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(1 sp.), northern and southern tributaries of Amazon; Piratinga (3 sp.), Amazon Valley; Sciades (2 sp.), Amazon ; Pimelodus (42 sp.), Mexico to La Plata, single aberrant species from West Africa, Java and the Sandwich Islands; Pirinampus (1 sp.), Brazil; Conorhynchus (1 sp.), Brazil; Notoglanis (1 sp.), Madeira, Amazon Valley; Callophysus (3 sp.), Tropical South America; Auchenaspis (1 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Arius (68 sp.), all Tropical regions; Galeichthys (1 sp.), Cape of Good Hope ; Genidens (1 sp.), Brazil; Hemipimelodus (3 sp.), India, Sumatra, and Borneo; Ketingus (1 sp.), Sunda Islands; Ælurichthys (4 sp.), Eastern United States to Guiana; Paradiplomystax (1 sp.), Brazil ; Diplomystax (1 sp.), Chili; Osteogeniosus (3 sp.), India to Java ; Batrachocephalus (1 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Bagarius (1 sp.), India to Java; Euclyptosternum (1 sp.), India; Glyptosternum. (8 sp.), Himalayas, Central India, Java, and Sumatra; Hara (3 sp.), Continental India; Amblyceps (3 sp.), Continental India.

Sub-family 5 (SILURIDÆ STENOBRANCHIÆ) is confined to South America and Africa, with one genus and species in the Ganges. It consists of three groups: Doradina (12 genera), South America and Africa; Rhinoglanina (3 genera), Central Africa and the Ganges; Malapterurina (1 genus), Tropical Africa. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Ageniosus (4 sp.), Surinam to La Plata; Tetranematichthys (1 sp.), Central Brazil, Rio Guaporé ; Euanemus (1 sp.), Surinam and Brazil ; Auchenipterus (9 sp.), Equatorial America; Centromochlus (2 sp.), Equatorial America ; Trachelyopterus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Cetopsis (3 sp.), Brazil ; Asterophysus (1 sp.), Rio Negro, North Brazil; Doras (13 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes; Oxydoras (7 sp.), Amazon Valley and Guiana; Rhinodoras (3 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes ; Synodontis (12 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Rhinoglanis (1 sp.), Upper Nile; Mochocus (1 sp.), Nile; Callomystax (1 sp.), Nile; Malapterurus (3 sp.), Tropical Africa.

Sub-family 6 (SILURIDÆ PROTEROPODES) inhabits Tropical America and Northern India as far as Tenasserim. It consists of two groups: the Hypostomatina (17 genera), with the same distribution as the sub-family, and the Aspredinina (3 genera),

confined to Equatorial America. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Arges (2 sp.), Andes of Peru and Ecuador; Stygogenes (2 sp.), Andes; Brontes (1 sp.), Andes; Astroblepus (1 sp.), Popayan; Callichthys (11 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes, and Trinidad; Plecostomus (15 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes, and Trinidad ; Liposarcus (3 sp.), Surinam and Brazil; Chatostomus (25 sp.), Tropical America, Trinidad, and Porto Rico; Pterygoplichthys (4 sp.), Brazil ; Rhinelepis (1 sp.), Brazil; Acanthicus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Loricaria (17 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes ; Acestra (4 sp.), Brazil and Guiana ; Sisor (1 sp.), Northern Bengal ; Erethistes (1 sp.), Assam; Pseudecheneis (1 sp.), Khasya Hills; Exostoma (2 sp.), Assam and Tenasserim; Bunocephalus (2 sp.), Guiana; Bunocephalichthys (1 sp.), Rio Branco, North Brazi) ; Aspredo (6 sp.), Guiana.

Sub-family 7 (SILURIDÆ OPISTHOPTERA) consists of two groups: Nematogenyina (2 genera), and Trichomycterina (3 genera), and is confined to South America. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Heptapterus (2 sp.), South America; Nematogenys (1 sp.), Chili; Trichomycterus (7 sp.), South America to 15,000 feet elevation; Eremophilus (1 sp.), Andes of Bogota; Pariodon (1 sp.), Amazon.

Sub-family 8 (SILURIDÆ BRANCHICOLÆ) is confined to Tropical South America. It consists of one group, Stegophilina, and 2 genera : Stegophilus (1 sp.), Brazil; and Vandellia (2 sp.), Amazon Valley.

FAMILY 60. CHARACINIDÆ. (47 Genera, 230 Species.)

“ Fresh-water fishes, with scaly bodies and without barbels."

DISTRIBUTION. — The Neotropical and Ethiopian regions.

This extensive family is divided by Dr. Günther into 10 groups, viz. : Erythrinina (5 genera), South America; Curumatina

(6 genera), South America; Citharinina (1 genus), Tropical Africa; Anostomatina (3 genera), South America ; Tetragonopterina (16 genera), South America and Tropical Africa; Hydrocyonina (9 genera), Tropical America and Tropical Africa ; Distichodontina (1 genus), Tropical Africa ; Icthy borina (1 genus), Africa; Crenuchina (1 genus), Equatorial America; Serrasalmonina (4 genera), South America.

The following is the distribution of the genera :

Macrodon (4 sp.), Tropical America ; Erythrinus (5 sp.), Brazil and Guiana ; Lebiasina (1 sp.), West Equatorial America ; Pyrrhulina (1 sp.), Guiana ; Corynopoma (4 sp.), Trinidad only; Curimatus (15 sp.), Tropical South America and Trinidad; Prochilodus (12 sp.), South America to the La Plata ; Cæntropus (2 sp.), East Equatorial America; Hemiodus (8 sp.), Equatorial America east of Andes; Saccodon (1 sp.), Ecuador; Parodon (1 sp.), Brazil; Citharinus (2 sp.), Tropical Africa; Anostomus (8 sp.), Tropical America; Rhytiodus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Leporinus (14 sp.), South America East of Andes; Piabucina (2 sp.), Guiana; Alestes (4 sp.), Tropical Africa : Brachyalestes (5 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Tetragonopterus (32 sp.), Tropical America ; Scissor (1 sp.), South America; Pseudochalceus (1 sp.), West Ecuador ; Chirodon (2 sp.), Chili; Chalceus (1 sp.), Guiana; Brycon (10 sp.), South America east of Andes ; Chalcinopsis (4 sp.), Central America and Ecuador; Bryconops (2 sp.), Tropical America; Creagrutus (1 sp.), Western Ecuador; Chalcinus (4 sp.), Tropical South America; Gastropelecus (8 sp.), Tropical South America; Piabuca (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Agoniates (1 sp.), Guiana; Anacyrtus (7 sp.), Central and South America; Hystricodon (1 sp.), Equatorial America ; Salminus (3 sp.), South America ; Hydrocyon (3 sp.), Tropical Africa; Sarcodaces (1 sp.), West Africa ; Oligosarcus (1 sp.), Brazil; Xiphoramphus (7 sp.), South America east of Andes; Xiphostoma (5 sp.), Equatorial America east of Andes; Cynodon (3 sp.), Tropical America East of Andes ; Distichodus (7 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Icthyborus (3 sp.), Nile; Crenuchus (1 sp.), Guiana.; Mylesinus (1 sp.), Equatorial America; Serrasalmo (13 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes ; Myletes (18 sp.),

Tropical South America east of Andes; Catoprion (1 sp.), Brazil and Guiana

FAMILY 61.- HAPLOCHITONIDÆ. (2 Genera, 3 Species.)

“Fresh-water fishes, with naked or scaly bodies and without barbels."

DISTRIBUTION. - Temperate South America and South Australia.

The genera are, Haplochiton (2 sp.), Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands; Prototroctes (2 sp.), Southern Australia and New Zealand.

FAMILY 62.—STERNOPTYCHIDÆ. (6 Genera, 12 Species.)

“Marine fishes, with very thin deciduous scales or none, and with a row of phosphorescent spots or organs on the under surface of the body."

DISTRIBUTION.-Mediterranean and Atlantic.

These are deep-sea fishes found in the Mediterranean sea, and in the deep Atlantic from the coasts of Norway to the Azores and the Tropics.

FAMILY 63.-SCOPELIDÆ. (11 Genera, 47 Species.) “Marine fishes, somewhat resembling the fresh-water Siluridæ.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Almost universal, but most abundant in warm and tropical seas.

These are deep-sea fishes, abounding in the Mediterranean and the great oceans, a few extending north to near Greenland and south to Tasmania.

FAMILY 64.–STOMIATIDÆ. (4 Genera, 8 Species.) "Small marine fishes, naked or with very fine scales."

DISTRIBUTION.-The Mediterranean and Atlantic.

These are deep-sea fishes, ranging from Greenland to beyond the Equator.

FAMILY 65.-SALMONIDÆ. (15 Genera, 157 Species.) “ Fresh-water fishes, many species periodically descending to the sea and a few altogether marine Salmon and Trout."

DISTRIBUTION.—The Palæarctic and Nearctic Regions, and one genus and species in New Zealand. A considerable number of species are confined to single lakes or rivers, others have a wide distribution.

The genera are distributed as follows:

Salmo (83 sp.), rivers and lakes of the Palearctic and Nearctic Regions, as far south as Algeria, Asia Minor, the HindooKoosh and Kamschatka, and to about 38° North Latitude in North America, many of the species migratory ; Onchorhynchus (8 sp.), American and Asiatic rivers entering the Pacific, as far south as San Francisco and the Amur; Brachymystax (1 sp.), Siberian rivers, from Lake Baikal and the Atlai Mountains northwards; Luciotrutta (2 sp.), Caspian Sea and Volga; Plecoglossus (1 sp.), Japan and Formosa ; Osmerus (3 sp.), rivers of temperate Europe and North America entering the Atlantic, and one species in California ; Thaleichthys (1 sp.), Columbia River, Vancouver's Island ; Hypomesus (1 sp.), coasts of California, Vancouver's Island, and North-eastern Asia; Mallotus (1 sp.), coasts of Arctic America from Greenland to Kamschatka; Retropinna (1 sp.), fresh waters of New Zealand; Coregonus (41 sp.), fresh waters of northern parts of temperate Europe, Asia and North America, many of the species migratory: Thymallus (6 sp.), fresh waters of temperate parts of

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