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large species belonging to the Pythonidæ, so that we are evidently still very far from knowing anything of the earliest forms of this order. In some of the later Tertiary deposits the poison fangs of venomous species have been found; also a Colubrine snake from the Upper Miocene of the South of France.


FAMILY 26.—TROGONOPHIDÆ (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

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The single species of Trogonophis, forming this family, is found only in North Africa.

FAMILY 27.-CHIROTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

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Chirotes, the genus which constitutes this family, inhabits Mexico, and has also been found in Missouri, one of the Southern United States.

FAMILY 28.-AMPHISBÆNIDÆ. (1 Genus, 13 Species.)

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The Amphisbænidæ, which, in the opinion of Dr. Günther, are all comprised in the genus Amphisbvena, inhabit Spain and Asia Minor, North and Tropical Africa, South America as far as Buenos-Ayres and the West Indian Islands.

FAMILY 29.–LEPIDOSTERNIDÆ. (3 Genera, 6 Species.)

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The small family of Lepidosternidæ has nearly the same distribution as the last, indicating a curious relationship between the Tropical parts of Africa and America. Lepidosternon and Cephalopeltis are American genera, while Monotrophis is African.

FAMILY 30.—VARANIDÆ. (3 Genera, 30 Species.)

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The Varanidæ, or Water Lizards, are most abundant in the Oriental region, whence they extend into the Austro-Malay Islands as far as New Guinea, and into Australia. Several species are found in Africa. Psammosaurus (1 sp.), is found in North Africa and North-western India ; Monitor (18 sp.), has the range of the family; while Hydrosaurus (8 sp.) ranges from Siam to the Philippines, New. Guinea, and Australia.

FAMILY 31.-HELODERMIDÆ (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

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The genus Heloderma, which constitutes this family, is found n Mexico.

FAMILY 32.—TEIDÆ. (12 Genera, 74 Species.)

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The Teidæ, or Teguexins—a group of Lizards allied to the European Lacertidæ, but with differently formed superciliary scales—are highly characteristic of the Neotropical region, abounding almost everywhere from Patagonia to the Antilles and Mexico, and extending northwards to California on the west and to Pennsylvania on the east. The most extensive genus is Ameiva, containing nearly 60 species and having the range of the entire family; Teius (3 sp.), inhabits Brazil and Mendoza; Callopistes (2 sp.), Chili; Centropyx (3 sp.), Paraguay to Alabama; Dicrodon (Peru); Monoplocus (Western Ecuador)s with Acrantus, Acanthopyga, Emminia, Crocodilurus, Custa, and Ada, which each consist of a single species, and all inhabit Tropical America.

FAMILY 33.—LACERTIDÆ. (18 Genera, 80 Species.)

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The Lacertidæ, or Land Lizards, are small-sized, terrestrial, non-burrowing lizards, very characteristic of the Palæarctic region, which contains more than half the known species, and of the adjacent parts of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, but extending also to South Africa, to Java, and even to Australia. The best-defined genera are the following

Lacerta (10 sp.), ranging over all Central and South Europe to Poland, and farther north in Russia and Siberia, eastward to Persia, and southward to North and West Africa ; Zootoca (8 sp.), has nearly the same range in Europe as the last genus, but has representatives in Madeira, South Africa, and Australia; Tachydromus (7 sp.) is widely scattered in Chinese Asia, Japan, Borneo, and West Africa ; Acanthodactylus (10 sp.) is most abundant in North Africa, but has a species in South Africa, and two in Central India; Eremias (18 sp.) is found all over Africa, and also in the Crimea, Persia, Tartary and China; Psammodromus (2 sp.), is confined to Spain, France, and Italy ; Ophiops (6 sp.), inhabits India, Persia, and Asia Minor to South Russia. Less strongly marked and perhaps less natural genera are the following:

Thetia (1 sp.), Algiers; Teira (1 sp.), Madeira; Nucras (4 sp.), Caucasus and South Africa; Notopholis (4 sp.), South Europe and South Africa; Algira (3 sp.), North and South Africa; Scrapteira (1 sp.), Nubia ; Aspidorhinus (1 sp.), Caspian district; Messalina (4 sp.), North Africa, Persia, and North-West India; Cabrita(1 sp.), Central India; Pachyrhynchus (1 sp.), Benguela.

FAMILY 34.-ZONURIDÆ. (15 Genera, 52 Species.)

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The Zonuridæ, or Land Lizards, characterised by a longitudinal fold of skin on each side of the body, have a very remarkable

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distribution. Their head-quarters is the Ethiopian region, which contains more than half the known genera and species, most of which are found in South Africa and several in Madagascar. Next to Africa the largest number of genera and species are found in Mexico and Central America with a few in the Antilles, South America, and California, and even as far north as British Columbia. Three of the genera form a distinct sub-group—the Glass Snakes,—the four species composing it being located in North Africa, North America, South-eastern Europe, and the Khasya Hills.

The prominent fact in the distribution of this family is, that the mass of the genera and species form two groups, one in South Africa, the other in Mexico, -countries between which it would be difficult to imagine any means of communication. We have here, probably, an example of a once much more extensive group, widely distributed over the globe, and which has continued to maintain itself only in those districts especially adapted to its peculiar type of organization. This must undoubtedly have been the case with the genus Pseudopus, whose two species now inhabit South-eastern Europe and the Khasya Hills in Assam respectively.

The genera are, - Cordylus, Pseudocordylus, Platysaurus, Cordylosaurus, Pleurostrichus, and Saurophis, confined to South Africa ; Zonurus, South and East Africa and Madagascar; Gerrhosaurus, ranges over the whole Ethiopian region ; Cicigna is confined to Madagascar; Gerrhonotus (22 sp.), ranges from British Columbia, California, and Texas, to Cuba and South America, but is most abundant in Mexico and Central America; Abronia and Barissia, are two genera of doubtful distinctness, peculiar to Mexico; Ophisaurus (the Glass Snake) is found in the Southern United States as far as Virginia ; the allied genus Hyalosaurus in North Africa; and Pseudopus, as above stated, in South-east Europe and the Khasya Hills.

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