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number and variety of the tropical forms has given them the advantage. Thus we find that among the Lucanidæ, Buprestidæ, and Longicorns, the northern element is hardly perceptible. Most of these are either purely Neotropical, or allied to Neotropical genera, with the admixture, however, of a decided Australian element. As in the case of the Amphibia and fresh-water fishes, the Australian affinity, as shown by insects, is of two kinds, near and remote. We have a few genera common to the two countries; but more commonly the genera are very distinct, and the affinity is shown by the genera of both countries belonging to a group peculiar to them, but which may be of very great age. In the former case, we must impute some of the resemblance of the two faunas to an actual interchange of forms within the epoch of existing genera- a period of vast and unknown duration in the class of insects; while in the latter case, and perhaps also in many of the former, it seems more in accordance with the whole of the phenomena, to look upon most of the instances as survivals, in the two southern temperate areas, of the relics of groups which had once a much wider distribution. That this is the true explanation, is suggested by the numerous cases of discontinuous and scattered distribution we have had to notice, in which every part of the globe, without exception, is implicated; and there is a reason why these survivals should be rather more frequent in Australia and temperate South America, inasmuch as these two areas agree in the absence of a considerable number of otherwise cosmopolitan vertebrate types, and are also in many respects very similar in climatic and other physical conditions. The preponderating influence of the organic over the physical environment, as taught by Mr. Darwin, leads us to give most weight to the first of the above-mentioned causes; to which we inay also impute such undoubted cases of survival of ancient types as the Centetidæ of the Antilles and Madagascar-both areas strikingly deficient in the higher vertebrate forms. The probable mode and time of the cross migration between Australia and South America, has been sufficiently discussed in our chapter on the Australian region, when treating of the origin and affinities of the New Zealand fauna.

Islands of the South Temperate Sub-region. These are few, and of not much zoological interest. Tierra del Fuego, although really an island, is divided from the mainland by so narrow a channel that it may be considered as forming part of the continent. The guanaco (Auchenia huanaco) ranges over it, and even to small islands further south.

The Falkland Islands.—These are more important, being situated about 350 miles to the east of Southern Patagonia; but the intervening sea is shallow, the 100 fathom line of soundings passing outside the islands. We have therefore reason to believe that they have been connected with South America at a not distant epoch; and in agreement with this view we find most of their productions identical, while the few that are peculiar are closely allied to the forms of the mainland.

The only indigenous Mammals are a wolf-like fox (Pseudalopex antarcticus) said to be found nowhere else, but allied to two other species inhabiting Southern Patagonia ; and a species of mouse, probably one of the American genera Hesperomys or Reithrodon.

Sixty-seven species of Birds have been obtained in these islands, but only 18 are land-birds; and even of these 7 are birds of prey, leaving only 11 Passeres. The former are all common South American forms, but one species, Milvago australis, seems peculiar. The 11 Passeres belong to 9 genera, all found on the adjacent mainland. Three, or perhaps four, of the species are however peculiar. These are Phrygilus melanoderus, P. santhogrammus, Cinclodes antarcticus, and Muscisaxicola macloriana. . The wading and swimming birds are of little interest, except the penguins, which are greatly developed; no less than eight species being found, five as residents and three as accidental visitors.

No reptiles are known to inhabit these islands.

Juan Fernandez.—This island is situated in the Pacific Ocean, about 400 miles west of Valparaiso in Chili. It is only a few miles in extent, yet it possesses four land-birds, excluding the powerful Accipitres. These are Turdus falklandicus; Anæretes


fernandensis, one of the Tyrannidæ ; and two humming-birds, Eustephanus fernandensis and E. galeritus. The first is a widespread South Temperate species, the two next are peculiar to the island, while the last is a Chilian species which ranges south to Tierra del Fuego. But ninety miles beyond this island lies another, called “Mas-a-fuero," very much smaller ; yet this, too, contains four species of similar birds; one, Oxyurus mas-a-fuera, allied to the wide-spread South Temperate 0. spinicauda, and Cinclodes fusus, a South Temperate species both Dendrocolaptidæ ; with a humming-bird, Eustephanus leyboldi, allied to the species in the larger island. The preceding facts are taken from papers by Mr. Sclater in the Ibis for 1871, and a later one in the same journal by Mr. Salvin (1875). The former author has some interesting remarks on the three species of humming-birds of the genus Eustephanus, above referred to. The Chilian species, E. galeritus, is green in both sexes. fernandensis has the male of a fine red colour and the female green, though differently marked from the female of E. galeritus. E. leyboldi (of Mas-a-fuera) has the male also red and the female green, but the female is more like that of E. galeritus, than it is like the female of its nearer ally in Juan Fernandez. Mr. Sclater supposes, that the ancient parent form of these three birds had the sexes alike, as in the present Chilian bird ; that a pair (or a female having fertilised ova) reached Juan Fernandez and colonised it. Under the action of sexual selection (unchecked by some conditions which had impaired its efficacy on the continent) the male gradually assumed a brilliant plumage, and the female also slightly changed its markings. Before this change was completed the bird had established an isolated colony on Mas-a-fuera ; and here the process of change was continued in the male, but from some unknown cause checked in the female, which thus remains nearer the parent form. Lastly the slightly modified Chilian bird again reached Juan Fernandez and exists there side by side with its strangely altered cousin.

All the phenomena can thus be accounted for by known laws, on the theory of very rare accidental immigrations from the

mainland. The species are here so very few, that the greatest advocate for continental extensions would hardly call such vast causes into action, to account for the presence of these three birds on so small and so remote an island, especially as the union must have continued down to the time of existing species. But if accidental immigration has sufficed here, it will also assuredly have sufficed where the islands are larger, and the chances of reaching them proportionately greater'; and it is because an important principle is here illustrated on so small a scale, and in so simple a manner as to be almost undeniable, that we have devoted a paragraph to its elucidation.

A few Coleoptera from Juan Fernandez present analogous phenomena. All belong to Chilian genera, while a portion of them constitute peculiar species.

Land-shells are rather plentiful, there being about twenty species belonging to seven genera, all found in the adjacent parts of South America; but all the species are peculiar, as well as four others found on the island of Mas-a-fuera.

III. Tropical North America, or the Mexican Sub-region.

This sub-region is of comparatively small extent, consisting of the irregular neck of land, about 1,800 miles long, which connects the North and South American continents. Almosi the whole of its area is mountainous, being in fact a con. tinuation of the great range of the Rocky Mountains. In Mexico it forms an extensive table-land, from 6,000 to 9,000 feet above the sea, with numerous volcanic peaks from 12,000 to 18,000 feet high; but in Yucatan and Honduras, the country is less elevated, though still mountainous. On the shores of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, there is a margin of low land from 50 to 100 miles wide, beyond which the mountains rise abruptly; but on the Pacific side this is almost entirely wanting, the mountains rising almost immediately from the sea shore. With the exception of the elevated plateaus of Mexico and Guatemala, and the extremity of the peninsula of Yucatan, the whole of Central America is clothed with forests; and as its surface is much broken up into hill and valley, and the volcanic .

soil of a large portion of it is very fertile, it is altogether well adapted to support a varied fauna, as it does a most luxuriant vegetation. Although many peculiar Neotropical types are absent, it yet possesses an ample supply of generic and specific forms; and, as far as concerns birds and insects, is not perhaps inferior to the richest portions of South America in the number of species to be found in equal areas.

Owing to the fact that the former Republic of Mexico comprised much territory that belongs to the Nearctic region, and that many Nearctic groups extend along the high-lands to the capital city of Mexico itself, and even considerably further south, there is much difficulty in determining what animals really belong to this sub-region. On the low-lands, tropical forms predominate as far as 28° N. latitude; while on the cordilleras, temperate forms prevail down to 20°, and are found even much farther within the tropics. :: Mammalia.- Very few peculiar forms of Mammalia are restricted to tropical North America ; which is not to be wondered at when we consider the small extent of the country, and the facility of communication with adjacent sub-regions. A peculiar form of tapir (Elasmognathus bairdi) inhabits Central America, from Panama to Guatemala, and, with Myxomys, a genus of Muridæ, are all at present discovered. Bassaris, a remarkable form of Procyonidæ, has been included in the Nearctic region, but it extends to the high-lands of Guatemala. Heteromys, a peculiar genus of Saccomyidæ or pouched rats, inhabits Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Trinidad. Five genera of monkeys extend here, - Ateles, Mycetes, Cebus, Nyctipithecus, and Saimiris ; the two former alone reaching Mexico, the last only going as far as Costa Rica. Other typical Neotropical forms are Galera, the tayra, belonging to the weasel family; Nasua, the coatimundi; Dicotyles, the peccary ; Cercolabes, the tree porcupine; Dasyprocta, the agouti ; Calogenys, the paca; Chulæpus, and Arctopithecus, sloths; Cyclothurus, an ant-eater; Tatusia, an armadillo; and Didélphys, oppossum. Of Northern forms. Sorex, Vulpes, Lepus, and Pteromys reach Guatemala.

Birds.—The productiveness of this district in bird life, may

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