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FAMILY 6.-SALAMANDRIDÆ. (20 Genera, 85 Species.)
The Salamandridæ, of which our common Newts are characteristic examples, form an extensive family highly characteristic of the North Temperate regions, a few species only extending into the Neotropical region along the Andes to near Bogota, and one into the Oriental region in Western China. The genera, as arranged by Dr. Strauch, are as follows:
Salamandra (2 sp.), Central and South Europe and North Africa ; Pleurodeles (1 sp.), Spain, Portugal, and Morocco; Bradybates (1 sp.), Spain ; Triton (16 sp.), all Europe except the extreme north, Algeria, North China and Japan, Easteru States of North America, California and Oregon ; Chioglossa (2 sp.) Portugal and South Europe ; Salamandrina (1 sp.), Italy to Dalmatia; Elipsoglossa (2 sp.), Japan; Isodactylium (2 sp.), East Siberia; Onychodactylus (1 sp.), Japan; Amblystoma (21 sp.), Nearctic region from Canada and Oregon to Mexico, most abundant in Eastern States; Ronodon (1 sp.), Tartary and North-east China; Dicamptodon (1 sp.), California; Plethodon (5 sp.), Massachusetts to Louisiana, and Vancouver's Island to California; Desmognathus (4 sp.), Eastern United States south of latitude 43° ; Anaides (1 sp.), Oregon and Northern California; Hemidactylium (2 sp.), South-eastern United States and Southern California; Heredia (1 sp.), Oregon and California ; Spelerpes (18 sp.), Eastern United States from Massachusetts to Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Andes of Bogota, with a species in South Europe; Batrachoseps (2 sp.), South-eastern United States and California ; Tylotriton (1 sp.), Yunan in West China,
FAMILY 7.-RHINOPHRYNIDÆ (1 Genus, 1 Species.)
1 The Rhinophrynidæ are Toads with imperfect ears and a tongue which is free in front. The single species of Rhinophrynus, is a native of Mexico.
FAMILY 8.-PHRYNISCIDÆ. (5 Genera, 13 Species.)
1 The Phryniscidæ, or Toads with imperfect ears and tongue fixed in front, are widely distributed over the warmer regions of the earth, but are most abundant in the Neotropical region and Australia, while only single species occur in the Old World. The genera are :
Phryniscus (7 sp.), from Costa Rica to Chili and Monte Video; Brachycephalus (1 sp.), Brazil; Pseudophryne (3 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Henrisus (1 sp.), Tropical Africa; Micrhyla (1 sp.), Jaya
FAMILY 9.-HYL APLESIDÆ. (1 Genus, 5 Species.)
The Hylaplesidæ are Toads with perfect ears, and they seem to be confined to the Neotropical region. The only genus, Hylaplesia (5 sp.), inhabits Brazil, Chili, and the Island of Hayti.
FAMILY 10.- BUFONIDÆ. (6 Genera, 64 Species.)
The rather extensive family of the Bufonidæ, which includes our common Toad, and is characterised by prominent neck glands and tongue fixed in front, is almost universally distributed, but is very rare in the Australian region ; one species being found in Celebes and one in Australia. The genera are :
Kalophrynus (2 sp.), Borneo; Bufo (58 sp.), has the range of the entire family, except Australia ; Otilophus (1 sp.), South America ; Peltaphryne (1 sp.), Porto Rico; Pseudobufo (1 sp.), Malay Peninsula ; Schismaderma (1 sp.), Natal; Notaden (1 sp.), East Central Australia.
FAMILY 11.-XENORAINIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) )
The Xenorhinidæ may be characterised as Toads with perfect ears and tongue free in front. The only species of Xenorhina is a native of New Guinea.
Family 12.-ENGYSTOMIDÆ. (15 Genera, 31 Species.)
The Engystomidae are Toads without neck-glands and with the tongue tied in front. They are most abundant in the Oriental and Neotropical regions, especially in the latter, which contains about half the known species, with isolated species in Australia, Africa, and the Southern States of North America. They appear to be the remnant of a once extensive and universally distributed group, which has maintained itself in two remote regions, but is dying out everywhere else. The genera are :
Engystoma (9 sp.), Carolina to La Plata, with one species in South China ; Diplopelma (3 sp.), South India to China and Java; Cacopus (2 sp.), Central India ; Glyphoglossus (1 sp.), Pegu; Callula (4 sp.), Sikhim, Ceylon, China, and Borneo; Brachymerus 1 sp.), South Africa; Adenomera (1 sp.), Brazil; Pachybatrachus (1 sp.), Australia ; Breviceps (2 sp.), South and West Africa; Chelydobatrachus (1 sp.), West Australia; Hypopachus (1 sp.), Costa Rica; Rhinoderma (1 sp.), Chili ; Atelopus (1 sp.), Cayenne and Peru; Copea (1 sp.), South America ; Paludicola (1 sp.), New Granada.
FAMILY 13.-BOMBINATORIDÆ. (8 Genera, 9 Species.)
The Bombinatoridæ are a family of Frogs which have imperfect ears and no neck-glands, and they have a very peculiar and
interesting distribution, being confined to Central and South Europe, the southern part of South America, and New Zealand. They consist of many isolated groups forming five separate subfamilies. The genera are :
Bombinator, Central Europe and Italy; Pelobates and Didocus, Central Europe and Spain ; Telmatobius (2 sp.), Peru and Brazil ; Alsodes, Chonus Archipelago; Cacotus, Chili; Liopelma, New Zealand; Nannophryne, Straits of Magellan.
FAMILY 14.-PLECTROMANTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)
The Plectromantidæ, which are Frogs with neck-glands, and the toes but not the fingers dilated, consists of a single species of the genus Plectromantis. It inhabits the region west of the Andes, and south of the Equator.
FAMILY 15.—ALYTIDÆ (5 Genera, 37 Species.)
The Alytidæ are Frogs with neck-glands and undilated toes. They are most abundant in the Ethiopian region, with a few species in the Nearctic and Australian regions, and one in Europe and Brazil respectively. The genera are :
Alytes (1 sp.), Central Europe; Scaphiopus (5 sp.), California to Mexico and the Eastern States; Hyperolius (29 sp.), all Africa, and two in New Guinea and North Australia; Helioporus (1 sp.), in Australia; Nattereria (1 sp.), Brazil.