among some of the churches it from the bearer, 'tis a suff’rance panging round this town, where you may learn to speak, be- As soul and body's sev'ring. ld. Henry VIIT.

in use.

Ready in gybes, quick answered, saucy, and Could necessity infallibly produce quarries of stone, As quarrelous as the weazel. Id. Cymbeline. which are the materials of all magnificent structures ? Wives are young men's mistresses, companions

More. for middle age, and old men's nurses ; so a man For them alone the heavens had kindly heat may have a quarrel to marry when he will. Bacon. In eastern quarries, ripening precious dew. Cholerick and quarrelsome persons will engage one

Dryden. into their glærrels.

Id. Essuys.

To take down a quarry of glass to scowre, sodder, If not in service of our God we fought,

band, and to set it up again, is three halfpence a In meaner quarrel if this sword were shaken,

foot.

Mortimer. · Well might thou gather in the gentle thought, As long as the next coal-pit, quarry, or chalk-pit So fair a princess should not be forsaken. Fairfur. will give abundant attestation to what I write, to You and I may engage in this question, as far as these I may safely appeal.

Wood wurd. either of us shall think profitable, without any the One rhomboidal bony scale of the needle-fish, out least beginning of a quarrel, and then that will com- of Stunsfield quarry, the quarryman assured ine was petently be removed from such, as of which you fat, covered over with scales, and three foot long. cannot hope to see an end. Hummund.

Id. It were a matter of more trouble than necessity to

QUAR'RY, n. s. & v. a. Fr. querir, to seek. repeat in this quarrel what has been alledged by the Skinner. Fr. curée, from Lat. curo. Thomson. worthies of our church.

Holyday. To admit the thing, and quarrel about the name,

A prey; particularly the prey of the hawk: to is to make ourselves ridiculous.'

prey upon. Bramhall against Hobbes.

She dwells among the rocks, on every side Some things arise of strange and quarreling kind, With broken mountains strongly fortified ; The forepart lion and a snake behind. Cowley.

From thence whatever can be seen surveys,
In a poem elegantly writ

And stooping, on the slaughtered quarry preys. I will not quarrel with a slight mistake.

Sandys. Roscommon

Your wife and babes Beasts called sociable quarrel in hunger and lust; Savagely slaughtered ; to relate the manner, and the bull and ram appear then as much in fury Were on the quarry of these murdered deer and war, as the lion and the bear. Temple.

To add the death of you.

Shakspeare. Mucbeth. I quarrel not with the word, because used by Ovid. So scented the grim feature, and up turned

Dryden.

His nostrils wide into the murky air, The same zeal and faithfulness continues in your Sagacious of his quarry.

Milton. blood, which animated one of your noble ancestors

They their guns discharge ; to sacrifice his life in the quurrel of his sovereign. This heard some ships of ours, though out of view, la. And swift as eagles to the quarry flew.

Waller. We are apt to pick quarrels with the world for An hollow crystal pyramid he takes, every little foolery:

L'Estrange. In firmamental waters dipt'above, There needs no more to the setting of the whole Of it a broad extinguisher he makes, world in a flame than a quarrelsome plaintiff and And hoods the flames that to their quarry strove. defendant.

Dryden. · I have no quarrel to the practice; it may be a di- Let reason then at her own quarry ily, verting way.

Felion on the Classicks. But how can finite grasp infinity? Id. I consider your very testy and quarrelsome people

With cares and horrors at bis lieart, like the vulin the same light as I do a loaded gun, which may

ture that is day and night quarrying upon Promeby accident go off and kill one.

Shenstone.
theus's liver.

L'Estrange. Quarʻrel. Fr. quadreau; Ital. quadrella, of Lat . quadrangula. An arrow with a square for a part of the entrails of the beast taken, given

Quarry, among hunters, is sometimes used head,

It is reported by William Brito that the arcuba- by way of reward to the hounds. lista or arbalist was first stewed to the French by

Quarry, or QUARREL, among glaziers, a pane

Guarries are of our king Richard I. who was shortly after slain by of glass cut in a diamond form. a quarrel thereof.

Camden. two kinds, square and long; the acute angle in Twanged the string, out flew the quarrel long. the square quarrels being 77° 19', and 67° 21' in

Fairfax. the long ones. QUAR'RY, n. s. Fr. quarrè, of Lat. qua

QUARRYING, is the business of directing QUARÓRYMAN. S dratus. A square; an ar

and conducting the sinking and management of row with a square head; a place where stones the different kinds of quarries, pits, and shafts, are roughly squared : a quarryman is one who as well as of the different sorts of work which works in a quarry:

are necessary to be undertaken, carried on, and The same is said of stone out of the quarry, to performed in the several different descriptions of make it more durable. Bacon's Natural History. them; such as those of separating; getting up,

The shafts and quarries from their engines fly, and preparing the various sorts of materials for As thick as falling drops in April showers. use in the arts, or in other ways. It is a practice

Fairfax. which requires considerable knowledge and exAs hard and unrelenting she,

perience, to be fully master of it in all its bearAs the new-crusted Niobe ; Or, what doth more of statue carry,

ings and intentions.

Limestone, chalk, and building stone, are gene-
A nun of the Platonick quarry. Cleaveland.
Pyramids and towers

rally found in strata either on or near the surface. From diamond quurries hewn, and rocks of gold.

When at a great depth it is not found worth while Milton.

to work them. When stones of any kind are proHe like Amphion makes those quarries leap

cured by uncovering earth, and then working Into fair figures from a confused heap. Waller, them out, they are said to be quarried; but when

Id.

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a pit or shaft is sunk, and the materials procured hammers, with cutting ends on one side, the are worked under ground, they are said to be other being formed in a plain manner; strong mined.

sharp crowbars, and broad sharp iron wedges; Quarrying slates, particularly those of the by which means these matters are, from the blue, green, and purple or blackish kinds, un- constant practice of the men, split and torn into dergo several different sorts of preparation in the such forms as are wanted with great ease and quarrying, according to the purposes to which facility. they are to be afterwards applied. They are se- Quarry Cart is a name given to that sort o parated and divided into very thin pieces or cart which is principally employed in the work slates, where light neat coverings are required, of quarries, and which is generally of a low, or in much demand; but for more strong and compact, strong kind, in its nature, form, and heavy coverings, in exposed situations, or other manner of construction, in order to sustain places, they are split into much thicker sheets, heavy weights, and receive them without diffilayers, or slates, and are, of course, more clumsy culty, or the danger of being destroyed. Carts in their appearance.

Each sort in the business for this purpose should always be made of wellof quarrying is wrought in a separate manner, seasoned wood, be well put together, and have and packed up by itself; the different sorts hav- sufficient strength of timber in those parts where ing appropriate naines.

the main stress of the load is placed. Some White or brown slates are never divided and quarry counties have well-formed carts of this prepared in so fine a way as the other kinds, but nature, as many of those towards the northern separated into much thicker flakes or laminæ, in boundaries of ihis kingdom. this intention. The blue, green, and purple, Quarry Waggon, or truck, a small carriage or darkish sorts, are, for the most part, found of the low truck kind, which is much employed capable of being split into very thin laminæ or in the business of quarries, especially those of the sheets; but those of the white, or brownish free- slate kinds, for the purpose of holding and constone kinds, can seldom be separated or divided veying the rough materials, which have been in any very thin manner, as the layers of the large blown from the large massy rocks, or separated masses of the stones are of a much thicker na- in other ways, out of or from the quarries and ture, they consequently form heavy, strong, thick pits in which they are situated and contained, to coverings, proper for buildings in exposed cli- the places where they are to receive their differmates and situations, and of the more rough ent preparations and shapes. kinds, such as barns, stables, and other sorts of It is formed and constructed on a frame someout-houses. In the different operations and pro- what similar to that of the common barrow, and cesses of this sort of quarrying, slate knives, mounted on two low light iron wheels on the axes, bars, and wedges, are chiefly made use of fore part, having two feet behind, projecting from in the different intentions of splitting and clean- the frame, bent something in the manner of the ing the slates, they being separated into proper letter S, and of sufficient length to let it stand or thicknesses by the axe, bar, and wedge, and rest in a horizontal position while it is in the act afterwards chipped into their proper forms and of being loaded. These feet are usually made of shapes by the knife. All the different inequali- iron, but they may be formed of other materials. ties which may appear upon any part of them A sort of inclined plane is formed from the botare likewise removed by this last sort of imple- toms of the quarries or pits, up which it is ment.

forced with great ease and facility by the workIn quarrying stone the work is usually perform- men, or small animals of the horse kind, after ed in such a manner as to suit the different uses being filled with these sorts of heavy materials. for which they are intended. Where flags are to be It is a very useful and convenient machine in formed, they are split or riven into suitable this application, being met with in most of the thicknesses, and squared to different sizes, so slate quarries in the northern part of Lancashire, as to be adapted to different applications. These as well as in those of many other districts of the operations are executed in rather a rough way, kingdom. as they are afterwards to be finished by the stone- Quarryings are the small pieces which are mason. When for steps. they have the proper broken or chipped off from the differents sorts of breadths and depths given to them in a sort of materials which are found and wrought in quarsquaring manner, being left to be completed as they ries, while they are undergoing their different premay be wanted for particular uses and applications. parations for various uses. These substances, Gate-posts are, for the most part, quarried so as where they are of the hard kind, such as those have from about a foot to a foot and a half or of the blue and lime-stone, as well as some more in the square. Trough-stones have the other sorts, are extremely well calculated for the quarrying performed so as to be formed into va- purpose of forming and repairing roads, as they rious proper-sized squares or other forms, in a are nearly, if not quite, in a state fit for immerough manner, being left in these states to be diate application in this way. Materials of afterwards hewn and hollowed out, in the in- these kinds ought, therefore, where they can be tended parts, by the stone-masons. Stones for conveniently had, never to be neglected by those building purposes are usually raised and quarried who have the care and management of roads, as out roughly into something of the square shape, they will save much expense and trouble, in a being left in that state for the builders, who after- great number of instances. wards fit them so as to suit their own purposes Draining of quarries.-In order to accomplish and intentions.

this it will be necessary, in ascending from the The quarrymen commonly make use of large quarry or pit, carefully to examine and ascertain is, at any place higher on the declivity, any and by a careful and exact use of the level. But porous stratum, bed of rock, sand, or gravel, tails this will be much better comprehended, and a out, which may conduct and convey the water more full and perfect notion of its nature be a. contained in it to the sand bed, which is below forded, by the section figure in the plate on in the works; and, where any such bed is found, draining quarries, pits, &c., in agriculture, given to cut or bore into it in such a manner as to form by Mr. Elkington, in his work on this subject. a drain that is capable of carrying away the The water which is fouud in the bottoms of whole or the greatest part of the water, and of these different kinds of undertakings, or which course to clear or diminish the quantity contain- proceeds from the rocks or their sides, or in ed in the quarry or pit, which would otherwise other ways in the course of working them, is have continued to descend through such porous commonly got quit of by means of some sori of substrata or beds, and have continued to fill the engine or pump, in order to assist in working of sands, or quarries and pits.

which the water gained by cutting the drains alBut a sufficient quantity to injure, hinder, and ready noticed may be particularly useful, espeinconvenience the working of the quarries or cially where the usual stream for that purpose is pits, may yet continue to drain and ooze from the insufficient for that purpose, in saving the great sides of the sand-beds, notwithstanding they expense of working such machinery by the should happen to dip towards the lower ground, power of steam. But without the aid of a in which case, however, the water may readily natural stream, which is capable of being conand with great ease be drawn off at some particu- verted to this purpose, it is rarely possible to lar point in it. In order to effect this, and find, by means of drains, or in any other way, a thereby remove the inconvenience of this filtrat- quantity of water sufficient to drive weighty maing water, in descending from the quarries or chinery, in a situation of proper height to bave pits along the declivity, it should be endeavoured the full and necessary command of it. to discover and ascertain at what particular It has been remarked in Mr. Elkington's work point or place, in the low ground, the sand ter- on draining, in these cases, that the duke of minates or tails out, which is mostly best accom- Buccleugh's coal-works, near Langholm, in the plished by means of proper levelling; and if county of Dumfries, afford a striking example of there should be there any appearance of the the superior powers of water and machinery, water's having a natural outlet, it may, by means when properly combined, where a command of of making in it a deep drain, be far more readily the former can be had, and when the latter is and effectually drawn off and removed; as constructed on proper principles, and conducted springs, for the most part, naturally pass and with that care and ingenuity which are requisite flow through narrow, winding, convoluted open- in such difficult undertakings. ings, or perforations; of course,

whenever the Boring has been practised of late, with comorifices or passages are opened, enlarged, or plete success, in the case of a colliery in the made lower than before, the discharge of water county of York, which had been wrought many becomes greater and more expeditious. Where, years, and in which the water was raised about however, there happens to be a deep impervious sixty yards by a steam-engine. layer or covering of clay, or other matter of a si- The actual working of quarries is an operamilar nature, placed above or upon the termina- tion depending more on strength than skill. In tion or tail of the sand, the drain need only be cut quarrying sandstone, consisting of regular layers, down to it or a little way into it, as by means of the work is performed chiefly by means of the boring through it, or the remaining portion of it, pick, wedge, hammer, and pinch or lever; rea ready and easy outlet or passage may be given course being seldom had to the more violent to the whole of the water that may be contained and irregular effects of gunpowder. But for in the sand-bed or other porous stratum. some kinds of limestone, and for greenstone and

In regard to the removal of the water found basalt, blasting with gunpowder is resorted to; and contained in the bottoms of such quarries, and some of the rocks called primitive, such as pits, or deep works, it must be drained off and granite, gneiss, and sienite, could scarcely be torn got rid of in quite a different manner, as the asunder without it. level of the ground may probably be, or decline, The burning of lime may be considered as benowhere lower than the mouths or openings of longing to the subject of quarrying. See our such quarries, pits, &c.; as it is solely and parti- article Lime. The operation is performed in cularly on the supposition, and in such cases as what are called draw-kilns, or perpetual kilns. where the direction of the different strata and These should always be close to or near the sand-heds have a dipping position with the quarry, and either situated at a bank, or furnatural inclination of the surface of the land, or nished with a ramp or inclined plane of earth lie nearly horizontally, that the method of pro- for carting up the coal and lime to the top of the ceeding 'which is stated above is practicable. kiln. Lime-kilns may be built either of stone or But should they, for instance, lie in a reverse or brick; but the latter, as being better adapted to contrary direction, there is but little possibility stand excessive degrees of heat, is considered as or chance of accomplishing the object, the re- preferable. The outside form of such kilns is proval of the water, unless by discovering or sometimes cylindrical, but more generally square. hitting on their terminations, somewhere on the The inside should be formed in the shape of a opposite sides of the hills or elevations, which in hogshead, or an egg, opened a little at both ends, some cases may very nearly or exactly be found and set on the smallest; being small in circumout, by ascertaining the precise inclination or di- ference at the bottom, gradually wider towards rection of the materials of the quarries, pits, &c., the middle, and then contracting again towards

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