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Birds, table of distribution of, ii. 68

table of families of Neotropical, ii. 86
table of genera of Neotropical, ij. 86
of the Nearctic region, ii. 116
list of typical genera of, ii. 118
of California, ii. 127
of Central N. America, ii. 130
of Eastern United States, ii. 132
of Canada, ii. 136
table of Nearctic families of, ii. 141
table of Nearctic genera of, ii. 148
and Mammals, parallelism of distribution

of, ii 545
lines of migration of, ii. 545
peculiar development of, in islands, ii.

546
contrast of distribution in tropical and

temperate oceanic islands, ii. 546
Biziura, ii. 364
Blacicus, ii. 102
Black ape of Celebes, i. 427
Bland, Mr. Thomas, on Antillean land-shells,

ii. 19
ii. 526
Blanford, Mr. W. T., on the “ Indian"

region, i. 60
on relations of Indian sub-region with

Africa, i. 321
Blapsidium, Oolitic insect, L. 167
Blarina, ii. 191
Blauneria, ii. 519
BLENNIDÆ, ii. 431
Blenniops, ii. 431
Blennius, ii. 431
Blethisa, ii. 489
Blind burrowing snakes, ii. 372
Blunt-heads, ii. 380
Blyth, Mr., on zoological regions, i. 60

on the relations of Indian sub-region with

Africa, i. 321
Boa, 11. 381
Bowdon, ií. 380
Boas, il. 381
Bola, ii. 452
Bolborhynchus, ii. 328
Boleosima, ii. 425
BOMBINATORIDÆ, ii. 416
Bombinator, ii. 417
Bonasa, ú. 339
Bonnet-limpets, ii. 511
Bony Pikes, ii. 459
Bootherium, ii. 225
Borneo, probable recent changes in, i. 357
Bos, Post-Pliocene, i. 112

Indian Miocene, i. 122

ii. 222, 225
Botaurus, ii. 359
Bothriodon, ii, 215
Botia, ii, 453
Bourbon, zoology of, i. 280

reptiles of, i. 281
Bourcieria, ii. 108

ii. 521
Borida, European Miocene, i. 120
BOVID. E, ii. 221
BOVINÆ, il. 222
Brachinus, ii. 489
BRACHIOPODA, il. 532
Brachiurophis, fi. 383
Bruchiurus, ii. 175
Brachylestes, ii. 445
Brachycephalus, ii. 414
Brachygalba, il 311
Brachylophus, il. 401
Brachymeles, i. 397
Brachymnerus, ii. 416

Brachymys, European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 232

ii. 236
Brachymyslar, ii. 447
Brachypteryx, ii, 256
Brachypternus, ii. 303
Brachytarsomys, ii. 230
Brachypterarias, ii. 312
Brachyrhamphus, ii. 367
Bradybates, ii. 413
Bradycellus, ii. 489
Bradyornis, ii. 271
BRADY PODIDÆ, ii, 244
Bradypletus, ii. 258
Brolypus, ii. 244
Bradytus, ii. 489
Brama, ii. 429
Brumatherium, Miocene of Perim Island, 1. 122

ii. 220
Branchiosteus, ii. 442
Branta, ii. 364
BRASSOLIDÆ, il. 472
Brassolis, ii, 472
Brazilian cave-fauna, i. 143

remarks on, i. 145
Brazilian sub-region, description of, ii. 21

marinalia of, ii, 23
birds of, ii. 24
illustration of mammalia of, ii. 23
illustration of birds of, ii. 28

islands of, ii. 29
Breviceps, ii. 416
Breyeria borinensis, Carboniferous insect, i. 168
Britain, peculiar species in, i. 197
British Isles, zoology of, i. 197
Broad-bill, Malayan, figure of, i. 340
Broad-bills, il. 294
Bronchocela, ii. 402
Brontes, ii. 444
Brontotherida, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
Brontotherium, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
Brotogerys, ii. 328
Brush-turkeys, ii. 341
Brycon, ii. 415
Bryconoj s, ii, 445
Bryttur, ii. 425
Buarremon, ii. 99
Bubalus, ii. 222
Bubo, European Miocene, i. 162

ii. 350
BUCCINIDÆ, ji. 507
Buccinum, ii. 507
Bucco, ii. 310
BUCCONIDÆ, ii. 310
Bucephala, ii. 364
Bucephalus, ií. 379
Buceros, ii. 317
BUCEROTIDÆ, ii. 318
Bucorvus, ii. 317
Budorcas, ii. 224
BUPORCINÆ, ii, 224
Budytes, ii. 290
Buffaloes, ii. 221
Bufo, ii. 415
BUFONIDÆ, ii. 415
Bulbuls, ii. 267
BULLIDÆ, ii. 530
Buliminus, ii. 514
Bulimulus, ii. 514
Bulimus, Eocene, i. 169

ii. 514, 523
Bunælurus, N. American Tertiary, 1. 134
Bungarus, ii. 383
Bungia, ii. 452
Bunorrphalichthys, 11. 444
Bunocephalus, ii. 444

Buphaga, ii. 288
BUPRESTIDÆ, ii. 495
Buprestidium, Oolitic insect, i. 167
Busarellus, ii. 348
Bush-shrikes, ii. 297
Bustards, ii. 356
Butalis, ii. 270
Butastur, ii. 348
Buteo, ii. 348
Buteogallus, ii. 348
BUTEOXINÆ, ii. 348
Buteola, ii. 348
Buthraupis, ii. 98
Butterflies, arrangement of, i. 103

Palæarctic, i 187
of Central Europe, i. 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 205
of Azores, i. 207
peculiar to Siberian sub-region, i. 220
of Japan and North China, i. 227
of the Ethiopian region, i. 255
number of Ethiopian cies, i. 256
of Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 342
of the Australian region, i. 404
of the Austro-Malay sub-region, i. 404
of the Moluccas, i. 419
of Celebes, peculiarities of, i. 434
of New Zealand, i. 457
ii. 470
general remarks on the distribution of, ii.

483
fossil, ii. 486

of S. Temperate America, ii. 43
Bycanistes, ii. 317

C.

Cabalus, ii. 352
Cabrita, ii. 391
Cacatua, ii. 325
CACATUIDÆ, ii. 324
Caccabis, ii. 339
Cachius, ii. 453
Cacomantis, ii. 309
Cacophis, ii. 383
Cacopitta, ii. 261
Cacomis, ii. 416
Cacotus, ii. 417
Cactornis, ii. 284
Cadurcotherium, European Eocene, i. 125
Cæcilia, ii. 411
CÆCILIADÆ, ii. 411
Carcum, ii 509
Cælodon, in Brazilian caves, i. 145
Calogenys, in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 241
Cænopithecus, European Eocene, i. 124

ii. 178
Centropus, ii. 445
Cainotherium, European Miocene, i. 120

European Eocene, i. 126
Cairina, ii. 364
Caica, ii. 328
Calamanthus, ii. 258
Calamaria, ií. 374
CALAMARIIDÆ, ii. 374
Calamoron, N. American Eocene, i. 139
Calamodus, ii. 258
CALAMOHERPINÆ, ii. 287
Calu

hth us, ii. 458
Colamospiza, ii. 285
Calandrella, ii. 289
Calao, ii. 317
Calathus, ii. 489
Caledonica, ii. 487

Calendula, ii. 289
Calicalicus, il 271
Calictis, ii. 195
Calidris, ii. 353
Caliecthrus, ii. 309
California, illustration of zoology of, ii. 128
Californian sub-region, ii. 127

mainmalia of, ii, 127
birds of, ii. 127
reptiles of, ii. 128
amphibia of, ii, 128

fresh-water fishes of, ii. 128
Caligo, ii. 472
Calinaga, ii. 479
Calisto, ii. 471
Callæas, ii, 287
Callia, ii. 521
Callichroma, ii, 501
Callichrous, ii. 442
Callichthys, ii. 444
Callida, ii. 490
Callidryas, ii. 478
Callionymus, ii, 430
Calliope, ii. 259
Callipepla, ii. 839
Calliperidia, ii. 108
Calliphlor, ii. 198
Callirhynus, ii. 375
Callisaurus, ii. 401
Calliste, ii. 98
Callisthenus, ii. 489
Callithea, ii. 474
Callithrix, in Brazilian caves, i. 184

ii. 175

ii. 178
Callocephalus, ii. 204
Callochen, ii. 363
Callomystax, ii. 443
Callophis, ii. 383
Callophysus, ii. 443
Call opistes, ií. 390
Callorhinus, ii. 202
Calloselasma, ii 385
Callosune, ii. 478
Callula, ii. 416
Calobutes, ii. 290
Calocitta, ii. 273
Calodromas, ii. 344
Calænas, ii. 333
Caloperdix, ii. 339
Calophena, ii, 490
Colopsitta, ii. 325
Caloragia, ii. 375
Calorhamphus, ii, 303
Calornis, ii. 288
Calosoma, ii. 489
Calostethus, ii. 419
Calotes, ii, 402
Calothorax, ii. 108
Calydna, ii. 476
Calypte, ii. 108
Calyptocephalus, is. 421
Calyptomeno, ii, 295
Calyptorhynchus, ii. 325
CALYPTRÆDÆ, ii. 51!
Calyptura, ii. 102
Camarhynchus, ii. 284
Camaroptera, íi. 258
Camel, fossil in Indian Miocene, 1. 122

birth-place and migrations of, i. 155

Palæarctic, i. 182
Camelida, essentially extra-tropical, i. 112

N. American Tertiary, i. 138
CAMELIDÆ, ji. 216
CAMELOPARDALIDÆ, ii. 221
Camelopardalis, Miocene of Greece, i. 116

Camelopardalis, Indian Miocene, i. 122

ii. 221
Camelotherium, S. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 217
Camels, ii. 216
Camelus, ii. 216
Camena, ii. 477
('umy phoga, ii. 269
CAMPEPHAGIDÆ, ii. 268
Campephilus, ii. 303
Compsiempis, ii. 101
Camptolaimus, ii 364
Campylopterus, ii. 107
Campylorhynchus. ii. 264
Canadian sub-region, mammalia of, ii. 135

birds of, ii. 136
reptiles and fishes of, ii, 137

insects of, ii 137
Canaries, birds of, i. 208

beetles of, i. 209
Cancroma, ii. 359
Canidor, European Miocene, i. 118

European Eocene, i. 125
N. American Tertiary, i, 134

remarkable S. African, i. 267
CANIDÆ, ii. 197
Canis, European Pliocene, i. 112

Post-Pliocene, i. 112
European Miocene, i. 118
Indian Miocene; i. 121
European Eocene, i. 125
N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 129
N. American Tertiary, i. 134, 135
in Brazilian caves, i. 144
8. Algerican Pliocene, i. 146

ii. 197
Cantharus, ii. 427
Cantoria, ii. 376
Cape Ant-cater, ii. 246
Cape of Good Hope, peculiar flora and fauna

of, i. 266
Cape Verd Islands, zoology of, i. 214
Cape-hare, S. African, i. 267
Capito, ii. 306
CAPITONINÆ, ii. 306
Capoeta, ii. 451
Capri, ii, 224, 225
Capreolus, ii. 219
CAPRIMULGIDÆ, ii. 319
Caprimulgus, ii. 319
CAPRINÆ, ii. 224
Capromys, ii. 238
Capys, ii. 477
CARABIDÆ, ii. 488
Carabus, ii. 488

ii. 489
CARANGIDÆ, ii. 429
Carassius, ii. 451
CARCHARIIDÆ, ii. 460
Carcineules, ii. 316
Cardellina. ii. 279
CARDIADÆ, ii. 535
Cardinalis, ii. 285
Cardiolus, 8. American Pliocene, i. 147
Cardiopthalmus, ii. 492
Cardita, ii. 535
Carenum, ii. 490
Cariamo, Brazilian caves, i. 164

ii. 337
CARIAMIDÆ, ii. 357
Carillonar, ii. 316
Carlia, ii. 397
Carnivora of Eumpean Pliocene, i. 112

Miocene of Greece, i. 115
European Miocene, i. 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121

Carnivora, European Eocene, i. 125

N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 129
X. American Tertiary, i. 134
of Brazilian caves, i. 144

8. American Pliocene, i. 146
Carnivora, classification of, i. 88

antiquity of, i. 153
of the Palæarctic region, i. 182
list of Palæarctic genera of, i. 240
list of Ethiopian genera of, i. 302
range of Oriental genera of, i. 373

list of Australian genera of, i. 476
CARNIVORA, ii. 192

general remarks on the distribution of,

204
range of, in time, ii. 206

summary and conclusion, ii. 541
Caroline Islands, birds of, i. 444
Carpenter, Dr. Philip, on Panama shells, ii.

20
Carpiodes, ii. 451
Carpococcyr, ii. 309
Carpodacus, ii. 285
Carpodectes, ii. 102, 294
Carpophaga, ii. 332
Carterodon in Brazilian caves, i. 145

ii. 239
Carus, and Gerstaeker on classification of

animals, i. 85
Professor, on classification of the Cetacea,

i. 88
Carychium, ii. 519
Casarca, ii. 363
Cascelius, ii. 492
Casiornis, ii. 102, 293
Casoryl, N. American Tertiary, i. 138

ii. 225
Casnonio, ii. 489
Cassiculus, ii. 282
Cassicus, ii. 282
Cassidaria, ii. 507
Cassidix, ii. 283
Cassinia, ii. 270
Cassowaries, ii. 368
Castatia, ii. 534
Castnia, ii. 481
CASTNIIDÆ, ii. 481
Castor, European Pliocene, i. 113

European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 234
CASTORIDÆ, ii. 234
Castoroides, il. 234
Casuarius, ii. 369
CASUARIIDÆ, ii. 368
Catadromus, ii. 490
Catogramma, ii. 474
Catamblyrhynchus, ii. 285
Catamenia, ii, 285
Catascopus, ii. 489

ii. 491
Cataulus, ii. 520
Catharistes, ii. 346
Cathartes, Brazilian caver, i. 124

ii. 346
Catharus, ii, 256
Catherpes, ii. 264
Catla, ii. 451
Catoblepas, ii. 224
Catodon, ii, 208
Catodontidæ, ii. 207
Catopra, ii. 433
Catoprion, ii. 446
Catostomus, ii. 451
Catorantha, ii. 496
Catriscus, ii, 258
Cats, ii. 192

Cave-fauna of Brazil, i. 143
Cavia, European Miocene, i. 121

in Brazilian caves, i. 144
8. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 241
Cavies, 241
CAVIIDÆ, ii. 241
CEBIDÆ, ii. 174
Cebo hærus, European Eocene, i. 126

ii. 215
Cebus in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 174

ii. 178
Cecina, ii. 521
Celebes, physical features of, i. 389

mammalia of, I. 420
birds of, i. 428
insects of, 1. 434

origin of fauna of, i. 436
Celestus, ii. 327
Celeus, ii. 303
Celia, ii. 489
Cenchris, ii. 385
Centetes, ii. 188
Centetidæ, European Miocene, i. 118
CENTETIDÆ, ii. 188
Centrarchus, ii. 425
CENTRISCIDÆ, ii. 436
Centriscus, ii. 436
Centrites, ii. 101, 291
Centrocercus, ii. 339
Centrolabrus, ii. 437
Centrolophus, ii, 429
Centromochlus, ii, 443
Centronotus, 431
Centropus, ii. 309
Centronyx, ii. 286
Centropyr, ii. 390
Centurus, ii. 303
Cephalepris, ii. 108
Cephalopeltis, ii. 389
CÉPHALOPHINÆ, ii. 224
Cephalophus, ii. 224
CEPHALOPODA, ii. 505
Cephalopterus, ii. 103, 294
Cephalopyrus, ii. 266
Cepola, ii. 435
CEPOLIDÆ, ii. 435
CERAMBYCIDÆ, ii, 498
Ceratichthys, ii. 452
Ceratina, ji. 470
Ceratodus, remarkable Australian fish, i. 397
Ceratolus, ii. 458
Ceratohyla, ii. 418
Ceratophora, ii. 402
Ceratophorus, ii. 501
Ceratophrys, ii. 420
Ceratoptera, ii. 463
Ceratorhina, ii. 367
Ceratorhinus, ii. 213
Ceratotherium, ii. 213
Cerberus, ii. 376
Cercaspis, ii. 380
Cerch neis, ii. 349
Cercocebus, ii, 173
Cercolobes in Brazilian caves, 1. 145

ii. 240
CERCOLABIDÆ, il. 239
Cercoleptes, ii. 200
Cercomacra, ii. 104
Cercomela, ii, 260
Cercomys, il. 239
Cercopithecus in European Pliocene, i. 112

ii. 173
Cercosura, ii. 394
CERCOSAURIDÆ, il. 394

Cereopsis, ii. 363
Ceriornis, ii, 340
CERITHIADÆ, ii. 509
Certhia, ii. 264
Certhidea, ii. 278
CERTUIIDA, 264
Certh ilauda, ii, 289
Certhiola, ii, 278
Certhiparus, ii, 266
Cervicapra, ii. 224
CERVICAPRINÆ, ii. 224
Cervidae, European Miocene, i 120

birth-place and migrations of, i 155
CERVIDÈ, ii. 218
Cerrulus, ii. 219
Cervus, European Pliocene, i 113

Indian Pliocene and Miocene, i 122
N. American Post-Pliocene i. 130
N. American Tertiary, i. 138
in Brazilian caves, i. 144
8. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 219
Ceryle, ii 316
CESTRACIONTIDÆ, ii. 461
Cetacea, European Pliocene, i. 112

European Miocene, i. 119
N. American Post-Pliocene, i 130

N. American Tertiary, i. 140
Cetacea, classification of,' i. 89

range of Oriental genus, i. 374
CETACEA, ii. 207
Cethosia, ii. 474
CETONIIDÆ, ii. 494
Cetopsis, ii. 443
Cettia, ii. 258
Ceuth mochares, ii. 309
Ceycosis, ii. 316
Ceylon and Malaya, resemblance of insects of.
Ceylonese sub-region, i. 326

mammalia of, i. 327
birds of, i. 327
reptiles of, i. 327
amphibia of, i. 327
insects of, i. 327
past history of, as indicated by its fauna,

i 328
Ceyr, ii. 316
Chaca, ii. 441
Charmarrhornis, ii, 259
Chæmepelia, 333
Chærocampui, ii. 482
Chartobranchus, ii. 439
Chatocercus, ii. 108

ii. 249
Chatodon, ii. 427
Chatomys, ji. 240
Chalops, ii. 256
Chartoptila, ii, 276
Chatorhynchus, ii. 209
Chatostomus, ii. 444
Chatura, ii. 320
Chætusia, ii. 356
Chalceus, ii. 445
CHALCIDE, ii 393
Chalcinopsis, ii. 445
Chalcinus, ii. 445
Chalcis, ii. 893
Chalcochloris, ii. 189
Chalcopelia, ii. 333
Chalcophaps, in. 333
Chalcostetha, ii. 276
Chalicomys, European Pliocene, i. 113
Chalicotherium, European Miocene, i. 119

Indian Miocene, i. 122
fossil in Ň. China, i. 123

327

Chamæleo, N. American Eocene, i. 165
Chalyburu, ii. 107
Chama, ii. 264
CHAMEIDÆ, ii. 264
CHAMÆLEONIDÆ, ii. 402
Chamæleons, i, 402
Chamceptes, ii. 343
Chamorospiza, ii. 284
Chamoesaura, ii. 394
CHAMÆSAURIDÆ, ii. 394
Chamoza, ii. 104
CHAMIDÆ, ii. 534
Chamois, figure of, i. 195

ii. 224
Chamostrea, ii. 536
Chanoichthys, ii. 453
CHARACINIDÆ, ii. 444
Characodon, ti. 450
CHARADRIIDÆ, ii. 355
Chindrius, ii. 336
Charina, ii. 373
Charis, ii. 476
Charitornis, ii. 274
Charmosyna, ii. 327
Chisiempis, ii. 271
Charmonies, ii. 431
Chismorhynchus, ii. 103, 294
Chatarrhaa, ii. 261
Chatham Islands, birds of, i. 454
Chatterers, ii. 293
Chaulelasmus, ii. 364
Chauna, ii. 361
Chaunonotus, ii, 272
Chounoproctus, ii. 284
Chela, i. 453
Cheiemys, ii. 408
Chelidon, ii. 281
Chelidoptera, ii. 311
Chelidorynr, ii. 271
Chelodina, ii. 408
Chelomcles, ii. 397
Chelone, ii. 409
Chelonia, classification of, i. 100
CHELONIA, ii, 407

remarks on the distribution of, ii. 410

fossil, ii. 410
CHELONIIDÆ, ii. 409
CHELYDIDÆ, ii. 408

Chelydobatrachus, ii. 416
Chelydra, European Pliocene, i. 165

ii. 408
Chelye, ii. 408
Chenalopex, ii. 363
Chera, it. 288
Chersina, ii. 408
Chersydrus, ii. 382
Chevrotain of Malaya, figure of, i. 336
Chevrotains, ii. 218
Chiamela, ii. 397
Chiasognathus, ii. 493
Chibia, ii. 269
Chilabothrus, ii. 381
Chili should not be placed in the Palæarctic or

Nearctic regions, I. 63
Chili and Temperate S. America, distribution

of Carabida in, ii. 492
Chilian Andes, illustration of zoology of, ii.

40
Chilinn sub-region, ii. 36

mammalia of, ii. 36
birds of, ii. 37
illustration of zoology of, ii. 40
reptiles and ainphibia of, ii. 40
fresh-water fishes of, ii. 42
insects of, ii. 42
origin and migrations of insects of, ii 47
VOL. II.-37

Chili, islands of, ii. 49
Chilinia, ii. 518
Chilobranchus, ii. 456
Chilomeniscus, ii. 375
Chimæra, ii. 460
CHIMÆRIDÆ, ii. 460
China, fossil mammals in, resembling those

of Indian and European Miocene, i.

362

North, mammalia of, i. 222
Chinchilla, ii. 237
Chinchillida in Brazilian caves, i. 145

8. American Pliocene, i. 147

Pliocene of Antilles, i. 148
CHINCHILLIDÆ, ii. 237
Chioglossa, ii. 413
Chionabas, ii. 471
CHIONIDIDÆ, ii. 354
Chionis, ii. 354
CHIROCENTRIDÆ, ii. 454
CHIROCOLIDÆ, ii. 393
Chirodon, ii. 445
Chirodryas, ii. 418
Chirogaleus, ii. 176
Chiroleptes, ii. 421
Chiroma chaeris, ii. 102, 292
Chiromantis, ii. 419
CHIROMYIDÆ, ii. 177
Chironectes, ii. 248
Chiroptera, classification of, i. 87

list of Palearctic genera of, i. 239
list of Ethiopian genera of, i. 300
range of Oriental genera of, i. 371

list of Australian genera of, i. 475
Chiroptera, European Eocene, i. 125

in Brazilian caves, i. 144
CHIROPTERA, ii. 181

remarks on the distribution of, ii. 185
fossil, ii. 185

summary and conclusion, il 441
Chirotes, ii. 388
CHIROTIDÆ, ii. 388
Chiroriphia, ii. 102, 292
CHITONIDÆ, ii, 512
Chittya, ii. 519
Chlænius, ii. 489
Chlamydodera, ii. 275
Chlamydophorus, ii. 246
Chlamydotherium, ii. 246

in Brazilian caves, i. 145
Chlenasicus, ii. 262
Chloëphaga, ii. 363
Chlorochrysa, ii. 98

ii. 99
Chloronerpes, ii. 303
Chlorophanes, ii. 278
Chlorophonia, ii. 98

ii. 99
Chloropipo, ii. 102
Chlorospizá, ii. 283
Chlorospingus, ii. 99

ii. 100
Chlorostilbon, ii, 109
Choanomphalus, ii. 518
Choanopoma,

ii. 521
Cheromorus, European Miocene, i. 119
Charopotamus, European Eocene, i. 126

ii. 215
Choropus, ii. 250
Charotherium, Indian Miocene, i. 122
Cholapus, ii. 244
Chologustes, ii. 450
Cholornis, ii. 262
Chondestes, ii. 285
Chondropoma, ii. 521
CHONDROPTERYGII, U. 46

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