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The Corvidæ, or Crows, Jays, &c., form an extensive and somewhat heterogeneous group, some members of which inhabit almost every part of the globe, although none of the genera are cosmopolitan. The true crows are found everywhere but in South America ; the magpies, choughs, and nutcrackers are characteristic of the Palæarctic region; the jays are Palæarctic, Oriental, and American ; while the piping crows are peculiarly Australian. The more detailed distribution of the genera is as follows:
Sub-family I. Gymnorhininæ (Piping Crows).–Strepera (4 sp.), and Gymnorhina (3 sp.), are Australian only; Cracticus (9 sp.), ranges from New Guinea to Tasmania (this is usually pu with the Shrikes, but it has more affinity with the preceding genera); Pityriasis (1 sp.), Borneo (an extraordinary bird of very doubtful affinities); Grallina (1 sp.), Australia, is put here by Sundevall,—among Motacillidæ, by Gould.
Sub-family II. Garrulinæ (Jays).—Platylophus Lophocitta (4 sp.), Malaya ; Garrulus (12 sp.), Palæarctic region, China and Himalayas ; Perisoreus (2 sp.), North of Palæarctic and Nearctic regions; Cyanurus (22 sp.), American, from Bolivia to Canada, most abundant in Central America, but absent from the Antilles ; Cyanocorax (15 sp.), La Plata to Mexico; Calocitta (2 sp.), Guatemala and Mexico; Psilorhinus (3 sp.), Costa Rica to Texas; Urocissa (6 sp.), Western Himalayas to China and Formosa ; Cissa (3 sp.), South-eastern Himalayas to Tenasserim, Ceylon, Sumatra, and Java.
Sub-family III. Dendrocittinæ (Tree Crows).— Temnurus (3 sp.), Cochin China, Malacca to Borneo (not Java); Dendrocitto (9 sp.), the Oriental region to Sumatra, Hainan, and Formosa; Crypsirhina (3 sp.), Pegu, Siam, and Java; Ptilostomus (2 sp.), West, East, and South Africa.
Sub-family IV. Corvinæ (Crows and Magpies).-Nucifraga (4 sp.), Palæarctic region to the Himalayas and North China; Picicorrus (1 sp.), the Rocky Mountains and California ; Gym nokitta (1 sp.), Rocky Mountains and Arizona (Plate XVIII., Vol. II., p. 128); Pica (9 sp.), Palæarctic region, Arctic America, and California; Cyanopica (3 sp.), Spain, North-east Asia, Japan;
Streptocitta (2 sp.), Celebes ; Charitornis (1 sp.), Sula Islands; Corvus (55 sp.), universally distributed except South America and New Zealand, but found in Guatemala and the Antilles to Porto Rico; reaches the extremue north of Europe and Asia; Gymnocorvus (2 sp.), Papuan Islands; Picathartes (1 sp.), West Africa ; Corvultur (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa.
Sub-family V. Fregilinæ (Choughs).— Fregilus (3 sp.), moun. tains and cliffs of Palæarctic region from West Europe to the Himalayas and North China, Abyssinia (Plate I., Vol. I., p. 195); Corcorax (1 sp.), Australia.
FAMILY 21.-PARADISEIDÆ. (19 Genera, 34 Species.) )
The Paradiseidæ, or Birds of Paradise,” form one of the most remarkable families of birds, unsurpassed alike for the singularity and the beauty of their plumage. Till recently the family was restricted to about eight species of the more typical Paradise birds, but in his splendid monograph of the group, Mr. Elliot has combined together a number of allied forms which had been doubtfully placed in several adjacent families. The various species of true Paradise birds, having ornamental plumes developed from different parts of the body, are almost wholly confined to New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan Islands, one species only being found in the Moluccas and one in North Australia ; while the less typical Bower-birds, having no such developments of plumage, are most characteristic of the north and east of Australia, with a few species in New Guinea. The distribution of the genera according to Mr. Elliot's monograph is as follows :
Sub-family I. Paradiseinæ.—Paradiseа (4 sp.), Papuan Islands; Manucodia (3 sp.), Papuan Islands and North Australia; Astrapia (1 sp.), New Guinea; Parotia (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Lophorhina (1 sp.), New Guinea; Diphyllodes (3 sp.), Papuan
Islands ; Xanthomelus (1 sp.), New Guinea; Cicinnurus (1 sp.), Papuan Islands; Paradigalla (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Semioptera (1 sp.), Gilolo and Batchian.
Sub-family II. Epimachinæ.- Epimachus (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Drepanornis (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Seleucides (1 sp.), New Guinea (Plate X., Vol. I., p. 414); Ptilorhis (4 sp.), New Guinea and North Australia.
Sub-family III. Tectonarchinæ (Bower-birds).--Sericulus (1 sp.), Eastern Australia ; Ptilonorhynchus (1 sp.), Eastern Australia; Chlamydodera (4 sp.), North and East Australia; Ælurædus (3 sp.), Papuan Islands and East Australia ; Amblyornis (1 sp.), New Guinea.
FAMILY 22.—MELIPHAGIDÆ. (23 Genera, 190 Species.)
(As in the Hand List, but omitting Zosterops, and slightly
altering the arrangement.) The extensive group of the Meliphagidæ, or Honey-suckers, is wholly Australian, for the genus Zosterops, which extends into the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, does not naturally belong to it. Several of the genera are confined to Australia, others to New Zealand, while a few range over the whole Australian region. The genera are distributed as follows
Myzomela (18 sp.), has the widest range, extending from Celebes to the Samoa Islands, and to Timor and Eastern Australia; Entomophila (4 sp.), Australia and New Guinea; Gliciphila (10 sp.), Australia, Timor, New Guinea, and New Caledonia ; Acanthorhynchus (2 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Meliphaga (1 sp.), Australia ; Ptilotis (40 sp.), Gilolo and Lombok to Australia and Tasmania, and to the Samoa and Tonga Islands; Meliornis (5 sp.). Australia and Tasmania; Prosthemadera (1 sp.), Pogonornis (1 sp.), New Zealand ; Anthornis (4 sp.), New Zealand and Chatham Islands; Anthochæra (4 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Xan
thotis (4 sp.), Papuan Islands and Australia ; Leptornis (2 sp.), Samoa Islands and New Caledonia; Philemon = Tropidorhyncus (18 sp.), Moluccas and Lombok to New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania and New Caledonia; Entomiza (2 sp.), Australia ; Manorhina (5 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Euthyrhynchus (3 sp.), New Guinea; Melirrhophetes (2 sp.), New Guinea ; Melidectes (1 sp.), New Guinea; Melipotes (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Melithreptus (8 sp.), New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania; (397) Moho (3 sp.), Sandwich Islands; Chætoptila (1 sp.), Sandwich Islands.
FAMILY 23.---NECTARINIIDÆ. (11 Genera, 122 Species.)
The Nectariniidæ, or Sun-birds, form a rather extensive group of insectivorous honey-suckers, often adorned with brilliant metallic plumage, and bearing a superficial resemblance to the American humming-birds, although not in any way related to them. They abound in the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, as far east as New Ireland, and south to Queensland, while one species inhabits the hot Jordan Valley in the Palaarctic region. For the Eastern genera I follow Lord Walden's classification (Ibis, 1870); the African species not having been so carefully studied are mostly placed in one genus. The genera adopted are as follows:
Promerops (1 sp.), South Africa; Nectarinia (60 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region; Cinnyricinclus (5 sp.), West Africa ; Neodrepanis (1 sp.), Madagascar; Arachnecthra (13 sp.), Palestine, all India to Hainan, the Papuan Islands, and North-east Australia ; Æthopyga (15 sp.), Himalayas and Central India to West China, Hainan, Java, and Northern Celebes; Nectarophila (5 sp.), Central India and Ceylon, Assam and Aracan to Java, Celebes and the Philippines; Chalcostetha (6 sp.), Malay Peninsula to New Guinea; Anthreptes (1 sp.), Siam, Malay Peninsula to
Sula Islands, and Flores; Cosmeteira (1 sp.), Papuan Islands ; Arachnothera (15 sp.), the Oriental region (excluding Philippines) Celebes, Lombok, and Papuan Islands.
FAMILY 24.-DICÆIDÆ. (5 Genera, 107 Species.)
The Dicæidæ, or Flower-peckers, consist of very small, gailycoloured birds, rather abundant over the whole Oriental and much of the Australian regions, and one genus extending over the Ethiopian region. The genera here adopted are the following
(622) Zosterops (68 sp.), the whole Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, as far east as the Fiji Islands, and north to Pekin and Japan; (400 – 403) Dicæun (25 sp.), the whole Oriental region, except China, with the Australian region as far as the Solomon Islands; (404) Pachyglossa (2 sp. 1437 1442), Nepal and Northern Celebes ; (405) Piprisoma (2 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon and Timor; (1450) Pardalotus (10 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; (407 — 409) Prionochilus (5 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region and Papuan Islands.
FAMILY 25.—DREPANIDIDÆ. (4 Genera, 8 Species.)
The Drepanididæ are confined to the Sandwich Islands, and I follow Mr. Sclater's suggestion in bringing together the following genera to form this family :
Drepanis (3 sp.); Hemignathus (3 sp.); Loxops (1 sp.) ; Psittirostra (1 sp.). If these are correctly associated, the great