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Family 18.—XIPHIIDJS. (2 Genera, 8 Species.)
"Marine fishes, with elongate compressed body and a produced sword-shaped upper jaw."
Distribution.—Mediterranean, and open seas between or near the Tropics.
Xiphias (the Sword-fish) has occurred on the English coast.
Family 19.—GOBIULE. (24 Genera, 2S4 Species.)
* Carnivorous fishes, with elongate low, naked, or scaly bodies, living at the bottom of the shallow seas or fresh waters of temperate or tropical regions. Individuals of the same species often differ in inhabiting exclusively fresh or salt water.
Distribution.—All temperate and tropical regions, from Scotland and Japan to New Zealand. Species of Gobivs, Latruncidus, and Callionymvs occur in Britain. Several genera are confined to the East Indian seas and rivers, but none seem peculiar to America The genus Periopthalmus consists of the curious, large-headed, projectiug-eyed fishes, so abundant on the muddy shores of African and Eastern tidal rivers, and which seem to spend most of their time out of water, hunting after insects, &c.
Family 20.—DISCOBOLI. (2 Genera, 11 Species.)
"Carnivorous fishes, with oblong naked or tubercular bodies, living at the bottom of shallow seas, and attaching themselves to rocks by means of a ventral disc.
Distribution.—All northern seas, as far south as Belgium, England, and San Francisco.
Species of both genera (Cyclopterus and Liparis) occur in British seas.
FAMILY 21.-OXUDERCIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “A marine fish, with an elongate sub-cylindrical body and no ventral fins."
FAMILY 22.–BATRACHIDÆ. (3 Genera, 12 Species.) "Marine fishes, with sub-cylindrical body and broad depressed head."
DISTRIBUTION.—The coasts of nearly all tropical and south temperate regions, ranging from New York and Portugal to Chili and Tasmania.
FAMILY 23.—PEDICULATI. (8 Genera, 40 Species.) “ Marine carnivorous fishes, with very large heads and without scales."
DISTRIBUTION.—Seas of all temperate and tropical regions, extending south to New Zealand and north to Greenland.
A species of Lophius (the Fishing-frog or Sea-Devil) is found in British seas. The genus Antennarius, comprising two-thirds of the species, is wholly tropical.
FAMILY 24.-BLENNIDÆ. (33 Genera, 201 Species.) “ Carnivorous fishes, with long sub-cylindrical naked bodies, living at the bottom of shallow water in seas, or tidal rivers.”
DISTRIBUTION.--All seas from the Arctic regions to New Zaland, Chili, and the Cape of Good Hope.
Species of Anarrhichas, Blennius, Blenniops, Centronotus and Zoarces occur in British seas. Chasmodes (3 sp.) is confined to the Atlantic coasts of Temperate North America ; Petroscirtes (26 sp.) to the tropical parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans ; and Stichæus (9 sp.) to the Arctic Seas.
FAMILY 25.-ACANTHOCLINIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)
“A carnivorous marine fish, with long flat body and very long dorsal fin.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Coasts of New Zealand.
FAMILY 26.—COMEPHORIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “An elongate, naked, large-headed fish, with two dorsal fins.” DISTRIBUTION.—Lake Baikal.
Dr. Günther remarks, that this fish approaches the Scombrina (Mackerel) in several characters. These are exclusively marine fishes, while Lake Baikal is fresh-water, and is situated among mountains, at an elevation of nearly 2000 feet, and more than a thousand miles from the ocean!
FAMILY 27.—TRACHYPTERIDÆ. (3 Genera, 16 Species.)
“Deep sea fishes, with elongate, much compressed, naked bodies."
DISTRIBUTION.—Europe, East Indies, West Coast of South America, New Zealand. Dr. Günther remarks, that little is known of these fishes, from their being so seldom thrown on shore, and then rapidly decomposing. The Ribbon-fish (Regalecus banksir) has occurred frequently on our shores. They have soft bones and muscles, small mouths, and weak dentition.
FAMILY 28.—LOPHOTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “A marine fish, with elongate compressed naked body, and high crested head.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Mediterranean Sea and Japan.
FAMILY 29.-TEUTHIDIDÆ. (1 Genus, 29 Species.) “Marine, herbivorous fishes, with compressed, oblong, smallscaled bodies."
DISTRIBUTION.—Eastern tropical seas, from Bourbon and the Red Sea to the Marianne and Fiji Islands.
FAMILY 30.-ACRONURIDÆ. (5 Genera, 64 Species.) “Marine, herbivorous fishes, with compressed, minutely-scaled bodies."
DISTRIBUTION.-All tropical seas, but most abundant in the Malay region, and extending to Japan and New Zealand.
FAMILY 31.—HOPLEGNATHIDÆ. (1 Genus, 3 Species.)
“Marine fishes, with compressed elevated bodies, covered with very small toothed scales.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Seas of Australia, China, and Japan.
FAMILY 32.—MALACANTHIDÆ. (1 Genus, 3 Species.) “Marine fishes, with elongate bodies covered with very small scales, and with very long dorsal and anal fins.”
DISTRIBUTION.-Atlantic coasts of Tropical America, Mauritius, and New Guinea.
FAMILY 33.-NANDIDÆ. (6 Genera, 14 Species.) " Marine or fresh-water carnivorous fishes, with oblong, compressed, scaly bodies.”
DISTRIBUTION.–From the Red Sea to the coasts of China and Australia ; and the fresh waters of the Neotropical and Oriental regions. Badis, Nandus, and Catopra inhabit the rivers of India and the Malay Islands; Acharnes the rivers of British Guiana.
FAMILY 34.–POLYCENTRIDÆ. (2 Genera, 3 Species.) “Fresh-water carnivorous fishes, with compressed elevated scaly bodies, and many-spined dorsal and anal fins."
DISTRIBUTION.—Rivers of Tropical America.
FAMILY 35.–LABYRINTHICI. (9 Genera, 25 Species.) “Fresh-water fishes, with compressed oblong bodies, and capable of living for some time out of water or in dried mud.”
DISTRIBUTION.Freshwaters of South Africa and the East Indies from the Mauritius to China, the Philippines, Celebes, and Amboyna.
FAMILY 36.—LUCIOCEPHALIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)
“Fresh-water fish, with elongate scaled body, and a dilated branchial membrane.'
DISTRIBUTION.—Rivers of Borneo, Biliton, and Banca.
FAMILY 37.—ATHERINIDÆ. (3 Genera, 39 Species.) “ Marine or fresh-water carnivorous fishes, with subcylindrical scaled bodies, and feeble dentition.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Al temperate and tropical seas, from Scotland and New York to the Straits of Magellan and Tasmania.
Atherina presbyter occurs in British seas. Species of Atherina and Atherinichthis are found in fresh-water lakes and rivers in Europe, America, and Australia.