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the prosperity of a nation is intricately connected with the life and growth of other nations. From this conception of interrelationship, the conclusion naturally follows that as civilized individuals no longer resort to the duel or the street fight in the settlement of their differences, so nations should have recourse not to fighting but to reason, not to armies and navies but to international courts. This spirit, which has come to be called the · "new internationalism,” is developing a new kind of citizenship which is demanding new responsibilities. It is, therefore, fitting that a body of educators take note of a force which is so vitally affecting the life for which the schools are preparing.
Recent international events have taken place so quietly and rapidly that their full significance is not generally understood. Unless one has followed the consecutive steps in the approach of the nations for an organized world, he cannot realize how direct and constructive this action has been. The First Hague Conference, which convened on the eighteenth of May, 1899, ushered in a new epoch in international politics, and changed the whole aspect of the peace movement. Until then the leaders in this worldphilanthropy, altho they had always argued that international federation is the prerequisite for international peace, had made their forward advances chiefly in creating a sentiment against war by showing its injustices and its inconsistencies with economic, ethical, and humane principles. The First Hague Conference, by evolving a practical method of stopping international warfare, converted the peace movement into a practical science and pointed out a clear course for governmental action, which can in time bring about permanent peace among the nations. The rapidity with which this proceeds will depend entirely upon the demands of public opinion thruout the world.
It was a striking manifestation of the progress of public opinion in international matters that twenty-four nations responded to the invitation of the Czar of Russia to send delegates to a conference to discuss methods of stopping international warfare, a subject which before this first peace conference had been jealously held as a matter for each individual nation to settle. And it was none the less obedience to public opinion that prevented these one hundred representatives from coming to any concrete agreement concerning armaments. The adoption of new rules for alleviating the cruelties of war, and the signing of the convention, providing for the establishment of an international arbitration court to which nations in dispute may appeal, reflected the desire of the world at large to base international relationships on the law of reason rather than that of force. The importance of this court was well understood by those far-sighted statesmen at The Hague, and indeed it has well proved its worth, for since it was opened in April, 1901, eight important cases of international controversy, representing nearly every great nation of the earth, have been settled by its judges.
The results of the First Peace Conference are far greater than the world ever dreamed of. And perhaps the greatest result of all was the calling of a second peace congress, which was held in 1907, and which included practically every nation of the world. One of the most important decisions agreed upon by this conference was the one concerning the Hague Court. This world-institution had shown its ability to settle any dispute that might arise between nations; but the Second Peace Conference made it doubly certain that disputes should be referred to this court. These statesmen decided that in case of a conflict between two powers, either of them might go to the court and ask to have the difference settled, no matter if the other were unwilling to have the case referred. This was indeed a great improvement over the rule made by the First Peace Conference, which compelled both nations to agree to submit their difference to the court before it could be tried.
This rule is greatly strengthened by the signing, since the First Hague Conference, of a hundred arbitration treaties, pledging reference of disputes to the Hague Court. Thirty-six nations have thus expressed their desire to use the court, while the United States is a party to twenty-five of these treaties. Most significant of all is the growing idea that all questions, including those of national honor, should be submitted to arbitration. The most significant utterance on this subject is that by President Taft made in New York on March 22, 1910:
I do not see any more reason why matters of national honor should not be referred to a court of arbitration than matters of property or matters of national proprietorship. .... I do not see why questions of honor may not be submitted to a tribunal supposed to be composed of men of honor, who understand questions of national honor.
Having then an international court of arbitration with its tested ability to try cases, and a reasonably satisfactory assurance that disputes will be there referred, the world can be relieved from the immediate fear of war, and can carry on its peaceful pursuits in science, industry, and education. Doubly certain is this contention when one interprets the action of the Second Peace Congress in dealing with the matter of a permanent International Court of Justice which shall be to the nations of the world what our Supreme Court is to the states of the United States. Everything was agreed upon which should make this court a reality except the method of selecting judges. It is probable, however, that the proposal by Secretary of State Knox to the government to transform the International Prize Court, which was provided for by the Second Peace Congress, into an International Court of Justice will be adopted, and the nations thereby will have evolved a world-institution which is the foundation of the judicial department of a world-government.
By its declaration in favor of periodic Hague Conferences, and the stipulation of a third conference to be held about the year 1915, the Second Peace Congress has also laid the foundation for a parliament of the nations, the legislative complement of the International Court. That this third conference will develop and extend the constructive work of the two previous ones is assured, if in no other way, by the direct efforts for worldorganization of the Interparliamentary Union, composed of three thousand members of the parliaments of the nations. This body, which initiated the call for the Second Hague Conference and was largely responsible for its program, is mapping out the next logical steps in the organization of the world with which the Third Peace Congress should deal. The international peace movement has indeed made great strides in the first decade of the twentieth century.
Side by side, however, with this world-movement for international federation, looms the mad rivalry among the nations in the equipments of warfare. There never was a time in the history of the world when so much money was spent on armaments. Certainly this is a contradiction to the remarkable advances made by the governments toward permanent international agreements. The situation is indeed paradoxical; but paradoxes are never enduring. The life of this particular one depends on the future growth of international legislative and judicial institutions which will make war preparations so apparently unnecessary that they will gradually diminish and finally disappear. Optimist as I am, however, and as one must be who interprets the meaning of modern history, I do not expect anything sudden in the breaking-down of the war system. It is entirely a matter of state of mind, and this mode of thinking must be brought about thru education.
As the public schools have been the bulwark in creating standards of citizenship, so, I think, they have a close connection with the development of the new ideas which are changing the responsibilities of the citizen. New generations must carry into effect the constructive measures so auspiciously inaugurated. It was recognition of this function of the schools that led the French Minister of Public Instruction to prescribe the teaching of international arbitration, humanity, and brotherhood in the primary, secondary, and normal schools of France. The teachers of the United States who deal with the children of all the nations have a special opportunity to inculcate in the minds of the youth the spirit of the new internationalism which has certainly changed the economic and political status of our country.
In history, literature, and geography our teachers can point out the trend of thought which is bringing the whole world together into one family. On the eighteenth of May, the anniversary of the opening of the First Peace Congress at The Hague, the teacher has an opportunity of calling to mind the principles for which this day stands, principles which stimulate sentiments that make for international justice. On this day, a special review should be made of the principal forces leading up to the calling of The Hague Conferences, of their work, the definite results so far accomplished, and the achievements yet hoped for. Thru such teaching, there will be developed that state of mind which, without criticizing the past, will be able to discern the heroic figures in the peaceful progress of the world, and give them their just and rightful place in the world's history.
The American School Peace League was organized to create this state of mind, and to this end it seeks the co-operation of the teachers of America. It comprises today representative educators from every state in the Union and has twenty duly organized State Branches. The work of the League lies in three directions. First, it aims to acquaint the teachers of the country with the facts and principles of the new internationalism. It does this thru teachers' institutes, special teachers' meetings, and teachers' conventions; thru the educational press of the country; and thru the Publications Committee, which is circulating articles on internationalism directly applicable to the teachers' work.
On account of the special opportunities in teaching the history of our country, whose federation of states foreshadows the federation of nations; whose National Congress, the Congress of the world; whose Supreme Court, the permanent international court, a Committee on the Teaching of History was organized with Superintendent Wilbur F. Gordy, of Springfield, Mass., as the chairman. This Committee compiled last year the results of a wide investigation of history examinations given to teachers in one case, and to pupils in the higher grammar grades in the other. The report states that “in some school systems much time is devoted to the study of (1) such useless details as unimportant dates and statistical matter; (2) the complex principles underlying the organization and evolution of political parties; and (3) battles and military campaigns."
The report further states that by far the greatest waste in history teaching results from the excessive and disproportionate amount of time which is spent in the study of wars. While, of course, wars should be . studied and should receive much attention on account of the important part they have played in both racial and national evolution, they should not involve the teaching of the military minutiae of campaigns and battles.” And finally, the Committee says: “When we learn to keep in mind the right perspective in teaching the national biography of such a peace-loving people as we have been from the beginning of our history, we shall devote to the arts of peace and to the social and industrial conditions of life that large measure of attention which is their due.”
The third line of action which the League is pursuing is its efforts to secure the interest of the teachers in all countries in the movement for international co-operation, so that the whole world shall move simultaneously in one direction. It was for the purpose of developing this plan that the Secretary spent three months in Europe last year. The result of this work is an organization of an International Council which shall consist of two repre
sentatives of each country of the world. This Council has six objects: First, to organize national groups of teachers in the interest of internationalism. Second, to collect and distribute publications relating to internationalism which are of specific value to teachers; and to make an organized campaign to place literature in college and school libraries. Third, to extend information on such educational movement thru the magazines of every country. Fourth, to stimulate the development of all devices that will bring about international understanding, such as: the international exchange of university professors, teachers, pupils, international correspondence among school children, and international prize essays. Fifth, to seek means of establishing international standards of instruction, especially in literature, geography, and history, which shall develop among the pupils of all nations a common sentiment in favor of international friendliness. Sixth, to maintain an international speakers' bureau which shall consist of a list of approved speakers with the object of recommending them for the programs of international educational conferences.
The Secretary of the League visited Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, and England, and in every country found a most cordial response to the ideas both of national groups and of the international body. While attending the International Peace Congress at Stockholm, the International Congresses on Home Education and Popular Education in Brussels, the Secretary met prominent people from thirty-two different countries, and in nearly every case an organizing group was selected which can be approached to initiate work in its particular country. Steps in this direction have already been taken in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Belgium, France, and England. Last autumn the School Peace League of Great Britain and Ireland was organized on practically the same lines as the American School Peace League.
We hope to see before another year comes round the formation of several national leagues with a central administrative body which shall co-ordinate and extend these educational efforts. The work of these leagues stands for broad citizenship and calls for the support of every true educator thruout the world.
D. EDUCATION OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN H. B. PEAIRS, SUPERVISOR IN CHARGE OF INDIAN SCHOOLS, LAWRENCE, KANS.
The first tableau given on this stage on Thursday evening brought to mind
very vividly the first tableau that was ever thrown upon the screen of this country; namely, the landing of Columbus on the eastern shore of this continent. The principal characters in the picture were Columbus and his associates standing on the beach looking shoreward where stood a group of red men of the forest curiously gazing into the faces of the newcomers. After placing the flag of their country and taking possession of