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Günther, Dr., on range of Indian reptiles in

the Himalayas, i. 329
on identical Atlantiic and Pactic fishes, ii.

21
on fresh-water fishes of Central America,

ii. 54
Gygis, ii. 365
GYMNARCHIDÆ, ii. 449
Gymnarchus, ii. 449
GYMNKTINÆ, ii. 494
Gymnobucco, ii. 306
Gymnocephalus, ii. 103
Gymnocichla, ií. 104
Gymnocorvus, ii. 274
Gymnocypris, ii. 452
Gymnodactylus, ii. 400
GYMNODERINÆ, ii. 293
Gymnoclerus, ii. 103
GYMNODONTES, ii. 457
Gymnoglauz, ii. 350
Gymnokitta, ii. 273
Gymnomystax, ii, 282
Gymnopelia, ii. 333
Gymnops, ii. 287
GYMNOPHTHALMIDÆ, il. 395
Gymnophthalmus, ii. 895
Gymnopus, ii. 199
Gymnorhina, ii. 273
Gymnostomus, ii. 451
GYMNOTIDÆ, ii. 455
Gymnotus, ii. 455
Gymnura, ii. 188
Gypëtus, ii. 348
Gypohieraz, ii. 348
Gypoictinia, ii. 349
Gyps, il. 346

Haplocerus, ii. 374
Haplochilus, ii. 450
Haplochiton, ii. 446
HAPLOCHITONIDÆ, ii. 446
Haplodactylus, ii. 427
Haploodon, ii. 286
HAPLOODONTIDÆ, ii. 236
Haplospiza, ii. 284
Hapsidrophis, 379
Haralda, ii. 364
Hares, ii. 242
Harmo, ii. 474
Harpa, ii. 349

ii. 507
Harpactes, ii. 314
Harpagus, ii. 349
Harpalus, ii. 489
Harporhynchus, ii. 256
Harpyhaliwetus, ii. 348
Hartlaubius, ii. 288
Hathliodes, ii. 502
Hatteria of New Zealand, i. 456
Hatteria, ii. 405
Hawks, ii. 347
Hedgehogs, ii. 187
Hedymeles, ii. 285
Helarctos, ii. 202
Helcyra, ii, 474
Heleothreptus, ii. 320
Heliactin, ii. 108
Heliangelus, ii. 108
Helianthea, ii. 108
Heliastes, ij, 437
HELICIDÆ, ii. 512
Helicina, ii. 522
HELICÓNIDÆ, ii. 473

ii. 522
Heliconius, ii. 473
Helicophagus, ii. 442
Helicops, li. 377
Helictis, Himalayan, figure of, i. 331
Helictis, ii. 199
Heliobletus, ii. 103
Heliochera, ii. 102
Heliodoxa, ii. 107
Heliomastes, ii. 108
Heliopædica, ii. 107
Heliophobus, ii. 231
Helioporus, ii. 417
Heliornis, ii. 352
Heliothrix, ii 108
Heliotrypha, ii. 108
Helix, Eocene, i. 169

ii. 513
Helladotherium, Miocene of Greece, i.

European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 221
Hell'uomorpha, ii. 490
Helmintherus, ii. 279
Helminthophaga, ii. 279
Heloderma, ii. 390
HELODERMIDÆ, ii. 390
Helodromas, ii. 353
Helogale, ii. 195
Helogenes, ii. 442
HELORNITHINÆ, ii. 852
Helotarsus, ii. 348
Hemibos, Indian Miocene, i 122

ii. 225
Hemicentetes, ii. 188
Hemicercus, ii. 303
Hemichelidon, ii. 290
Hemichromis, 438
Hemicyon, European Miocene, i. 118

ii. 198
Hemidacnis, ii. 278

H.
Haast, Dr., on extinct birds of New Zealand,

i. 460
Habitat, definition of, i. 4
Hobrocomus, ii. 238
Habroptila, ii. 852
Habrura, ii 101
Halrostomus, ii. 102, 293
Hæmatoderus, ii. 103
Hæmatopus, ii. 356
Hæmatospiza, ii 285
Hæmophila, ii. 284
Hæmulon, ii. 426
Heetera, ii. 471
Hagria, ii. 397
Hainan, zoology of, i. 334
Halcyon, ii. 316
Halcyornis, European Eocene, i. 103
Halicyon, ii, 204
Yalimetus, ii, 348
Haliastur, ii. 348
Halichorus, ii. 204
Halicore, ii. 210
HALIOTIDÆ, ii. 511
Halitherium, European Pliocene, i. 112

European Miocene, i. 119

ii. 211
Halmaturus, ii. 251
HALOSAURIDÆ, ii. 455
Halys, ti, 385
Hamadryas, ii. 470
Hang-nests, ii. 281
Hapale, ii. 176

ii. 178
Hapalemur, ii. 176
HAPALIDÆ, ii. 175
Hapalolis, ií. 230
Hapalus, ii. 524

16

Hemidactylium, ii. 413
Hemidactylus, ii. 399
Hemierges, ii. 397
Hemigulea, ii. 195
Hemignathus, ii, 277
Hemimantis, ii. 419
Hemiodus, ii. 445
Hemiphractus, ii. 420
Hemipimelodus, ii. 443
Hemiprocne, ii. 320
Hemipus, ii. 270
Hemirhamphus, ii. 450
Hemisilurus, ii. 442
Hemisorubim, ii. 442
Hemistilbon, ii. 109
Hemisus, ii. 414
Hemitriccus, ii, 101
Hemirus, ii. 267
Henicognathus, ii. 328
Henicopernis, ii. 349
Henicophaps, ii. 333
Henicorhina, il. 264
Henicornis, ii. 103
Hepta pterus, ii. 444
Heredia, ii. 413
Herons, ii. 359
Heros, ii. 438
Herpestes, ii. 195
Herpeleth inps, ii. 376
Herpetodryus, ii. 376
Herpeton, ii. 376
Herpetoreas, ii. 375
Herpetotheres, ii. 348
Herpetotherium, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Herpsilochmus, ii. 104
Herring, ii. 454
Hesperia, ii. 450
HESPERIDÆ, ii. 480
Hesperomys, N. American Tertiary, i 140

in Brazilian caves, i. 145
S. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 230, 231
Hesperornis, N. American Cretaceous, i. 164
Hestia, ii. 470
Hestima, ii. 501
Heterobranchus, ii. 441
Heterocephalus, ii. 231
Heterocercus, ii. 102
Heterochroa, ii. 474
Heterocnemis, ii. 104
Heterocorys, íi. 289
Heterolactylus, ii. 393
Heterodon, in Brazilian caves, i. 145

il 246

ii. 376
Heterogynis, ii. 481
Heterolocha, 287
Heteromorpha, ii. 262
Heteromys, ii. 233
Heteronota, ij. 400
Heteron ympha, ii. 471
Heteropelma, ii. 102, 292
Heteropus, ii 397
HETEROPYGII, ii. 450
Helcrospizias, ii. 348
Heterotis, ii. 454
Heleruri, fi. 290
Hewitsonia, ii. 477
Heragonia, ii, 491
Heaprolodon, Indian Miocene, i. 122
Hickman, Mr. John, on a cause of the extinc.

tion of large animals, i 158
Hleracidea, ii. 343
Hiora, 11. 349
Hicrocorys, ii. 310
Hierofalco, ii. 319

Hill-Tits, il. 266
Himalayas, altitude reached by various groups

in the, i. 329, 838
Himantornis, ii. 352
Himantopus, ii. 353
Hinulia, ii. 397
Hipistes, ii. 376
Hipparchia, ii. 471
Hipparion, European Pliocene, i. 112

Miocene of Greece, i. 115
European Miocene, i. 119
N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
N. American Tertiary, i. 135

ii. 211
Hippocampus, ii. 457
Hippoglossoides, ii. 441
Hippoglossus, 441
HIPPOPOTAMIDÆ, ii. 214
Hippopotamus, Post-Pliocene, i. 112

Europe in Pliocene, i. 113
Indian Pliocene, i. 122

ii. 214
Hipposyus, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Hippotherium, European Miocene, i. 119

Indian Miocene, i. 122
HIPPOTRAGINÆ, ii. 223
Hippotragus, European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 223
HIPPURITIDÆ, il. 534
Hirundinea, ii. 101
HIRUNDINIDÆ, ii. 280
Hirundo, ii. 281
Hoazin, ii. 345
Holocanthus, ii. 427.
Holbrookia, ii, 401
Holochilus, ii. 230
Hologerrhum, ii. 379
HOLOSTEI, ii. 458
Holu rophis, ii. 380
Homalodontotherium, 8. American Pliocene,

i. 146
Homalophis, ii. 376
Homalophus, European Miocene, i. 161
HOMALOPSIDÆ, ii. 376
Homalopsis, ii. 376
Homaloptera, ii. 453
Homalosoma, ii. 490
Hombronia, ii. 397
Homocamelus, N. American Tertiary, i. 138

ii. 217
Homorus, ii. 103

ii. 524
Honey-guides, ii. 304
Honeysuckers, birds specially adapted to

Australia, i. 392

ii. 275
Hooker, Dr., on deficiency of odours in New

Zealand plants, i. 464
Hoopoes, ii. 317
Hoplaulelus, ii. 142
HOPLEGNATHIDÆ, ii. 433
Hoplobatrachus, ii. 421
HOPLOCEPHALA, ii. 460
Hoplocephalus, ii. 383
Hoplocetus, European Pliocene, i. 112
Hoplophoneus, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Hoplophorus, ii. 246
Hoplopterus, ii 356
Horites, ii. 258
Hornbills, ii. 316
Horses, fossil, in Indian Miocene, i. 121

perfect series of ancestral, in N. America,

i. 136
probable birthplace of, 1. 154

ii. 21
Horse-shoe bats, ii. 182

PP 2

Hortulia, ii. 381
Howling monkeys, ii. 175
Hudson, Mr., on land-birds of Patagonia, ii, 39
Humining birds, ii. 321
Huro, 425
Hutton, Capt. F. W., on origin of New Zealand

fauna, i. 461
Huxley, Professor, on zoological regions, i. 59

division of aniinal kingdom by, i. 85
Hyades, ii. 472
Hyæna, Post-Pliocene, i. 112

Miocene of Greece, i. 115
European Miocene, i 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121
fossil in N. China, i. 123

ii. 196
Hyrnarctos in European Pliocene, i. 112

European Miocene, i. 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121

S. American Pliocene, i. 146
Hyænictis, Miocene of Greece, i. 115

European Miocene, i. 118

ii. 196
Hyænida, European Miocene, i. 118
HYÆNIDÆ, ii. 196
Hyænodon, European Miocene, i. 118

European Eocene, i. 125

N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Hyænodontidæ, European Miocene, i. 118
HYALEIDÆ, ii. 531
Hyalimar, ii. 517
Hyalina, ií, 515
Hyalosaurus, ii. 392
Hyantis, ii. 472
Hybocystis, ii. 520
Hyborhynchus, ii. 452
Hydrocena, ii. 521
Hydrochelidon, ii. 364
Hyiirochorrus, N. American Post-Pliocene, 1. 130
Hydrochærus, ii. 241
Hydrocissa, ii. 317
Hydrocyon, il. 445
Hydrogale, ii, 199
Hydromedusa, ii. 408
Hydromys, ii. 230
Hydrophasianus, ii. 355
HYDROPHIDÆ, ii. 384
Hydrophis, ii. 384
Flydrupotes, ii. 219
Hydropsalis, ii. 319
Hydrornis, European Miocene, i. 162

ii. 298
Hydrosaurus, ii. 389
Iyetornis, ii. 309
Hygrogonus, ii. 439
Hyla, ii. 418
Hlylactes, ii, 297
Hylambates, ii. 419
Hlylaplesia, ii. 415
HYLAPLESIDÆ, ii. 414
Hylarana, ii. 419
Hylatomus, ii. 303
Hylella, ii. 418
HYLIDÆ, ii. 418
Ilyliota, ü. 270
Hylobates, ii. 171
Hylocharis, ii. 109

ii. 271
Hylodes, ii. 419
Hylomanes, ii. 313
Hylomys, ii. 186
Hylophilus, ii. 280
Hylorhina, ii. 420
Hylotrupes, ií, 602
Hylornlus. ii. 419
Hymenolaimus, ii. 364

HYODONTIDÆ, ii. 453
Hyohippus, N. American Tertiary, i. 135
Hyomoschus, European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 218
Hyopicus, ii. 303
Hyopotamus, European Miocene, i. 119

N. American Tertiary, i. 137

ii. 216
Hyopsodus, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Hyotherium, European Miocene, i. 119

ii. 215
Hypargos, ii. 287
Hyperantha, ii. 496
Hypergerus, ii. 261
Hypermnestra, ii. 479
Hyperodapedon, ii. 405
Hyperolius, ii. 417
Hyperoodon, ii. 208
HYPEROODONTIDÆ, ii. 208
Hyperopsius, ii. 448
Hypertragulus, N. American Tertiary, 1. 138
Hyphantornis, ii. 286
Hypherpes, ii. 265
Hypisodus, N. American Tertiary, i. 138
Hypna, ii. 474
Hypnale, ii. 385
Hypochera, ii. 287
Hypochrysops, ii. 477
Hypocista, ii 471
Hypocnemis, ii. 104
Hypocolius, ii, 272
Hypodes, ii. 272
Hypogeomys, ii. 230
Hypolais, ii, 258
Hypolithus, ii. 491
Hypolycæna, ii. 477
Hypomesus, ii. 477
Hypopachus, ii. 416
Hypophthalmichthys, ii. 453
II/phthalm s, ii. 442
Hypopyrrhus, ii. 282
Hyporissus, ii. 190
Hypothymis, ii. 271
Hyporanthus, ii 304
Hypsipetes, ii 267
Hypsiprymnus, Australian Post-Tertiary, i. 157

ii. 251
Hypsirhina, ii. 376
Hypsirhynchus, ii. 375
Hyrachyus, N. American Tertiary, i. 136
HYRACIDÆ, ii, 228
Hyracodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 136

ii. 214

ii. 248
Hyracoidea, classification of, i. 90

Palæarctic, i. 242

Ethiopian, i. 304
HYRACOIDEA, ii. 228
Hyracotherium, supposed, in European Eocene,

i. 125
European Eocene, i. 126
ii. 216

ii. 229
Hyrar, ii. 228
HYSTRICIDÆ, ii. 240
Hystricodon, ii. 445
Hystrix, European Pliocene, i. 113

Miocene of Greece, i. 116
N. American Tertiary, i. 140
ii. 240

I.

Ialmenus, ii. 774
lanthanas, ii. 332
Ianthina, ii. 511

on the

Ibidipodia, European Miocene, i. 162
Ibidorhynchus, ii. 353
Ibidorhynchus, figure of, i. 331
Ibis, ii. 360
Ibises, ii. 360
Ibycter, ii. 347
Iceland, zoology of, i. 198
Ichneumia, ii 195
Ichthyoborus, ii. 445
Ichthyopsis, ii. 411
Icteria, ii, 279
ICTERIDÆ, ii. 281
Icterus, ii. 282
Icthyornis, N. American Cretaceous, i. 164
Icticyon in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 197
Ictinia, ii. 349
Ictitherium, Miocene of Greece, i. 115

European Miocene, i. 118
ii. 195

ii. 197
Ictonyz, ii. 199
Ictops, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Ideopsis, ii. 470
Idmais, ii. 478
Iguana, ii. 401
Iguanas, ii. 400
IGUANIDÆ, ii. 400
Ilerda, ii. 477
Ilicura, ii. 102
India, Miocene fauna of, allied to that of

Europe, 123
geological features of, i. 328
Indian sub-region, description of, i. 321

supposed relation to Ethiopian region, i.

321
mammalia of, i. 322
birds of, i. 323

reptiles and amphibia of, i. 326
Indicator, ií. 304
INDICATORIDÆ, ii. 304
Indo-Chinese sub-region, description of, i. 329

zoological characteristics of, i. 330
illustration of, i. 331
reptiles of, i. 331
amphibia of, i. 331
insects of, i. 332

islands belonging to, i. 333
Indo-Malayan sub-region, description of, i.

334
mammalia of, i. 336
illustrations of, i. 336, 339
birds of, i. 337
remote geographical relations of, i. 339
reptiles and amphibia of, i. 340
fishes of, i. 341
insects of, i. 341
coleoptera of, i. 342
terrestrial mollusca of, i. 343
zoological relations of islands of, i. 345
recent geographical changes in, i. 357

probable origin of fauna of, i. 359
Inia, ii. 209
Insectivora, European Miocene, i. 117

N. American Post-Pliocene, L. 129

N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Insectivora, classification of, i. 87

of the Palæarctic region, i. 181
of N. China and E. Thibet, i. 222
range of Palæarctic genera of, i. 239
of Madagascar, i. 273
range of Ethiopian genera of, i. 301
of the Oriental region, i. 315
range of Oriental genera of, i. 372

range of Australian gepera of, i. 476
INSECTIVORA, ii. 186

INSECTIVORA, general remarks

distribution of, ii. 191

summary and conclusion, ü. 541
Insects, means of dispersal of, 1. 32

tenacity of life of, i. 33
adapted to special conditions, i. 33
groups selected for the study of their

geographical distribution, i. 102
antiquity

of the genera of, i. 166
fossil of European Miocene, i. 166
European Cretaceous, i. 167
European Wealden, i. 167
Palæozoic, i. 168
Palæarctic, i. 187
of Central Europe, i. 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 205
of the Siberian sub-region, i. 220
of the Manchurian sub-region, i. 227
of the Ethiopian region, I. 255
of the E African sub-region, i. 260
of W. African, i. 265
8. African, i. 268
of Madagascar, i. 282
general remarks on, i. 284
of tropical Africa and America, probable

cause of similarities in, i. 291
of Indo-Chinese sub-region, i. 332
of the Oriental region, i. 318
of Ceylon, i. 327
of Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 341
statistics of collecting in the various

islands of the Malay Archipelago, i. 343
of the Australian region, i. 403
of New Guinea, i. 417
of the Moluccas, i. 420
of the Timor group, i. 426
of Celebes, i. 454
of New Zealand, i. 458
scarcity of, in New Zealand, i. 462
influence of, on the flora, i. 463
of the Neotropical region, ii. 13
of S. Temperate America, ii. 42
of 8. Temperate America, Palæarctic

affinity of, ii. 45
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 55
of the Antilles, ii. 73
of the Nearctic region, ii. 122
of Canada, ii. 137
distribution of, ii. 468
range of, in time, ii. 469
summary and conclusion, ij5,50

lines of migration of, ii. 551
Iodopleura, ii. 102
Iolæma, ii. 107
lolaus, ii. 477
Iole, ii. 267
Jora, ii. 267
Iphias, ii. 478

ii. 394
IPHISADÆ, ii. 394
Irena, ii. 269
Iridina, ii. 534
Iridornis, ii. 98
Irrisor, ii. 318
IRRISORIDÆ, ii. 318
Isacis, N. American Tertiary, i 133
Ischcognathus, ii. 375
Ischyromys, N. American Tertiary, i. 140

it. 236
Islands, N. European, zoology of, i. 197

of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 206
of the W. African sub-region, i. 265
of the Ethiopian region, I. 269
Mascarene, i 280
of the Indo-Chinese sub-region, i. $33
of the Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 345

caves,

Islands, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa, i, 443

Society and Marquesas, i, 444
New Caledonia and New Hebrides, i. 445
Sandwich, i 446
of New Zealand sub-region, i. 453
Norfolk, i. 453
Lord Howe's, i. 454
Chatham, i. 454
Auckland, i. 455
of Tropical S. America, ii. 29
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 59
of Eastern United States, ii. 134
peculiar colours of pigeons in, ii. 336

abundance of land-shells in, ii. 525
Isodactylium, ii. 413
Ispidina, ii. 316
Issiodromys, European Pliocene, 113

ii. 232
Ithaginis, ii. 340
Ithomia, ii. 470
Ithycyphus, ii. 379
Ixalus, ii. 419
Itonotus, ii. 287
Ixulus, ii. 266

Kerguelen Island, apterous insects of, i. 211

(note)
Kerodon, in Brazilian i. 144

S. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 241
Ketingus, ii. 443
Ketupa, ii. 350
King-fisher, racquet-tailed, of New Guinea,

figure of, i. 415
King-fishers, ii. 315
Kitlacincla, ii. 259
Kiwi of New Zealand, i. 455
Kneria, ii. 453
Kobus, ii. 294
Koodoo antelope, figure of, i. 261
Kricogonia, ii. 478
Krynickia, ii. 517

L.

J.

Jacamaralcyon, ii. 311
Jacamars, ii. 311
Jacamerops, ü. 311
Jacanas, ii. 255
Jacchus, in Brazilian caves, i. 144
Jaculus, ii, 232
Jaltrix, ii. 375
Jamaicia, ii 521
Janella, ii. 517
Janthocincla, ii. 261
Japalura, ii. 402
Japan and North China, physical features of,

i. 221
southern extremity of perhaps belongs to

the Oriental region, i. 226
Japan, general character of the fauna of, i.

230

former land-connexions of, i. 231
Java, mammalia of, i. 349

productions of, well known, i. 350
birds of, i. 351
representative species of birds in, i. 352
origin of the anomalous features of its

fauna, i. 352
Sumatra and Borneo, their geographical

contrasts and zoological peculiarities

explained, i. 357
Jays, ii. 273
Jenynsia, ii. 450
Jerboas, ii. 231
Juan Fernandez, Carabidæ of, ii. 44

birds of, ii. 49

beetles and land-shells of, ii. 51
Juida, ii. 288
Juliamyia, ii. 109
Junco, ii. 284
Junonia, European Miocene, i. 167

ii. 474

Labeo, ii. 451
Labrax, ii. 425
LABRIDÆ, ii. 437
Labrus, ii. 437
LABYRINTHICI, ii. 434
Lacerta, ii. 391
LACERTIDÆ, ii, 390
Lacertilia, classification of, i. 99
LACERTÍLIA, II. 388

general remarks on the distribution of,

ii. 403

fossil, ii. 404
Lacuna, il. 510
Ladrone Islands, birds of, 1. 444
Lemargus, ii. 461
Læmosthenes, ij. 489
Læosopis, ii, 477
Lafresnaya, ii. 107
Lagenocetus, ii. 208
Lagenorhynchus, ii. 209
Lagidium, ii. 237
LAGOMYIDÆ, ii. 242
Lagomys. European Pliocene, i. 113

European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 242
Lagomus, ii. 339
Lagorchestes, ii. 251
Lagostomus, in Brazilian caves, i. 145

S. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 237
Lagothrix, ii. 174
Lais, ii. 442
Lake Baikal, seals of, i. 218

ii. 206
Lalage, ii. 269
Laletes, ii, 280
LAMIIDÆ, ii. 498
Lamno, ii. 460
LAMNIDÆ, ii. 460
Lampornis, ii. 107
Lampreys, ii. 463
Lamprima, ii. 193
Lampris, ií. 429
Lamprocolius, ii. 288
Lamprolæma, ii. 107
Lamrophis, ii. 380
Lampropsar, ii. 282
Lampropygia, ii. 108
Lamprospilus, ii. 477
Lamprospiza, ii. 99
Lamprotes, ii. 98
Lancelet, ii. 464
Land-lizards, ii. 391
Land and water, proportions of, i. 35
Land and fresh-water shells, antiquity of the

genera of, i. 168

K.

Kazu, ii. 359
Kakapoe, of New Zealand, 1. 455
Kalophrynus, ii. 415
Kangaroos, extinct in Australia, i. 157

ii. 251
Kencuria, ii. 397

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