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FAMILY 100.-SCOLOPACIDÆ. (21 Genera, 121 Species.)
The Scolopacidæ, comprehending the Snipes, Sandpipers, Curlews, and allied genera, are perhaps as truly cosmopolitan as any family of birds, ranging to the extreme north and visiting the remotest islands. The genera of universal distribution are the following :
Numenius (16 sp.); Limosa (6 sp.); Totanus (12 sp.) ; Tringoides, (6 sp.) ; Himantopus (6 sp.); Tringa (20 sp.); and Gallinago (24 sp.). Those which have a more or less restricted distribution are:
Ibidorhyncha (1 sp.), Central Asia and the Himalayas (Plate VII. Vol. I. p. 331); Helodromas (1 sp.), Palæarctic region and North India ; Terekia (1 sp.), East Palæarctic, wandering to India and Australia ; Recurvirostra (6 sp.), Nearctic region to the High Andes, South Palæarctic, East and South Africa, Hindostan and Australia ; Micropelama (1 sp.), North America to Chili; Machetes (1 sp.), Palæarctic region and Hindostan (Plate I. Vol. I. p. 195); Ereunetes (3 sp.), Nearctic and Neotropical ; Eurinorhynchus (1 sp.), North-east Asia and Bengal; Calidris (1 sp.), all regions but Australian ; Macrorhamphus (3 sp.), Palæarctic and Nearctic, visits Brazil and India ; Scolopax (4 sp.), the whole Palæarctic region, to India, Java, and Australia ; Philohela (1 sp.), East Nearctic; Rhynchæa (4 sp.), Ethiopian and Oriental, Australia, and Temperate South America ; Phalaropus (3 sp.), North Temperate zone, and West Coast of America to Chili.
FAMILY 101.—CHIONIDIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)
The Sheath-bills, Chionis (2 sp.), are curious white birds, whose thick bill has a horny sheath at the base. Their nearest ally is Hæmatopus, a genus of Charadriidæ. These birds are confined to the Antarctic Islands, especially the Falkland Islands, the Crozets and Kerguelen's Land.
FAMILY 102.—THINOCORIDÆ. (2 Genera, 6 Species.)
The Thinocoridæ, or Quail-snipes, are small birds, confined to Temperate South America. They have much the appearance of Quails but are more nearly allied to Plovers. The two genera
Attagis (4 sp.), Falkland Islands, Straits of Magellan, Chili, Bolivia, and the High Andes of Peru and Ecuador; Thinocorus (2 sp.), La Plata, Chili, and Peru. (Plate XVI. Vol. II. p. 40.)
The Parridæ, or Jacanas, are remarkable long-toed birds, often of elegant plumage, frequenting swamps and marshes, and walking on the floating leaves of aquatic plants. They are found in all the tropics. Parra (10 sp.), has the distribution of the family; Hydrophasianus (1 sp.), is confined to the Oriental region.
FAMILY 104.-GLAREOLIDÆ (3 Genera, 20 Species.)
This family, comprising the Pratincoles and Coursers, is universally distributed over the Old World and to Australia.
Glareola (9 sp.), has the distribution of the family; Pluvianus (1 sp.), is confined to North Africa; Cursorius (10 sp.), ranges over Africa, South Europe and India.
The position of the genus Glareola is uncertain, for though generally classed here, Prof. Lilljeborg considers it to be an aberrant form of the Caprimulgidæ! It differs, in its insectivorous habits and in many points of external structure, from all its allies, and should probably form a distinct family.
FAMILY 105.-CHARADIIDÆ. (19 Genera, 101 Species.)
The extensive family of the Plovers and their numerous allies, ranges over the whole globe. The genera now usually admitted into this family are the following :
Edicnemus (9 sp.), is only absent from North America ; Esacus (2 sp.), India to Ceylon, Malay Islands and Australia ;
FAMILY 110.—PSOPHIIDÆ. (1 Genus, 6 Species.)
The remarkable and beautiful birds called Trumpeters, are confined to the various parts of the Amazon valley; and it is an interesting fact, that the range of each species appears to be bounded by some of the great rivers. Thus, Psophia crepitans inhabits the interior of Guiana as far as the south bank of the Rio Negro; on the opposite or north bank of the Rio Negro Psophia ochroptera is found; beyond the next great rivers, Japura and Iça, Psophia napensis occurs; on the south bank of the Amazon, west of the Madeira, we have the beautiful Psophia leucoptera ; east of the Madeira this is replaced by Psophia viridis, while near Pará, beyond the Tapajoz, Xingu and Tocantins, there is another species, Psophia obscura. Other species may exist in the intervening river districts ; but we have here, apparently, a case of a number of well-marked species of birds capable of flight, yet with their range in certain directions accurately defined by great rivers. (Plate XV. Vol. II. p. 28.)
Family 111.- EURYPYGIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)
The Eurypygidæ, or Sun-Bitterns, are small heron-like birds with beautifully-coloured wings, which frequent the muddy and wooded river-banks of tropical America. The only genus, Eurypyga (2 sp.), ranges from Central America to Brazil.
The Gruidæ, or Cranes, are found in all the regions except the Neotropical.
Grus (12 sp.) inhabits the southern and western United States, the whole Palæarctic region, South-east Africa, India, and Australia; Anthropoides (2 sp.), Europe, North and South Africa and India; Balearica (2 sp.), the Ethiopian region (except Madagascar).
FAMILY 108.—CARIAMIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)
The genus Cariama (2 sp.), consists of remarkable crested birds inhabiting the mountains and open plains of Brazil and La Plata. In the British Museum Catalogue of the Birds of Prey, they are classed as aberrant Falconidæ, but their anomalous characters seem to require them to be placed in a distinct family, which seems better placed among the Waders.
FAMILY 109.—ARAMIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)
The Guaraünas are birds which have somewhat the appearance of Herons, but which are usually classed with the Rails. They are now, however, considered to form a distinct family. The only genus, Aramus (2 sp.), inhabits the Neotropical region, from Mexico and Cuba to Central Brazil.