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Europe to Abyssinia, Nepal, and North China; Bhabdornis (1 8p.), Philippine Islands; Climacteris (8 sp.), Australia and New Guinea.

Family 9.—SITTIDiE. (6 Genera, 31 Species.)

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The Sittidse, or Nuthatches, are another small family of treecreeping birds, whose distribution is very similar to that of the Certhiidae, but with a more uniform range over the Oriental region, and extending to New Zealand and Madagascar. The genera are as follows:—

Sitta (17 sp.), Palaearctic and Nearctic regions to South India and Mexico; Dendrophila (2 sp), Ceylon and India to Burmah and Malaya; Hypherpes (1 sp.), Madagascar; Sittella (6 sp.), Australia and New Guinea. Acanthisitta (1 sp.) and Xenicus (4 sp.), New Zealand, are placed with some doubt in this family.

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The Paridae, or Tits, are very abundant in the Nearctic and Palaearctic regions ; many fine species are found in the Himalayas, but they are sparingly scattered through the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions. The genera usually admitted into this family are the following, but the position of some of them, especially of the Australian forms, is doubtful.

(*•* m 870) Farm (46 sp.), North America, from Mexico, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions, Tropical and South Africa;

(868 869) Lophophanes (10 sp.), Europe, the Higher Himalayas to Sikhim, North America to Mexico ; Acredula = Orites (6 sp.), Palæarctic region; Melanochlora (2 sp.), Nepal to Sumatra ; Psaltria (1 sp.), Java; Psaltriparus (3 sp.), Guatemala to California, and Rocky Mountains ; Auriparus (1 sp.), Rio Grande; (881 882) Parisoma (5 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (883 884) Ægithalus (6 sp.), South-east Europe to South Africa; (885 880) Ægithaliscus (6 sp.), Afghanistan and Himalayas to Amoy ; Cephalopyrus (1 sp.), North-west Himalayas ; Sylviparus (1 sp.), Himalayas and Central India ; Certhiparus (2 sp.), New Zealand; (879 880) Sphenostoma (2 sp.), East and South Australia.

FAMILY 11.—LIOTRICHIDÆ. (11 Genera, 35 Species.)



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The Liotrichidæ, or Hill-Tits, are small, active, delicatelycoloured birds, almost confined to the Himalayas and their extension eastward to China. They are now generally admitted to form a distinct family. The genera are distributed as follows:

(1146) Liothrix (3 sp.), Himalayas to China ; Siva (3 sp.), Himalayas ; Minla (+ sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet ; Proparus (7 sp.), Nepal to East Thibet and Aracan; (1153) Pteruthius (6 sp.), Himalayas to Java and West China ; (1155) Cutia (2 sp.), Nepal; (1019) Yuhina (3 sp.), High Himalayas and Moupin ; (120) Ixulus (3 sp.), Himalayas to Tenasserim; (1021) Myzornis (1 sp.), Darjeeling.

FAMILY 12.—PHYLLORNITHIDÆ. (3 Genera, 14 Species.)






The Phyllornithidæ, or “Green Bulbuls,” are a small group of fruit-eating birds, strictly confined to the Oriental region, and ranging over the whole of it, with the one exception of the Philippine Islands. The genera are :

(1022) Phyllornis (12 sp.), India to Java, Ceylon, and Hainan; (1160) Iora (4 sp.), the whole Oriental region; (1163) Erpornis (2 sp.), Himalayas, Hainan, Formosa, and Borneo.

· FAMILY 13.–PYCNONOTIDÆ. (9 Genera, 139 Species.)

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The Pycnonotidæ, Bulbuls, or fruit-thrushes, are highly characteristic of the Oriental region, in every part of which they abound; less plentiful in the Ethiopian region, and extending to Palestine and Japan in the Palæarctic, and to the Moluccas in the Australian region, but absent from the intervening island of Celebes. The genera are :

Microscelis (6 sp.), Burmah, the Indo-Malay Islands, and Japan ; Pycnonotus (52 sp., in many sub-genera), Palestine to South Africa, the whole Oriental region, China and Japan; Alcurus (1 sp.), Himalayas ; Hemixus (2 sp.), Nepal, Bootan, Hainan; Phyllastrephus (4 sp.), West and South Africa ; Hypsipetes (20 sp.), the whole Oriental region, Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands ; Tylas (1 sp.), Madagascar ; Criniger (30 sp.), the whole Oriental region (excluding Philippines), West and South Africa, Moluccas; Ixonotus (7 sp.), West Africa; (1015 1017) Setornis (3 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo; Tole (4 sp.), Aracan and Malaya; Andropadus (9 sp.), Tropical Africa; (1157) Lioptilus (1 sp.), South Africa.

FAMILY 14.-ORIOLIDÆ. (5 Genera, 40 Species.)

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The Orioles, or Golden Thrushes, are a small group characteristic of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, migrating into the western Palæarctic region, and with some of the less typical forms in Australia. The genera are :

Oriolus (24 sp.), Central Europe, throughout Africa, and the whole Oriental region, northward to Pekin, and eastward to Flores ; (1073) Analcipus (3 sp.), Himalayas, Formosa, Java and Borneo; Mimeta (9 sp.), the Moluccas and Australia ; Sphecotheres (3 sp.), Timor and Australia. Artamia (1 sp.), Madagascar, perhaps belongs to the next family or to Laniidæ.

FAMILY 15.—CAMPEPHAGIDÆ. (3 Genera, 100 Species.)




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The Campephagidæ, or Cuckoo Shrikes, (Campephaginæ of the Hand List, with the addition of Cochoa) are most abundant in the Australian region (especially in the Austro-Malay subregion) less so in the Oriental, and still less in the Ethiopian region. The genera, for the most part as adopted by Dr. Hartlaub, are as follows :

Pericrocotus (22 sp.), the whole Oriental region, extending north to Pekin, and east to Lombok; (1242 — 1244) Lanicterus (4 sp.), West and South Africa ; (1245 1246) Graucalus (25 sp.), the whole Oriental region, and eastward to Austro-Malaya, the New

Hebrides, and Tasmania ; Artamides (1 sp.), Celebes ; Pteropo docys (1 sp.), Australia ; (1248 1250 1257 1258) Campephaga (16 sp.), Austro-Malaya, and New Caledonia, Philippines, the Ethiopian region; Volrocirora (8 sp.) the Oriental region (excluding Philippines); Lalage (18 sp.), the whole Malay Archipelago to New Caledonia and Australia ; Symmorphus (1 sp.), Australia ; Oxynotus (2 sp.), Mauritius and Bourbon; (1204) Cochoa (3 sp.), Himalayas, Java. The position of this last genus is doubtful. Jerdon puts it in the Liotrichidæ ; Sundeval in the Sturnidæ ; Bonaparte in the Dicruridæ; Professor Newton suggests the Pycnonotidæ; but it seems on the whole best placed here.

FAMILY 16.—DICRURIDÆ. (6 Genera, 58 Species.)

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The Dicruridæ, or Drongo Shrikes (Dicruridæ of the Hand List, omitting the genus Melænornis), have nearly the same distribution as the last family, with which they are sometimes united. They are, however, most abundant and varied in the Oriental region, much less so both in the Australian and Ethiopian regions. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Dicrurus (46 sp., in several sub-genera), has the range of the whole family, extending east to New Ireland, and one species in Australia ; Chætorhynchus (1 sp.), New Guinea; Bhringa (2 sp.), Himalayas to Borneo (Plate IX. vol. i. p. 339); Chibia (2 sp.) Himalayas eastward to North China ; Chaptia (3 sp.), all India to Malacca and Formosa ; Irena (4 sp.), Central India, Assam, and Burmah to Borneo and the Philippine Islands. This last genus is placed by Jerdon among the Pycnonotidæ, but seems to come most naturally here or in the last family.

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