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Order IX.-ANSERES.

Family 118.—ANATIDÆ. (40 Genera, 180 Species.)

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The Anatidæ, comprehending the Ducks, Geese, and Swans with their allies, are of such universal distribution that there is probably no part of the globe where some of them are not occasionally found. They are, however, most abundant in temperate and cold regions; and, contrary to what occurs in most other families, the most beautifully-coloured species are extratropical, and some even arctic. The distribution of the genera is as follows:

Anseranas (1 sp.), Australia ; Plectropterus (2 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Sarkidiornis (1 sp.), South America, Africa, and India; Chenalopex (1 sp.), Amazonia ; Callochen (1 sp.), South Europe, North, East, and South Africa; Cereopsis (1 sp.), Australia ; Anser (13 sp.), Palæarctic and Nearctic regions to Central America and the Antilles ; Bernicla (12 sp.), Temperate regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres ; Chloephaga (5 sp.), South Temperate America and Aleutian Islands; Nettapus (4 sp.), Tropical Africa and Madagascar, India and Ceylon to Malaya and Australia ; Cygnus (10 sp.), Temperate regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres; Dendrocygna (10 sp.), Tropical and sub-tropical regions; Tadorna (3 sp.), Palæarctic and Australian regions; Casarca (5 sp.), Palæarctic, Oriental, Ethiopian, and Australian regions, to New Zealand; Aix (2 sp.), Temperate North America and Eastern Asia ; Mareca (4 sp.), Palæarctic region, North America, Temperate South America, and Australia ; Dafila (3 sp.), all America and the Palæarctic region; Anas (16 sp.), cosmopolitan; Querquedula (17 sp.),

cosmopolitan; Chaulelasmus (2 sp.), Palæarctic region and North America; Spatula (5 sp.), all Temperate regions ; Malacorhynchus (1 sp.), Australia ; Cairina (1 sp.), Tropical South America; Branta (1 sp.), Palæarctic region and India; Fuligula (5 sp.), North Temperate regions and New Zealand; Æthya (5 sp.), Palæarctic and Nearctic regions, India, Australia, and South Africa; Metopiana (1 sp.), South Temperate America ; Bucephala (4 sp.), Nearctic and Palæarctic regions; Harelda (2 sp.), Northern Palæartic and Nearctic regions; Hymenolaimus (1 sp.), New Zealand; Camptolaimus (1 sp.), North-east of North America ; Micropterus (1 sp.), Temperate South America ; Somateria (5 sp.), Arctic and sub-arctic regions; Edemia (5 sp.), Nearctic and Palæarctic regions; Biziura (1 sp.), Australia ; Thalassornis (1 sp.), South Africa; Erismatura (6 sp.), all America, Southeast Europe and South Africa; Nesonetta (1 sp.), Auckland Islands ; Merganetta (3 sp.), Andes of Columbia to Chili; Mergus (6 sp.), Palæarctic and Nearctic regions, Brazil, and the Auckland Islands.

FAMILY 119.—LARIDÆ. (13 Genera, 132 Species.)

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The Laridæ, or Gulls and Terns, are true cosmopolites, inhabiting the shores and islands of every zone; and most of the genera have also a wide range. They are therefore of little use in the study of geographical distribution. The genera are as follows:

Stercorarius (6 sp.), cosmopolitan, most abundant in cold and temperate zones ; Rhodostethia (1 sp.), North America; Larus (60 sp.). cosmopolitan ; Xema (1 sp.), North Temperate zone; Creagrus (1 sp.), North Pacific; Pagophila (1 sp.), Arctic seas; Rissa (3 sp.), Arctic and Northern seas; Sterna (36 sp.), cosmopolitan ; Hydrochelidon (12 sp.), Tropical and Temperate zones;

Gygis (1 sp.), Indian Ocean and Tropical Pacific Islands; Anous (6 sp.), Tropical and Temperate zones ; Nænia (1 sp.), South Temperate America ; Rhynchops (3 sp.), Tropical America, Africa, and India.

FAMILY 120.-PROCELLARIIDÆ (6 Genera, 96 Species.)

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The Procellariidæ, comprising the Shearwaters, Petrels, and Albatrosses, are universally distributed, but some of the genera are local.

Puffinus (20 sp.), Procellaria (18 sp.), and Fulmarus (40 sp.), are cosmopolitan; Prion (5 sp.) and Pelecanoides (3 sp.), belong to the South Temperate and Antarctic regions; Diomedia (10 sp.), coniprises the Albatrosses, which are tropical, occasionally wandering into temperate seas.

FAMILY 121.—PELECANIDÆ. (6 Genera, 61 Species.)

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The Pelecanidæ, comprising the Gannets, Pelicans, Darters, and Frigate-Birds, although universally distributed, are more abundant in tropical and temperate regions.

Sula (8 sp.) and Phalacrocorax (35 sp.), are cosmopolitan ; Pelecanus (9 sp.) is tropical and temperate; Fregetta (2 sp.) and Phaeton (3 sp.) are confined to Tropical seas; Ptotus (4 sp.) to Tropical and warm Temperate zones.

FAMILY 122.-SPHENISCIDÆ. (3 Genera, 18 Species.)

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The Penguins are entirely confined to the Antarctic and South Temperate regions, except two species which are found on the coast of Peru and the Galapagos. They are most plentiful in the southern parts of South America, Australia, New Zealand, and most of the Antarctic islands, and one or two species are found at the Cape of Good Hope. The genera as given in the Hand List are:

Spheniscus (1 sp.), South Africa and Cape Horn; Eudyptes (15 sp.), with the range of the family; Aptenodytes (2 sp.), Antarctic Islands.

Family 123.-COLYMBIDÆ. (1 Genus, 4 Species.)

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The Northern Divers are confined to the Arctic and North Temperate Seas. The only genus, Colymbus, has one species confined to the West Coast of North America, the others being common to the two northern continents.

FAMILY 124.–PODICIPIDÆ. (2 Genera, 33 Species.)

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The Grebes are universally distributed. The genera are Podiceps (26 sp.), cosmopolitan ; and Podilymbus (2 sp.), confined to North and South America. Some ornithologists group these birds with the Colymbidæ.

FAMILY 125.-ALCIDÆ (7 Genera, 28 Species.)

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The Alcidæ, comprising the Auks, Guillemots, and Puffins, are confined to the North Temperate and Arctic regions, where they represent the Penguins of the Antarctic lands. One of the most remarkable of these birds, the Great Auk, formerly abundant in the North Atlantic, is now extinct. The genera are as follows:

Alca (2 sp.), North Atlantic and Arctic seas; Fratercula (4 sp.), Arctic and North Temperate zones; Ceratorhina (2 sp.), North Pacific; Simorhynchus (8 sp.), North Pacific; Brachythamphus (3 sp.), North Pacific to Japan and Lower California; Uria (8 sp.), Arctic and North Temperate zones; Mergulus (1 sp.), North Atlantic and Arctic Seas. The last three genera constitute the family Uriidæ, of some ornithologists.

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Anseres. The Anseres, or Swimmers, being truly aquatic birds, possess, as might be expected, a large number of cosmopolitan families and genera. No less than 5 out of the 8 families have a worldwide distribution, and the others are characteristic either of the North or the South Temperate zones. Hence arises a peculiarity of distribution to be found in no other order of birds ; the Temperate being richer than the Tropical regions. The Nearctic and Palæarctic regions each have seven families of Anseres, two of which, the Colymbidæ and Alcidæ, are peculiar to them. The Ethiopian, Australian, and Neotropical regions, which all

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