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The Cinclidæ consist of a number of more or less thrush-like ground-birds, of which the most remarkable are the Dippers, forming the genus Cinclus. These are curiously distributed, from the Palæarctic region as a centre, to the alpine districts of North and South America; while the three genera which are here included as somewhat allied to Cinclus, all inhabit the Oriental region. The genera which I class in this family are the following

(978) Cinclus (9 sp.), Palæarctic region to West China and Formosa, Rocky Mountains, and Mexico in North America, and southward to the Andes of Peru ; (975) Enicurus (9 sp.), Himalayas to Java and West China ; (979) Eupetes (4 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region and New Guinea ; (971) Myiophonus (5 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon, Java, South China, and Formosa.

(987) Mesites (1 sp.), Madagascar, is an anomalous bird placed with Eupetes by Mr. G. R. Gray, but of very uncertain affinities.

FAMILY 6.—TROGLODYTIDÆ. (17 Genera, 94 Species.)

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The Troglodytidæ, or Wreng, are small birds, rather abundant and varied in the Neotropical region, with a few species scattered through the Nearctic, Palæarctic, and parts of the Oriental regions, and one doubtful genus in Africa. The constitution of the family is by no means well determined. The South American genera are taken from Messrs. Sclater and Salvin's Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium.

Tesia (2 sp.), Eastern Himalayas; Pnoepyga (6 sp.), Himalayas to East Thibet, Java; (116 and 723) Troglodytes (15 sp.), Neotropical, Nearctic, and Palæarctic regions to the Higher Himalayas; (697) Rimator (1 sp.), Darjeeling; Thryothorus (13 sp.), South Brazil to Mexico, Martinique, and Nearctic region; Thryophilus (13 sp.), Brazil to Mexico, and North-west America; Cistothorus

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(5 sp.), Patagonia to Greenland; Uropsila (1 sp.), Mexico; Donacobius (2 sp.), Tropical America ; Campylorhynchus (18 sp.), Brazil, and Bolivia to Mexico and the Gila valley; Cyphorhinus (5 sp.), Equatorial South America to Costa Rica; Microcerculus (5 sp.), Brazil and Peru to Mexico; Henicorhina (2 sp.), Peru and Guiana to Costa Rica; Salpinctes (1 sp.), High Plains of Rocky Mountains; Catherpes (1 sp.), Mexico and Rio Grande; Cinnicerthia (2 sp.), Ecuador and Columbia. (760) Sylvietta (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa,—is placed in this family by Mr. Tristram.

FAMILY 7.–CHAMÆIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species).

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The bird which forms the genus Chamaa inhabits California; and though allied to the wrens it has certain peculiarities of structure which, in the opinion of many ornithologists, require that it should be placed in a distinct family.

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The Certhiidæ, or Creepers, form a small family whose species are thinly scattered over North America from Mexico, the Palæarctic region, parts of the Oriental region, and Australia, where they are somewhat more abundant. The distribution of the genera is as follows:

Certhia (6 sp.), Nearctic and Palæarctic regions, Nepal, and Sikhim; Salpornis (1 sp.), Central India; Tichodroma (1 sp.), South

Europe to Abyssinia, Nepal, and North China; Rhabdornis (1 sp.), Philippine Islands; Climacteris (8 sp.), Australia and New Guinea.

FAMILY 9.-SITTIDÆ. (6 Genera, 31 Species.)

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The Sittidæ, or Nuthatches, are another small family of treecreeping birds, whose distribution is very similar to that of the Certhüde, but with a more uniform range over the Oriental region, and extending to New Zealand and Madagascar. The genera are as follows:

Sitta (17 sp.), Palæarctic and Nearctic regions to South India and Mexico; Dendrophila (2 sp.), Ceylon and India to Burmah and Malaya ; Hypherpes (1 sp.), Madagascar ; Sittella (6 sp.), Australia and New Guinea. Acanthisitta (1 sp.) and Xenicus (4 sp.), New Zealand, are placed with some doubt in this family.

FAMILY 10.-PARIDÆ. (14 Genera, 92 Species.)

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The Paridæ, or Tits, are very abundant in the Nearctic and Palæarctic regions; many fine species are found in the Himalayas, but they are sparingly scattered through the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions. The genera usually admitted into this family are the following, but the position of some of them, especially of the Australian forms, is doubtful.

(864 – 867 870) Parus (46 sp.), North America, from Mexico, Palæarctic, and Oriental regions, Tropical and South Africa ;

(868 869

869) Lophophanes (10 sp.), Europe, the Higher Himalayas to Sikhim, North America to Mexico ; Acredula = Orites (6 sp.), Palæarctic region; Melanochlora (2 sp.), Nepal to Sumatra ; Psaltria (1 sp.), Java; Psaltriparus (3 sp.), Guatemala to California, and Rocky Mountains; Auriparus (1 sp.), Rio Grande; (881 882) Parisoma (5 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (883 884) Ægithalus (6 sp.), South-east Europe to South Africa ; (885 889) Ægithaliscus (6 sp.), Afghanistan and Himalayas to Amoy ; Cephalopyrus (1 sp.), North-west Himalayas ; Sylviparus (1 sp.), Himalayas and Central India ; Certhiparus (2 sp.), New Zealand; (879 880) Sphenostoma (2 sp.), East and South Australia.

FAMILY 11.—LIOTRICHIDÆ. (11 Genera, 35 Species.)

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The Liotrichidæ, or Hill-Tits, are small, active, delicatelycoloured birds, almost confined to the Himalayas and their extension eastward to China. They are now generally admitted to form a distinct family. The genera are distributed as follows:

(1146) Liothrix (3 sp.), Himalayas to China; Siva (3 sp.), Himalayas ; Minla (+ sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet; Proparus (7 sp.), Nepal to East Thibet and Aracan; (1153) Pteruthius (6 sp.), Himalayas to Java and West China; (1155) Cutia (2 sp.), Nepal; (1019) Yuhina (3 sp.), High Himalayas and Moupin ; (1120) Ixulus (3 sp.), Himalayas to Tenasserim; (1021) Myzornis (1 sp.), Darjeeling

FAMILY 12.—PHYLLORNITHIDÆ. (3 Genera, 14 Species.)

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The Phyllornithidæ, or“Green Bulbuls,” are a small group

of fruit-eating birds, strictly confined to the Oriental region, and ranging over the whole of it, with the one exception of the Philippine Islands. The genera are :

(1022) Phyllornis (12 sp.), India to Java, Ceylon, and Hainan; (1166) Iora (4 sp.), the whole Oriental region; (1163) Erpornis (2 sp.), Himalayas, Hainan, Formosa, and Borneo.

· Family 13.—PYCNONOTIDÆ. (9 Genera, 139 Species.)

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The Pycnonotidæ, Bulbuls, or fruit-thrushes, are highly characteristic of the Oriental region, in every part of which they abound; less plentiful in the Ethiopian region, and extending to Palestine and Japan in the Palæarctic, and to the Moluccas in the Australian region, but absent from the intervening island of Celebes. The genera are :

Microscelis (6 sp.), Burmah, the Indo-Malay Islands, and Japan ; Pycnonotus (52 sp., in many sub-genera), Palestine to South Africa, the whole Oriental region, China and Japan; Alcurus (1 sp.), Himalayas ; Hemixus (2 sp.), Nepal, Bootan, Hainan; Phyllastrephus (4 sp.), West and South Africa; Hypsipetes (20 sp.), the whole Oriental region, Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands ; Tylas (1 sp.), Madagascar ; Criniger (30 sp.), the whole Oriental region (excluding Philippines), West and South Africa, Moluccas; Ixonotus (7 sp.), West Africa; (1015 1017) Setornis (3 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo; Iole (4 sp.), Aracan and Malaya; Andropadus (9 sp.), Tropical Africa ; (1157) Lioptilus (1 sp.), South Africa.

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