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FAMILY 9.—LIBYTHEIDÆ. (1 Genus, 10 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

NEOTROPICAL
Sub-ADDION

NEARCTIC | PALRARCTIC ETHIOPIAN ORIENTALI AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS. SCB-REGIONS. SCB-REOIOns. St B-KEGIONS. SUB-REGIONS.

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The genus Libythea, which constitutes this family, appears to have its head-quarters in the Oriental region, but extends on all sides in an erratic manner, into various remote and disconnected portions of the globe, as indicated above.

FAMILY 10.–NEMEOBIIDÆ. (12 Genera, 145 Species.)

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This group has been separated from the Erycinidae of the older authors, and contains all the non-American genera and species. Half the genera and nearly four-fifths of the species of this group are, however, Neotropical; one is European; two or three African; and twenty-six Oriental and Australian. The genera are :

Nemeobius (1 sp.), Europe; Dodona (6 sp.), North India ; Zemeros (2 sp.), North India and Malaya ; Abisara (11 sp.), North India, Malayan and Moluccan districts, Madagascar and West Africa; Taxila (8 sp.), North India and Malaya; Dicallaneura (2 sp.), Moluccan district; Alesa (6 sp.), Eunogyra (2 sp.), Cremna (7 sp.), Bæotis (3 sp.), are all from the Brazilian sub-region; Eurybia (10 sp.), Mesosemia (80 sp.), inhabit both the Brazilian and Mexican sub-regions.

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This small family, separated from the true Erycinidae by Mr. Bates, is confined to the tropical forest-districts of continental America. The genera are:—

Eurygona (71 sp.); Methondla (1 sp.); the latter found in Equatorial South America.

Family 12.—ERYCINIDAE. (59 Genera, 560 Species.)

General Distribution.

Neotropical
Skb-reuions.

Nearctio I Pal^arctic I Ethiopian I Oriental I Australian

SUB-REOION8. StTB-HEOIONH. SUB-RKOIONS. RtB-HUJIOKS. | SUB-REGIOKS.

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This extensive family of small, but exquisitely beautiful butterflies, is especially characteristic of the virgin forests of the Neotropical region, only a few species of three genera extending into the Nearctic region. The more important genera, and those which have an exceptional distribution, can alone be here noticed. Charts extends from Brazil to New York; Apodemia from Brazil to California, Utah, and Oregon; Amarynthis inhabits the Brazilian and Antillean sub-regions; Zepricornis and Metapheles are small genera found only in the Mexican sub-region; Lymnas, Necyria, Ancyluris, Diorhina, Estfiemopsis, Anteros, Emesis, Symmachia, Cricosoma, Calydna, Lemonias, Xymphidium, Theope, and Aricoris are common to the Brazilian and Mexican sub-regions. All the other genera (40 in number) are oidy known from the Brazilian sub-region, and of these a considerable proportion are confined to the damp equatorial forests of the Amazon Valley.

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The Lycaenidae—of the variety and beauty of which in tropical regions our own "Blues" and "Coppers" give bu.t a faint idea —are a group of universal distribution. We shall therefore indicate those genera which are restricted to one or more regions, or are nearly cosmopolitan. The large genus Polyommatus (containing 325 species) has the same universal distribution as the entire family. Our common " Blues" well represent this genus. Lyccena (comprising the "Coppers ") is more especially characteristic of the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions, but straggling species occur also in North India, South Africa, Chili, and New Zealand. Thecla is especially characteristic of the Neotropical region, where there are about 370 species; in the Nearctic region, 36; in the Palaearctic 13; and in the Ethiopian 3. MiUtiis, Lucia, Hypolycmna, Myrina, and Deudorix are common to the three tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere—the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian Aphneus and lolavs are common to the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, the latter extending to Celebes. Ialmenus, Pseudodipsas, Curetis, and Amilypodia are common to the Oriental and Australian regions, but the first-named is found also in Madagascar. Zephyrus is found only in the Nearctic and Palaearctic, Eumccus in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. The Nearctic region has one peculiar genus {Feniseca); the Palaearctic has two—Thestor and Lceosopis; the Ethiopian has nine—Pentila, Liptana, D'Urbania, Axiocerces, Capys, Phytala, Epitola, Hewitsonia, and Deloneura; the Oriental has five—Allotinus, Ilerda, Poritia, Camena, and Liphyra; the Australian has three—ffypochrysops, Utica, and Oyyris; and the Neotropical also three—Lamprospilus, The&rema, and Trickonis.

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The Pieridse are distributed ajmost, if not quite, as widely over the globe as the last family, and we shall group the genera in the same manner. Pieris (130 sp.) is cosmopolitan; Terias and Callidryas are found in all the four tropical regions, and as far north as Pennsylvania in the Nearctic region; Pontia, Tachyris, Ercrrria, and Thestias are common to the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, the last-named, however, only extending as far as Timor; Colias is pre-eminently Palsearctic and Nearctic, with a few Ethiopian species, one Indian, two in Chili, and one in the Sandwich Islands; Anthocharis is wholly Pahearctic and Nearctic; Midea has two species Nearctic, and one in Japan; Oonepteryx is Palsearctic and Neotropical, extending into Texas; Idmais and Callomne are Ethiopian and Oriental; Thyca and Iphias are Oriental and Australian; Meganostoma is Nearctic and Neotropical; Nwthalis and Kricogonia are Neotropical, ranging into Florida, Texas, and Colorado.

The peculiar genera are pretty equally distributed. The Neotropical region has ten, two being confined to Chili; Euterpe and Leptalis are the most remarkable, the latter containing a number of forms mimicking the Heliconidse and DanaidiE. The Oriental region has two, Prioneris and Dercas; the Australian one, Elodina; the Ethiopian two, Teracolus and Pseudopontia; the Palsearctic two, Leucopkasia and Zegris; the Nearctic one, Neophasia.

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The Papilionidae, comprising many of the noblest and richestcoloured butterflies, and long placed at the head of the group, are almost as universally distributed as the Pieridae, but they do not extend to so many remote islands nor so far into the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Nine-tenths of the species belong to the genus PapUio, and these are especially abundant in tropical regions, although species occur in every region and every subregion. Well-marked sub-divisions of this large genus are characteristic of each great region—as the "^Eneas" group in the Neotropical, the "Paris" group in the Oriental, the "iEgeus" group in the Australian, the "Zenobius" group in the Ethiopian, and many others. The few species of the Palsearctic region belong, on the other hand, to a group of universal distribution, and the Nearctic has a good number of species allied to Neotropical forms.

The other genera have mostly a very restricted range. Parnassius is an Alpine genus, confined to the Palsearctic and Nearctic regions. The Palsearctic region further possesses 5 peculiar genera—Mesapia, Hypermnestra, Doritis, Sericinus, and Thais; the Oriental has 4, Calinaga, Tcinopalpus, Bhutanitis, and Leptocircus, the latter going as far as Celebes; the Australian has 1, Eurycus; and the Neotropical 1, Euryades, confined to the Chilian sub-region. The Ethiopian and the Nearctic regions have no peculiar genera.

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