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the top.

In kilns constructed in this way, it is Booker's lime kiln (Dumfries Report, p. 594), observed,' fewer coals are necessary, in conse- is of an oval form, twenty-two feet high, two feet quence of the great degree of reverberation wide at the bottom, nine feet in the middle, and created, above that which takes place in kilos gradually contracted to three feet at top. It is lined formed in the shape of a sugar loaf reversed. with brick, and, instead of being covered with a Near the bottom, in large kilns, two or more dome, Booker adopts a cover of cast-iron with a apertures are made: these are small at the inside vent in it, which cover is placed on a ring of of the kiln, but are sloped wider, both at the three feet diameter, built into, and fixed on the sides and the top, as they extend towards the top of the kiln. The cover, by moving on a outside of the building. The uses of these aper- pivot, is easily thrown off when the kiln is to be tures are for admitting the air necessary for sup- charged, and, being put on during the process of plying the fire, and also permitting the laborers calcination, it both increases the draught of air to approach with a drag and shovel to draw out through the kiln, and, by acting as a reverbethe calcined lime. From the bottom of the kiln ratory furnace, is attended with a considerable within, in some cases, a small building called a saving of fue!. horse is raised in the form of a wedge, and so QUART, n. s. Fr. quart, of Lat. quartus. constructed as to accelerate the operation of The fourth part; a quarter; the fourth part of a drawing out the burned limestone, by forcing gallon; a quart measure. it to fall into the apertures which have been Albanact had all the northern. part, mentioned above. In other kilns of this Which of himself Albania he did call, kind, in place of this building there is an iron And Camber did possess the western quart. grate near the bottom, which comes close to the

Spenser. inside wall, except at the apertures where the

When I have been dry, and bravely marching, it lime is drawn out. When the kiln is to be hath served me instead of a quart pot to drink in.

Shakspeare. filled, a parcel of furze or faggots is laid at the bottorn, over this a layer of coals, then a layer of And say you would present her at the leet,

You'd rail upon the hostess of the house, limestone (which is previously broken into Because she bought stone jugs and no sealed quarts. pieces, about the size of a man's fist), and so on

Id. alternately, ending with a layer of coals, which You have made an order that ale should be sold is sometiires, though seldom, covered with sods at three halfpence a quart. Swift's Miscellanies. or turf, in order to keep the heat as intense as

Quart, in English measure, the fourth part of possible. The fire is then lighted in, the aper- the gallon, or two pints. tures; and when the limestone towards the bot

QUARʻTAN, n. s. Fr. quartaine ; Lat. quar. tom is completely calcined, the fuel being consi- tana. The fourth day ague. derably exhausted, the limestone at the top Call her the metaphysicks of her sex, subsides. The laborers then put in an addition And say she tortures wits, as quartans vex of limestone and coal at the top, and draw out Physicians.

Cleaveland. at bottom as much as they find thoroughly It were an uncomfortable receipt for a quartan hurned; and thus go on, till any quantity re- ague, to lay the fourth book of Homer's Iliads under quired be calcined. When limestone is burned one's head.

Broune. with coals, from two bushels and a half to three A look so pale no quartan ever gave, and a half, on a medium three bushels of calcined Thy dwindled legs seem crawling to the grave.

Dryden. limestoar, are produced for every bushel of coal

QUARTATION, n. s. Lat. quartus. A chyused. A lin:e-kiln, on an improved plan, has been

mical operation, defined below. erected at Closeburn in Dumfrieshire, by Mon- although three parts of silver be so exquisitely

In quartation, which refiners employ to purify gold, teith. Irislead of the wide and shallow circular mingled by fusion with a fourth part of gold, whence kiln, these kilns are elliptical and deep. Some the operation is denominated, that the resulting mass parts are added to it which are found of most im- acquires several new qualities; yet, if you cast this portant use. The first is a kind of roof or mixture into aqua fortis, the silver will be dissolved

The disadvantage of the want of some in the menstruum, and the gold, like a dark powder, contrivance to protect kilns in stormy weather, will fall to the bottom.

Boule. has been long felt, and many attempts have been QUARTAtion is an operation by which the made to apply some kind of cover, but, we be- quantity of one thing is made equal to a fourth lieve, none with such success as that used at part of the quantity of another thing. Thus, Closeburn. The next addition is having cast- when gold alloyed with silver is to be parted, iron doors below, at the opening where the kiln we are obliged to facilitate the action of the is drawn. There is a grating through which the aquafortis by reducing the quantity of the former ashes fall while drawing the kiln, which makes of these metals to one-fourth part of the whole that operation a much less disagreeable employ- mass; which is done by sufficiently increasing ment than formerly; and the ashes and small the quantity of the silver, if it be necessary. This lime thus separated are excellent for agricultural operation is called quartation, and is preparatory purposes. There is often a great loss of fuel, to the parting; and even many authors extend from allowing lime-kilns to cool when there is this name to the operation of parting. See Assay. no demand; all that is necessary to be done is, QUAR'TER, n. s. &v.Q. Fr. quartier, of to shut the cast-iron doors, above as well as be- Quar'TERAGE,

Lat. quartus.

A low, and the dampers in the chimneys. The QUAR'TER-DAY,

fourth part; a part heat is thus preserved, and fuel saved, by keep- QUAR'TER-DECK,

of the heavens coning the kiln hot, to be ready for use as soon as QUAR'TERLY, adj. & udv. sidered as divided wanted. Farmer's Magazine, vol. xvi. p. 131. QUAR'TER-MASTER, n. s. into the cardinal



points : hence, region; district; division; sta- The quarters of the several chiefs they showed, tion; abode: particularly military station, can- Here Phenix, here Achilles, made abode. Id. tonment, or abode; hence a military cry for Discover the opinion of your enemies, which is mercy, i.e. to be sent to the captors' quarters; commonly the truest; for they will give you no mercy; friendship; kind treatment; a measure quarter, and allow nothing to complaisance. Id. of eight bushels: to divide into four parts; divide A bungling cobbler, that was ready to starve at his in any way; station; lodge; diet; bear as an ap- own trade, changes his quarter, and sets up for a pendage to herald in arms, see below: quarter. doctor.

| L'Estrange. age is a quarterly allowance: quarter-day, one of When the cocks and lambs lie at the mercy of the four days in the year on which rent is usually cats and wolves, they must never expect better quarpaid : quarter-deck, the short upper deck of a ter.

Id. ship: quarterly, containing a fourth part; or Supposing only three millions to be paid, 'tis evionce in a quarter: quarter-master, he who regu

dent that to do this out of commodities, they must, lates soldiers' quarters.

to the consumer, be raised a quarter in their price;

so that every thing, to him that uses it, must be a No leaven shall be seen in thy quarters. Erodus.

quarter dearer.

Locke. It is an accustomed action with her to seem thus The quartermaster general was marking the ground washing her hands; I have known her continue in for the encampment of the covering army. Tatler. this a quarter of an hour. Shakspeare. Macbeth. The sons of the church being so much dispersed, I'll give thee a wind.

though without being driven, into all quarters of the -I myself have all the other,

land, there was some extraordinary design of divine And the very points they blow,

wisdom in it.

Spirat. And all the quarters that they know,

You have quartered all the foul language upon me l' the shipman's card.

that could be raked out of Billingsgate. Spectator. Where is lord Stanley quartered?

When the winds in southern quarters rise, -Unless I have mista'en his quarters much,

Ships, from their anchors torn, become their sport, His regiment lies half a mile

And sudden tempests rage within the port.

Addison. South froin the mighty power of the king.


The usurer would be very well satisfied to have Friends, all but now,

all the time annihilated that lies between the present In quarter, and in terms like bride and groom

moment and next quarter-day.

Id. Divesting them for bed, and then, but now

Suppose the common depth of the sea, taking one Swords out, and tilting one at other's breasts. Id.

place with another, to be about a quarter of a mile.

Burnet. Mothers shall but smile when they behold Their infants quartered by the hands of war. Id.

To the young, if you give any tolerable quarter,

you indulge them in their idleness, and ruin them. They do best, who, if they can but admit love,

Collier. yet make it keep quarter, and sever it wholly from From the obliquity of the ecliptick to the equator their serious affairs.

Bacon. arise the diurnal differences of the sun's right ascenThe first, being compounded of argent and azure, sion, which finish their variations in each quadrant is the coat of Beauchamp of Hack in the county of of the ecliptick, and this, being added to the former Somerset, now quartered by the earl of Hertford. inequality from eccentricity, makes these quarterly

Peacham. and seemingly irregular inequalities of natural days. The like is to be said of the populousness of their

Bentley. coasts and quarters there.

Abbot. Mr. .Wharton, who detected some hundreds of the They had settled here many ages since, and over- bishop's mistakes, meets with very ill quarter from

Swift. spread all the parts and quarters of this spacious continent.


The quarter-deck is that above the upper-deck, The soil so fruitful that an acre of land well or

reaching forward from the stern to the gangway,

Falconer. dered will return 200 bushels or 25 quarters of corn.

and supports the carronades, &c.

Id. QUARTER, in dry measure, is, eight bushels. Thou canst defend as well as get,

QUARTER, in heraldry, is applied to the parts And never hadst one quarter beat up yet. Cowley. or members of the first division of a coat that is

He magnified his own clemency, now they were at quartered, or divided into four quarters. his mercy, to offer them quarter for their lives if they Quarter, Franc, in heraldry, is a quarter gave up the castle.

Clarendon. single or alone; which is to possess one fourth His praise, ye winds! that from four quarters blow, part of the field. It makes one of the honorable Breathe soft or loud. Milton's Paradise Lost. ordinaries of a coat. See HERALDRY. He fed on vermin;

QUARTERS, WINTER, sometimes mean the And, when these failed, he'd suck his claws, space of time included between leaving the camp And quarter himself upon his paws. Hudibras.

and taking the field; but more properly the He used two equal ways of gaining, By hindring justice or maintaining;

places where the troops are' quartered during the

winter. The first business, after the army is in To many a whore gave privilege, And whipped for want of quarterage.


winter quarters, is to form the chain of troops to However rarely his own rent-dayes occurred, the behind a river, under cover of a range of strong

cover the quarters well; which is done either indigent had two and fifty quarter-daies returning in his year.


posts, or under the protection of fortified towns. The moon makes four quarterly seasons within her Hussars are very useful on this service. It little year or month of consecution. Holder. should be observed, as an invariable maxim, in

Observe what stars arise or disappear, winter quarters, that the regiments be disposed And the four quarters of the rolling year. in brigades, to be always under the eye of a ge

Dryden. neral officer; and, if possible, let the regiments

his lordsh

be so distributed as to be each under the com- glasses, and, in turn, overlooking the purser's mand of its own chief.

steward in his delivery of provisions, &c. QUARTER Bill, a roll or list, containing the QUARTER MASTER GENERAL is a considerdifferent stations to which all the officers and able officer in the army; and should be a man of crew of the ship are quartered in the time of great judgment and experience, and well skilled battle, and the names of all the persons appointed in geography. His duty is to make the marches to those stations.

and encampments of an army; he should know QUARTER OF A SUP, that part of the ship's the country perfectly, with its rivers, plains, side which lies towards the stern: or which is marshes, woods, mountains, defiles, passages, &c. comprehended between the aftmost end of the even to the smallest brook. Prior to a march, main chains and the sides of the stern, where it he receives the order and route from the comis terminated by the quarter pieces. On the manding general, and appoints a place for the quarter may be defined an arch of the horizon, quarter-masters of the army to meet him next contained between the line prolonged from the morning, with whom he marches to the next ship's stern and any distant object, as land, ships, camp; where, having viewed the ground, he &c. Thus, if the ship's keel lies on an east and marks out to the regimental quarter-masters the west line, the stern being westward, any distant ground allowed each regiment for their camp: object perceived on the north-west or south-west he chooses the head quarters, and appoints the is said to be on the larboard starboard quarter. villages for the generals of the army's quarters :

Quarters, a name given at sea to the several he appoints a proper place for the encampment stations where the officers and crew of a ship of the train of artillery: he conducts foraging of war are posted in action. The number of parties, as likewise the troops to cover them men appointed to manage the artillery is al. against assaults, and has a share in regulating the ways in proportion to the nature of the guns, and winter-quarters and cantonments. the number and condition of the ship's crew. Quarter Netting, a sort of net-work, exThe lieutenants are usually stationed to command tended along the rails on the upper part of a the different batteries, and direct their efforts ship's quarter. In a ship of war these are always against the enemy. The master superintends the double. The interval is sometimes filled with movements of the ship, and whatever relates to cork, or old sails; but chiefly with the hamthe sails. The boatswain, and a sufficient num- mocks of the sailors, so as to form a parapet ber of men, are stationed to repair the damaged against the enemy's small arms in battle. rigging; and the gunner and carpenter wherever QUARTER SEssions, a general court held necessary, according to their respective offices. quarterly by the justices of peace of each The marines are generally quartered on the poop county. This court is appointed by statute 2 and forecastle, or gangway, under the direction Hen. V. c. 4, to be in the first week after Miof their officers; although, on some occasions, chaelmas day; the first week after the Epiphany; they assist at the great guns, particularly in dis- the first week after the close of Easter; and in tant cannonading.

the week after the translation of St. Thomas a QUARTERS, HEAD, Of an Army, the place Becket, or the 7th of July. This court is held where the commander-in-chief has his quarters. before two or more justices of the peace, one of The quarters of generals of horse are, if possible, whom must be of the quorum. The jurisdicin villages behind the right and left wings, and tion of this court, by 34 Edw. III. c. 1, extends the generals of foot are often in the same place; to the trying and determining of all felonies but the commander-in-chief should be near the and trespasses whatsoever, though they seldom, centre of the army.

if ever, try any greater offence than small feloQuarter Gunner, a petty officer under the nies within the benefit of clergy, their commisdirection of the gunner of a ship of war, whom sion providing, that if any case of difficulty arises, he is to assist in every branch of his duty; as they shall not proceed to judgment, but in the keeping the guns and their carriages in proper presence of one of the justices of the courts of order, and duly furnished with whatever is ne- king's bench or common pleas, or one of the cessary; filling the powder into cartridges ; scal- judges of assize. But there are many offences, ing the guns, and keeping them always in a and particular matters, which by particular stacondition for service. The number of quarter- tutes belong properly to this jurisdiction, as the gunners in any ship is always in proportion to smaller misdemeanors not amounting to felony, the number of her artillery, one quarter-gunner relating to the game, highways, alehouses, basbeing allowed to every four guns.

tard children, the settlement and provision for A Quarter Master, in the army, is an offi- the poor, vagrants, servants' wages, apprentices, cer, whose business is not only to look after the &c. The records or rolls of the sessions are quarters of the soldiers, but their clothing, bread, committed to the custody of a special officer, ammunition, firing, &c. Every regiment of foot denominated the custos rotulorum. In most and artillery has a quarter-master, and every corporation towns there are quarter-sessions kept troop of horse one.

before justices of their own, within their respecQUARTER MASTERS, in a ship of war, are tive limits, which have exactly the same authopetty officers appointed by the captain to assist rity as the general quarter-sessions of the county, in the several duties of the ship, as stowing the except in a very few instances. ballast and provisions in the hold, coiling the QUARTER-STAFF, n. s. Quarter and staff. cables on their platforms, overlooking the steer- A staff of defence : so called, perhaps, from the age of the ship, keeping the time by the watch- manner of using it; one hand being placed at

the middle, and the other equally between the

middle and the end. So says Dr. Johnson: Mr. 6. Cat's eye. 7. Fibrous quartz. 8. Iron Aint. Thomson, more probably, from quarter, a dis- 9. Hornstone. 10. Flinty slate. 11. Flint. 12. trict, and staff; the quarterstaff being once a Calcedony. 13. Heliotrope. 14. Jasper. badge of authority amongst foresters.

2. Indivisible quartz contains nine sub-speHis quarterstaff, which he could ne'er forsake, cies. 1. Float-stone. 2. Quartz sinter. 3. Hung half before, and half behind his back.

Hyalite. 4. Opal. 5. Menilite. 6. Obsidian.

Dryden. 7. Pitchstone. 8. Pearlstone. 9. Pumice-stone. Immense riches he squandered away at quarterstaff See MINERALOGY. and cudgel play, in which he challenged all the

QUASH, v. a. & v. n. French casser; Belg. country.


quassen; Ital. squacciare, quassare ; Lat. quasso. QUAR'TILE, n. s. Lat. quartus. An aspect so crush; squeeze; subdue; annul; make void. of the planets, when they are three signs or 'Twas not the spawn of such as these ninety degrees distant from each other, and is That dyed with Punick blood the conquered seas marked thus 0

And quashed the stern Æacides. Roscommon. Mars and Venus in a quartile move

The whales My pangs of jealousy for Ariet's love. Dryden. Against sharp rocks, like reeling vessels quashed, QUARTO, n. s. Lat. quartus. A book in Though huge as mountains, are in pieces dashed.

Waller. which every sheet, being twice doubled, makes

A thin and fine membrane strait and closely adfour leaves.

Our fathers had a just value for regularity and hering to keep it from quashing and shaking. Ray. systems; then folios and quartos were the fashion- the rebellion, which had begun to spread itself

Our she confederates keep pace with us in quashing, able sizes, as volumes in octavo are now. Watts.

among part of the fair sex. Addison's Freeholder. QUARTO-DECIMANI, an ancient sect in the The water in this dropsy, by a sudden jerk, may Christian church, who taught that Easter should be heard to quash,

Sharp's Surgery. always be celebrated according to the custom of QUASI CONTRACT, in the civil law, an act the Jews, on the fourteen day of the moon in without the strict form of a contract, but yet the month of March, whensoever that day fell having the force thereof. In a contract there out. And hence they derived their name quarto- must be the mutual consent of both parties, but decimani.

in a quasi-contract one party may be bound or QUARTZ, in mineralogy, a genus of silice- obligated to the other, without having given his ous earths, chiefly composed of silica. Accord- consent to the act wherby he is obliged. For ing to Kirwan, the quartz are in general the example: I have done your business, in your purest of the siliceous kind. Cronstedt gives absence, without your procuration, and it has the following characteristics of it:-1. It is ge- succeeded to your advantage. I have then an nerally cracked throughout, even in the rock it- action against you for the recovery of what I self, whereby, as well as by its own nature, it have disbursed, and you an action against me to breaks into irregular and sharp fragments. 2. make me give an account of my administration, It cannot be easily made red hot, without crack- which amounts to a quasi contract. ing still more. 3. It never decays in the QUASSIA, in botany, a genus of the monoair. 4. Melted with potass, in a due proportion, gynia order, and decandria class of plants ; nait gives a more solid glass than any of the other tural order fourteenth, gruinales. It was siliceous stones. It is met with in clefts, fis- named from Quassi, a negro slave, who discosures, and small veins in rocks; it seldom forms vered its virtues : Cal. pentaphyllous ; petals large veins, and still more rarely whole moun- five; nectarium, pentaphyllous; there are from tains, without a mixture of heterogeneous sub- two to five seed cases, standing asunder, and mostances. M. Magellan remarks that quartz is nospermous. There are three species, the amara, one of the principal kinds of stone which con- simaruba, and excelsa or polygama. tain metals. In some of the Hungarian veins 1. Q. amara grows to the height of several the gold is so minutely dispersed that it cannot feet, and sends off many strong branches. The be discerned by the best microscopes before it is wood is of a white color and light; the bark is separated by pounding and washing. The width thin and gray: the leaves are placed alternately of the veins, some of which are half a fathom, on the branches, and consist of two pairs of opand some still more, repay the trouble and ex- posite pinnæ, with an odd one at the end : all penses, which the small quantity of gold would the leaflets are of an elliptical shape, entire, not otherwise counterbalance. Near Lauterberg, veined, smooth, pointed, sessile, on the upper upon the Hartz, are veins of this stone from one pagina of a deep green color, on the under paler: to three fathoms wide, consisting of a loose sand, the common foot-stalk is articulated, and winged, in which they find the copper ore in nests. or edged, on each side with a leafy membrane,

Rock crystals are generally found upon or which gradually expands towards the base of the among quartz, and are to be met with in all pinnæ: the Aowers are all hermaphrodite, of a parts of the world. The greatest numbers are bright red color, and terminate the branches in furnished to the European countries from Mount long spikes: the bracteæ or floral leaves are St. Gothard, in Switzerland.

lance-shaped or linear, colored and placed alterProfessor Jameson divides this mineral genus nately upon the peduncles; the calyx is small, into two species : rhomboidal quartz, and indi- persistent, and five toothed; the corolla consists

of five lance-shaped equal petals, at the base of 1. Rhomboidal quartz contains fourteen sub- which is placed the nectary, or five roundish, species. 1. Amethyst. 2. Rock crystal. 3. colored, scales ; the filaments are ten, slender, Milk quartz. 4. Common quartz. 5. Prase. somewhat longer than the corolla, and crowned

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visible quartz.

with simple antheræ, placed transversely; the round shaped, and of the size of a pea. There receptacle is fleshy and orbicular; the germen is is but little pulp, and the nut covers a round ovate, divided into five parts, and supports a kernel. These drupæ are generally three, someslender style, longer than the filaments, and ter- times two, and often only one, attached sidewise minating by a tapering stigma; the capsules are to a roundish fleshy receptacle. It flowers in five, two celled, and contain globular seeds. It October and November, and its fruit is ripe in is a native of South America, particularly of December and January. Except the pulp of Surinam, and also of some of the West Indian the fruit, every other part this tree has an inIslands. The root, bark, and wood, of this tree tensely bitter taste. In taste and virtues it is have all places in the materia medicą. The nearly equal to the quassia of Surinam, and is wood is most generally used, and is said to be a sold in London for the quassia amara ; and it tonic, stomachic, antiseptic, and febrifuge. may be safely used in all cases where that drug

It has been found very effectual in restoring di- has been thought proper, whether as an antiseptic, gestion, expelling flatulencies, and removing habi- or in cases of weakness in the stomach and tual costiveness, produced from debility of the bowels. It may either be given alor.e, or joined intestines, and common to a sedentary life. Dr. with the Jesuit's bark. Lettsom, whose extensive practice gave him an 3. Q. simaruba is common in all the woodopportunity of trying the effects of quassia in a lands in Jamaica. It grows to a great height great number of cases, says, 'In debility, suc- and considerable thickness. The trunks of the ceeding febrile diseases, the Peruvian bark is old trees are black and a little furrowed. Those most generally more tonic and salutary than any of the young trees are smooth and gray, with other vegetable hitherto known; but in hysteri- here and there a broad yellow spot. The inside cal atony, to which the female sex is so prone, bark of the trunk and branches is white, fibrous, the quassia affords more vigor and relief to the and tough. It tastes slightly bitter. On cutsystem than the other, especially when united ting or stripping off this bark, no milky juice with the vitriolum album, and still more with the issues, as has been mentioned by various authors. aid of some absorbent.' In dyspepsia, arising The wood is hard and useful for buildings. It from hard drinking, and also in diarrheas, the splits freely, and makes excellent staves for sugar doctor exhibited the quassia with great success. hogsheads. It has no sensible bitter taste. The But, with respect to the tonic and febrifuge qua- branches are alternate and spreading. The lities of quassia, he says, “I by no means sub- leaves are numerous' and alternate. On the upscribe to the Linnæan opinion where the author per side they are smooth, shining, and of a declares, “me quidem judice chinchinam longe deep green color; on the under side they are superat.' It is very well known that there are white. The flowers appear about the beginning, certain peculiarities of the air, and idiosyncrasies of April. They are of a yellow color, and of constitution, unfavorable to the exhibition of placed on spikes beautifully branched. The Peruvian bark, even in the most clear intermis- fruit is of that kind called a drupa, and is ripe sions of fever. In these cases quassia may often towards the end of May. It is of an oval shape, be substituted with success.'

is black, smooth, and shining. The pulp is 2. Q. excelsa, or Q. polygama, was named by fleshy and soft; the taste a nauseous sweet. Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Solander, and Dr. Wright, The nut is flattened, and on one side winged. pricrania amara. It is now, however, always The kernel is small, fat, and tastes sweet. The ranked under quassia. It is very common in the natural number of these drupæ is five on each woodlands of 'Jamaica, is beautiful, tall, and common receptacle; but, for the most part, there stately, sometimes being 100 feet long, and ten are only two or three; the rest by various accifeet in circumference, eight feet above the ground. dents prove abortive. The roots are thick, and The trunk is straight, smooth, and tapering, run superficially under ground to a considerable sending off its branches towards the top. The distance. The bark is rough, scaly, and warted. outside bark is pretty smooth, of a light gray or The inside when fresh is a full yellow, but ash color, from various lichens. The bark of when dry paler. It has but little smell. The the roots is of a yellow cast, somewhat like the taste is bitter, but not very disagreeable. This is cortex simaruba. The inner bark is tough, and the true cortex simarubæ of the shops. This tree composed of fine flaxy fibres. The wood is of a in Jamaica is called mountain damson, bitter damyellow color, tough but not very hard. It takes son, and stave wood. On examining the fructia good polish, and is used as flooring. The fication, Dr. Wright found this tree to be a leaves are sub-alternate; the small leaves are in species of quassia. Under that name he sent it pairs, from five to eight, standing opposite to to Europe, and Linnæus adopted it into his syseach other on short foot-stalks, and ending with tem. There are male flowers on one tree and an odd one. They are of an oblong oval shape, female flowers on another; and this is invariably and pointed; the ribs reddish, and the young the case in Jamaica. Most authors who have leaves are covered with a fine brownish down. written on the simaruba agree that in fluxes it The Howers come out in bunches or clusters restores the lost tone of the intestines, allays from the lower part of the last shoot before the their spasmodic motions, promotes the secretion leaves, and stand on round foot-stalks. The by urine and perspiration, removes that lowness flowers are small, of a yellowish green color, of spirits attending dysenteries, and disposes with a very small calyx. The male or barren the patient to sleep; the gripes and tenesmus tree has flowers nearly similar to the herma- are taken off, and the stools are changed to their phrodite, but in it there are only the rudime natural color and consistence. In a moderate of a style. The fruit is a smooth black drupa, dose it occasions no disturbance or uneasiness;

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