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most important of these are Agra (150 sp.), Ardistonus (44 sp.), Schizogenius (25 sp.), Pelecium (24 sp.), Calophena (22 sp.), Aspidoglossa (21 sp.), and Lia, Camptodonotus, Stenocrepis, and Lachnophorus, with each more than 12 species. These are all tropical ; but there are also a number of genera (26) peculiar to Chili and South Temperate America. The most important of these are Antarctia (29 sp.), all except two or three confined to South Temperate America ; Scelodontis (10 sp.), mostly Chilian ; Feronomorpha (6 sp.) all Chilian; and Tropidopterus (4 sp.), all Chilian. Helluomorpha (18 sp.), is confined to North and South America ; Galerita, Callida, and Tetragonoderus, are large genera which are chiefly South American but with a few species scattered over the other tropical regions. Casnonia and Lebia are cosmopolite, but most abundant in South America. Pachyteles is mostly South American but with a few species in West Africa; while Lobodonotus has one species in South America and two in Africa.
Lucanidæ.—The Neotropical species of this family almost all belong to peculiar genera. Those common to other regions are Syndesus, confined to Tropical South America and Australia, and Platycerus which is Palæarctic and Nearctic, with one species in Brazil. The most remarkable genus is undoubtedly Chiasognathus, confined to Chili. These are large insects of metallic green colours, and armed with enormous serrated mandibles. The allied genera, Pholidotus and Sphenognathus, inhabit Tropical South America. Streptocerus confined to Chili, is interesting, as being allied to the Australian Lamprima. The other genera present no remarkable features ; but Sclerognathus and Leptinoptera are the most extensive.
Cetoniidæ.—These magnificent insects are but poorly represented in America; the species being mostly of sombre colours. There are 14 genera, 12 of which are peculiar. The most extensive genus is Gymnetis, which, with its allies Cotinis and Allorhina, form a group which comprehends two-thirds of the Neotropical species of the family. The only other genera of importance are, Inca (7 sp.), remarkable for their large size, and being the only American group in which horns are developed on the head; and Trigonopeltastes (6 sp.), allied to the European Trichius. The non-peculiar genera are, Stethodesma, of which half the species are African and half tropical American; and Euphoria, confined to America both North and South.
Buprestidæ.-In this fine group the Neotropical region is tolerably rich, having examples of 39 genera, 18 of which are peculiar to it. Of these, the most extensive are Conognatha and Halecia, which have a wide range over most parts of the region; and Dactylozodes, confined to the south temperate zone. Of important genera which range beyond the region, Dicerca is mainly Nearctic and Palæarctic; Cinyra has a species in North America and one in Australia; Curis is divided between Chili and Australia ; the Australian genus Siigmodera has a species in Chili; Polycesta has a species in Madagascar, two in the Mediterranean region, and a few in North America; Acherusia is divided between Australia and Brazil ; Ptosima has one species in south temperate America, the rest widely scattered from North America to the Philippines ; Actenodes has a single species in North America and another in West Africa; Colobogaster has two in West Africa, one in Java and one in the Moluccas. The relations of South America and Australia as indicated by these insects has already been sufficiently noticed under the latter region.
Longicornia.—The Neotropical Longicorn Coleoptera are overwhelming in their numbers and variety, their singularity and their beauty. In the recent Catalogue of Gemminger and Harold, it is credited with 516 genera, 489 of which are peculiar to it; while it has only 5 genera in common (exclusively) with the Nearctic, and 4 (in the same way) with the Australian region. Only the more important genera can be here referred to, under the three great families into which these insects are divided.
The Prionidæ are excessively numerous, being grouped in 64 genera, more than double the number possessed by any other region ; and 61 of these are peculiar. The three, common to other regions, are, Parandra and Mallodon, which are widely distributed ; and Eryates, found also in California and Europe. The most remarkable genera are, the magnificently-coloured P'salidognathus and Pyrodes; the large and strangely marked developed. The central and most conspicuous figure is the collared ant-eater, (Tamandua tetradactyla), one of the handsomest of the family, in its conspicuous livery of black and white. To the left are a pair of sloths (Arctopithecus flaccidus) showing the curious black spot on the back with which many of the species are marked, and which looks like a hole in the trunk of a tree; but this mark seems to be only found on the male animal. The fur of many of the sloths has a greenish tinge, and Dr. Seemann remarked its resemblance to the Tillandsia usneoides, or“ vegetable horsehair," which clothes many of the trees in Central America; and this probably conceals them from their enemies, the harpy-eagles. On the right are a pair of opossums (Didelphys azaræ), one of them swinging by its prehensile tail. Overhead in the foreground are a group of howling monkeys (Mycetes ursinus) the largest of the American Quadrumana, and the noisiest of monkeys. The large hollow vessel into which the hyoid bone is transformed, and which assists in producing their tremendous howling, is altogether unique in the animal kingdom. Below them, in the distance, are a group of Sapajou monkeys (Cebus sp.); while gaudy screaming macaws complete the picture of Brazilian forest life.
Birds.—A very large number of genera of birds, and some entire families, are confined to this sub-region, as will be seen by looking over the list of genera at the end of this chapter. We can here only notice the more important, and summarize the results. More than 120 genera of Passeres are thus limited, belonging to the following 12 families : Sylviidæ (1), Troglodytidæ (2), Cærebidæ (4), Tanagridæ (26), Fringillidæ (8), Icteridæ (5), Pteroptochidæ (3), Dendrocolaptidæ (12), Formicariidæ (16), Tyrannidæ (22), Cotingidæ (16), Pipridæ (10). Of the Picariæ there are 76 peculiar genera belonging to 9 families, viz., Picidæ (2), Rhamphastidæ (1), Cuculidæ (1), Bucconidæ (2), Galbulidæ (5), Momotidæ (2), Podargidæ (1), Caprimalgida (4) Trochilidæ (58). There are 3 peculiar genera of Psittaci, 8 of Gallinæ, the only genus of Opisthocomidæ, 3 of Accipitres, 1 of Rallidæ, Psophia and Eurypyga types of distinct families, and 1 genus of Ardeide, Palamedeidæ, and Anatidæ respectively. The preceding enumeration shows how very rich this sub-region