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FAMILY 110.-PSOPHIIDÆ. (1 Genus, 6 Species.)

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The remarkable and beautiful birds called Trumpeters, are confined to the various parts of the Amazon valley; and it is an interesting fact, that the range of each species appears to be bounded by some of the great rivers. Thus, Psophia crepitans inhabits the interior of Guiana as far as the south bank of the Rio Negro; on the opposite or north bank of the Rio Negro Psophia ochroptera is found; beyond the next great rivers, Japura and Iça, Psophia napensis occurs; on the south bank of the Amazon, west of the Madeira, we have the beautiful Psophia leucoptera ; east of the Madeira this is replaced by Psophia viridis, while near Pará, beyond the Tapajoz, Xingu and Tocantins, there is another species, Psophia obscura. Other species may exist in the intervening river districts; but we have here, apparently, a case of a number of well-marked species of birds capable of flight, yet with their range in certain directions accurately defined by great rivers. (Plate XV. Vol. II. p. 28.)

Family 111.-EURYPYGIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

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The Eurypygidæ, or Sun-Bitterns, are small heron-like birds with beautifully-coloured wings, which frequent the muddy and wooded river-banks of tropical America. The only genus, Eurypyga (2 sp.), ranges from Central America to Brazil.

FAMILY 112.-RHINOCHETIDÆ (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

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The genus Rhinochetus (1 sp.), consists of a singular bird called the Kagu, which inhabits New Caledonia, an island which may be placed with almost equal propriety in our 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Australian sub-regions. It is a bird of a bluis ash-colour, with a loose plumage, partaking something of the appearance of Rail, Plover, and Heron, but with peculiarities of structure which require it to be placed in a distinct family. Its anatomy shows that its nearest allies are the South American genera, Eurypyga and Psophia.

FAMILY 113.-ARDEIDÆ. (5 Genera, 80 Species.) )

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The well-known Herons and Bitterns are found in every part of the globe, and everywhere closely resemble each other. Omitting the minuter sub-divisions, the genera are as follows:

Ardea (60 sp.), cosmopolitan ; Botaurus (6 sp.), almost cosmopolitan ; Tigrisoma (4 sp.), Tropical America and West Africa; Nycticorax (9 sp.), cosmopolitan ; Cancroma (1 sp.), Tropical America

VOL. II.-24

FAMILY 114.—PLATALEIDÆ. (6 Genera, 30 Species.)

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The Plataleidæ, including the Spoonbills and Ibises, have been classed either with the Herons or the Storks, but have most affinity with the latter. Though not very numerous they are found over the greater part of the globe, except the colder zones and the Pacific Islands. The following is the distribution of the genera :

Platalea (6 sp.), all the warmer parts of the globe except the Moluccas and Pacific Islands; Ibis (2 sp.), Temperate North America and Tropical South America ; Falcinellus (2 sp.), almost cosmopolitan ; Geronticus (19 sp.), all Tropical countries and Temperate South America ; Scopus (1 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Balæniceps (1 sp.), the Upper Nile. This last genus the “Shoe-bird,” or boat-billed heron, perhaps forms a distinct family.

FAMILY 115.-CICONIIDÆ (5 Genera, 20 Species.)

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The Ciconiidæ, or Storks, are mostly an Old World family, only three species inhabiting the Neotropical, and one, the Nearctic region. They are also absent from the islands of the Pacific, the Antilles, and, with one exception, from Madagascar. The genera are as follows:

Ciconia (6 sp.), ranges through the Palæarctic, Ethiopian and

Oriental regions as far as Celebes, and in South America; Mycteria (4 sp.), inhabits Africa, India, Australia and the Neotropical region ; Leptopiltus (3 sp.), the Ethiopian and Oriental regions to Java; Tantalus (5 sp.), the Ethiopian, Oriental and Neotropical regions, and the South-east of North America; Anastonius (2 sp.), the Ethiopian region, and India to Ceylon.

FAMILY 116.—PALAMEDEIDÆ. (2 Genera, 3 Species.)

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The Palamedeidæ, or Screamers, are curious semi-aquatic birds of doubtful affinities, perhaps intermediate between Gallinæ and Anseres. They are peculiar to South America. The genera are :

Palamedea : (1 sp.), which inhabits the Amazon valley; Chauna (2 sp.), La Plata, Brazil and Columbia.

FAMILY 117.-PHENICOPTERIDÆ. (1 Genus, 8 Species.)

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The Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus) seem peculiar to the Ethiopian and Neotropical regions, ranging from the former into India and South Europe. America has four species, inhabiting Chili and La Plata, the Galapagos, Mexico and the West Indian islands; the others range over all Africa, South Europe, India and Ceylon. These singular birds are placed by some authors near the Spoonbills and Ibises, by others with the Geese. Professor Huxley considers them to be “completely

intermediate between the Anserine birds on the one side and the Storks and Herons on the other.” The pterolysis according to Nitzsch is “completely stork-like.”

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General Remarks on the Distribution of the Grallce, or Wading

and Running Birds. The Waders, as a rule, are birds of very wide distribution, the four largest families Rallidæ, Scolopacidæ, Charadriidæ and Ardeidæ, being quite cosmopolitan, as are many of the genera. But there are also a number of small families of very restricted distribution, and these all occur in the two most isolated regions, the Neotropical and the Australian. The Neotropical region is by far the richest in varied forms of Waders, having representatives of no less than 15 out of the 19 families, while 7 are altogether peculiar to it. The Australian region has 11 families, with 1 peculiar. The other two tropical regions each possess 11 families, but none are peculiar. The Palæarctic region has 10, and the Nearctic 7 families. No less than three families—Chionididæ, Thinocoridæ, and Cariamidæare confined to the Temperate regions and highlands of South America ; while four others,—Aramidæ, Psophiidæ, Eurypygidæ and Palamedeidæ,-are found in Tropical America only ; and these present such an array of peculiar and interesting forms as no other part of the globe can furnish. The Phænicopteridæ or Flamingoes, common to the Tropical regions of Asia, Africa and America, but absent from Australia, is the only other feature of general interest presented by the distribution of the Waders.

The Order contains about 610 species, which gives about 32 species to each family, a smaller average than in the Gallinæ or Accipitres, and only about one-fourth of the average number in the Passeres. This is partly due to the unusual number of very small families, and partly to the wide average range of the species, which prevents that specialization of forms that occurs in the more sedentary groups of birds.

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