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these, except the last, are confined to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic as far as Madeira. Eight other genera are characteristic of the Atlantic, most of them being West Indian, but one from the coasts of North America. Seven genera are common to all the great oceans; the remainder being confined to the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from Japan to New Zealand, but being far more abundant between the Tropics.

Family 50.-EMBROTOCIDÆ. (2 Genera, 17 Species.)

“ Marine viviparous fishes, with compressed elevated bodies covered with cycloid scales, and with small teeth.”

DISTRIBUTION.-Pacific Ocean from Japan and California northwards. One species enters the fresh waters of California.

FAMILY 51.-GERRIDÆ. (1 Genus, 28 Species.)

"Marine fishes, with compressed oblong bodies covered with minutely serrated scales, and with small teeth.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical seas; ranging south as far as the Cape of Good Hope and Australia, and north to Japan and (one species) to New Jersey, U.S.

FAMILY 52.-CHROMIDÆ. (19 Genera, 100 Species.) “Fresh-water herbivorous or carnivorous fishes, with elevated or elongate scaly bodies, and small teeth.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The Oriental, Ethiopian, and Neotropical regions.

Eutroplus (2 sp.) is from the rivers of Southern India and Ceylon; Chronis (15 sp.), Sarotherodon (2 sp.), and Hemichromis (4 sp.), are from the rivers and lakes of Africa, extending to the Sahara and Palestine. The remaining 15 genera are American, and several of them have a restricted distribution. Acara (17 sp.) inbabits Tropical South America and the Antilles; Theraps (1 sp.), Guatemala; Heros (26 sp.), Texas and

Mexico to La Plata ; Mesonauta (1 sp.), Brazil ; Petenia (1 sp.), Lake Peten, Guatemala ; Varu (2 sp.), Brazil; Hygrogonus (1 sp.), Brazil ; Cichla (4 sp.), Equatorial America; Crenicichla (9 sp.), Brazil and Guiana ; Chotobranchus (3 sp.), Brazil and Guiana ; Mesops (2 sp.), Brazil ; Satanoperca (7 sp.), Amazon Valley and Guiana ; Geophagus (1 sp.), North Brazil and Guiana Symphysodon (1 sp.), Lower Amazon; Pterophyllum (1 sp.), Lower Amazon.


FAMILY 53.-GADOPSIDÆ (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “ Fresh-water fish, with rather elongate body covered with very small scales, the upper jaw overhanging the lower, forming an obtuse snout.”

DISTRIBUTION.-Rivers of Australia and Tasmania.

FAMILY 53a.-LYCODIDÆ. (3 Genera, 14 Species.) “Marine fishes, with elongate bodies, and the dorsal united with the anal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.-Arctic seas of America and Greenland, and Antarctic seas about the Falkland Islands and Chiloe Island.

FAMILY 54.-GADIDÆ. (21 Genera, 58 Species.)

“Marine fishes, with more or less elongate bodies covered with small smooth scales."

DISTRIBUTION.—Cold and temperate regions of both hemispheres; in the North extending as far south as the Mediterranean, Canary Islands, New York and Japan (and one species to the Philippines and Bay of Bengal), and in the South to Chili and New Zealand.

Gadus (Cod), Merluccius (Hake), Phycis, Lota, Molva, Couchia, Motella, and Raniceps, are British Lota inhabits fresh waters.

VOL. II.-29

FAMILY 55.—OPHIDIIDÆ. (16 Genera, 43 Species.) ) “Marine fishes, with more or less elongate bodies, the dorsal and anal fins united, and the ventral fins rudimentary or absent."

DISTRIBUTION.—Almost universal; from Greenland to New Zealand, but most abundant in the Tropics.

Ophidium and Ammodytes occur in British seas; Lucifuga inhabits subterranean fresh waters in Cuba.

FAMILY 56.-MACROURIDÆ. (3 Genera, 21 Species.) "Marine fishes, with the body terminating in a long, compressed tapering tail, and covered with spiny, keeled or striated scales."

DISTRIBUTION.-North Atlantic from Greenland to Madeira and the Canary Islands, Mediterranean, Japanese and Australian


None of these fishes have occurred in the British seas.

FAMILY 57.—ATELEOPODIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “Marine fishes, with the naked body terminating in a long compressed, tapering tail.”


FAMILY 58.--PLEURONECTIDÆ. (34 Genera, 185 Species.)

“ Marine carnivorous fishes, with strongly compressed flat bodies, one side of which is colourless, and eyes unsymmetrically placed, both on the coloured side. They inhabit the sandy bottoms of shallow seas, and often ascend rivers."

DISTRIBUTION.—Universal, on Arctic, Temperate, and Tropical coasts.

Seven genera occur in British seas, viz. : Hippoglossus, Hippoglossoides, Rhombus, Phrynorhombus, Arnoglossus, Pleuronectes (Turbot), and Solea (Sole). There are 13 genera in the Atlantic and 23 in the Pacific, 4 being common to both; and 2 found only in the Mediterranean. A Pacific genus, Synaptura, has one species in the Mediterranean.


FAMILY 59.-SILURIDÆ. (114 Genera, 547 Species.) “Fresh-water or marine, scaleless fishes, often with bony shields, and the head always furnished with barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The fresh waters of all the temperate and tropical regions, those which enter the salt water keeping near the coast.

This extensive family is divided by Dr. Günther into eight sub-families and seventeen groups, the distribution of which is as follows:

Sub-family 1 (SILURIDÆ HOMALOPTERA) is confined to the, Old World. It consists of three groups : Clarina (2 genera, Clarias and Heterobranchus) ranges over the whole area of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, to which it appears to be strictly confined ; Plotosina (3 genera, Plotosus, Copidoglanis, and Cnidoglanis) ranges from the eastern coasts of Africa to Japan, Poly nesia, and Australia, in seas and rivers ; Chacina (1 genus, ranges from India to Borneo.

Sub-family 2 (SILURIDÆ HETEROPTERA) is also confined to the Old World; it consists of one group, -Silurina, containing 19 genera, viz. :-Saccobranchus (4 sp.), India to Cochin China and Ceylon; Silurus (5 sp.), Palæarctic region from Central Europe to Japan, China, and Afghanistan, and a species in Cochin China; Silurichthys (3 sp.), Cashmere, Java, and Borneo; Wallago (2 sp.), Hindostan, Sumatra, and Borneo ; Belodontichthys (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo ; Eutropiichthys (1 sp.), Bengal; Cryptopterus


(15 sp.), Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, with a species in the Ganges, in Siam, and (?) in Amboyna; Callichrous (10 sp.), Afghanistan to Borneo and Java; Schilbe (5 sp.), Tropical Africa; Eutropius (6 sp.), Tropical Africa and Central India ; Hemisilurus (2 sp.), Java and Sumatra; Siluranodon (1 sp.), Nile ; Ailia (2 sp.), Bengal; Schilbichthys (1 sp.), Bengal; Laïs (1 sp.), Java, Sumatra, Borneo; Pseudeutropius (6 sp.), India and Sumatra; Pangasius (7 sp.), Ganges, Sumatra, Java, Borneo; Helicophagus (2 sp.), Sumatra ; Silondia (1 sp.), Ganges.

Sub-family 3 (SILURIDÆ ANOMALOPTERA) is confined to Equatorial America; it consists of the group Hypopthalmina, containing 2 genera : Helogenes (1 sp.), Hypopthalmus (4 sp.), from the country north of the Amazon, Surinam, and the Rio Negro.

Sub-family 4 (SILURIDÆ PROTEROPTERÆ) ranges over all the tropical and most of the temperate parts of the globe, except Europe and Australia. It consists of four groups : Bagrina (16 genera), ranging over most of the Old World and North America; Pimelodina (15 genera), confined to Tropical America, except one genus which is African; Ariina (10 genera), all Tropical regions; and Bagarina (3 genera), Oriental region. The distribution of the genera is as follows =

Bagrus (2 sp.), Nile; Chrysichthys (5 sp.), Tropical Africa; Clarotes (1 sp.), Upper Nile; Macrones (19 sp.), India, Ceylon to Borneo, and one species in Asia Minor; Pseudobagrus (4 sp.), Japan, China, and Cochin China; Liocassis (5 sp.), Japan, China, Java, Sumatra, and Borneo; Bagroides (3 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo; Bagrichthys (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo ; Rita (5 sp.), Continental India and Manilla; Acrochordonichthys (6 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Akysis (3 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Olyra (1 sp.), Khasya; Branchiosteus (1 sp.), Khasya; Amiurus (13 sp.), Nearctic region to Guatemala and China; Hopladelus (1 sp.), North America; Noturus (4 sp.), North America ; Sorubim (1 sp.), Amazon ; Platystoma (11 sp.), Tropical South America; Hemisorubim (1 sp.) Rio Negro, Brazil; Platistomatichthys (1 sp.), Rio Branco, Brazil ; Phractocephalus (1 sp.), Amazon ; Piramutana (2 sp.), Equatorial America ; Platynematichthys

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