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Exciting. vour. But when will you, my countrymen, w when

will you rouse from your indolence, and bethink

yourselves of what is to be done? When you are Apprehen. forced to it by some fatal disaster ? When irresist

"ible necessity drives you? What think ye of the Rousing disgraces which are already come upon you? Is

not the past sufficient to stimulate your activity ?

Or do ye wait for somewhat, yet to come, more Reproving' forcible and urgent? How long will you amuse with con- yourselves with enquiring of one another after tempt.

news, as you ramble idly about the streets? What Rousing news so strange ever came to Athens, as,

that a Macedonian should subdue this state, and lord it

over Greece ? Again, you ask one another, Contempt. What, is Philp dead". "No," it is an

swered, “but he is very ill! How foolish this Chiding. curiosity! What is it to you, whether Philip is

sick or well ? Suppose he were dead. Your inactivity would soon raise up against yourselves another Philip in his stead. For it is not his strength, that has made himn what he is ; but your indolence, which has, of late, been such, that you seem neither in a condition to take

any advantage of the enemy, nor to keep it, if it were Recollect- gained by others for you. But what I have ing. hitherto observed to your reproach, will be of no

service towards retrieving the past miscarriages, unless I proceed to offer a plan for raising the necessary supplies of money, shipping, and men,

[The orator then goes on to treat of ways and means. But

that part of his speech being less entertaining, and his demands of men, money, and shipping, being pitiful, compared with the immense funds, and stupendous armaments, we are accustomed to, I leave it out. Afiere wards he shews Philip's insolence by producing his leto ters to the Eutæans ; and then makes remarks on them.]

The present disgraceful state of your affairs, my.countrymen, as it appears from the insolent strain of the letters I have just read, may not,


perhaps, be a very pleasing subject, for your re-
flections. And if, by avoiding the mention of Relu&ance.
disagreeable circumstances, their existence could
be prevented or annihilated, there would be noth-
ing to do, but to frame our speeches so as to give
the most pleasure to the hearers. But, if the un-
seasonable smoothness of a speech tends to lulla peo- Apprehen.
pleinto a fatal security, how shameful is such self-
deceit! How contemptible the weakness of putting Reproach.
off the evil day, and through fear of being shocked
at the sight of what is disordered in our affairs, to Apprehen.
suffer the disorder to increase to such a degree, as
will soon be irretrievable! Wisdom, on the con Courage.
trary, directs, that the conductors of a war al-
ways anticipate the operations of the enemy, in-
stead of waiting to see what steps he shall take.
Superiority of genius shews itself by taking the
start of others; as in marching to battle, it is
the general, who leads, and the common soldiers
that follow-Whereas you, Athenians, though Reproach
be inasters of all that is necessary for war,

with Indig-
shipping, cavalry, infantry, and funds, have not
the spirit to make the proper use of your advant- Rousing
ages ; but suffer the enemy to dictate to you
every motion you are to make. If you hear that
Philip is in the Chersonesus, you order troops to
be sent thither. If at Pylæ, forces are to be
detached to secure that post. Wherever he makes
an attack, there you stand upon your defence.
You attend him in all his motions, as soldiers do
their general. But you never think of striking Chiding.
out of yourselves any bold and effectual scheine
for bringing him to reason, by being beforehand
with him. A. pitiful manner of carrying on war Contempt.
at any time ; but, in the critical circumstances Apprehen.
you are now in, utterly ruinous. However you
might trifle, so long as things were in a tolerable
state of safety, you will not, I hope, think of
going on in the same way, now that the very
being of the state is come to be precarious. I

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would willingly flatter myself with the hope, that things being come to a crisis, the hasty strides made by Philip toward the conquest

of this commonwealth, will prove the means of deSarcasın. feating his design. Had he proceeded deliberate

ly and prudently, you seem so disposed to peace, that I do not imagine, you would have troubled yourselves about his taking a few towns and provinces, but would have given him leave, without molestation, to affront your standards and flags at his pleasure. But now, that you see hiin making rapid advances toward your capital, perhaps you may at last be alarmed, if you be not

lost to all sense of prudence, honour, or safety. Rousing O shame to the Athenian name! We under

took this war against Philip, in order to obtain * redress of grievances, and to force him to inden

nify us for the injuries he had done us, Irony. have conducted it so successfully', that we shall,

by and by, think ourselves happy, if we escape Apprehen. being defeated and ruined. For, who can think,

that a prince, of his restless and ambitious temper, will not improve the opportunities and advantages which our indolence and timidity present him?

Will he give over his designs against us, without Remonstra. being obliged to it? And who will oblige him? Alarm.

Who will restrain his fury? Shall we wait for Exciting. assistance from some unknown country ? In the Intreating name of all that is sacred, and all that is dear to

us, let us make an attempt with what forces we can

raise, if we should not be able to raise as many Indignation as we would wish. Let us do somewhat to curb Exciting. this insolent tyrant of his pursuits. Let us not

trifle away the time in hearing the ineffectual Apprehen. wranglings of orators, while the enemy is strength

ening himself, and we are declining, and our allies growing more and more cold to our interest, and more apprehensive of the consequences of continuing on our side,




Iago artfully endeavours to excite Othello to

jealousy against his innocent wife DESDEMOna, to be revenged on Othello for a supposed injury.

[SHAKESP. Othel.] lago.


ID Michael Cassio, when you wooed ' Question. .

my lady, Know of your love ?

Craft, Othello. He did from first to last. Why dost Indifforence

thou ask 2 Iugo. But for a satisfaction of my thought ; Infinuating. No farther harm. Oth. Why of thy thought, Iago ?

Doubting. Iago. I did not think he had been acquainted Infinuating.

with it. Oth. O jes; and went between us very often. Declaration Iago. Indeed !

Surmising, oth. Ay indeed. Discern'st thou aught from Anxiety.

that ? Is he not honest ? Iago. Honest, my Lord ?

Surmising. Oth. Honest, ay, honest !

Anxiety. Iago. My Lord-for aught-for aught I know. Surmising. Oth. What dost thou think of?

Anxiety. Iago. Think of, my Lord !

Surnising. Oth. Think of, my Lord! Why dost thou echo Anxiety.

me, As if there were some monster in thy thought Suspicion. Too hideous to be shewn. Thou dost mean some

thing, I heard thee say but now, thou liked'st not that, When Cassio left my wife: What didst not like

Anxious And when I told thee, he was of my counsel,

enquiry. In my whole course of wooing, thou cry'dst

* Indeed!"

And didst contract and purse thy brows together,

As if thou then had'st shut up in thy brain Earnesiness. Some horrible conceit. If thou dost love me,

Shew me thy thought.
Fawning. Iago. My Lord, you know I love you.
Sufpicion. Oth. I think thou dost,

And as I know thou’rt full of honesty,
And weigh’st thy words, before thou giv'st them

breath, Apprehen. Therefore these stops of thine fright me the more:

For such things in a false disloyal knave,
Are tricks of custom ; but in a man, that's just,

They're distillations working from the heart, Earnestness. Which passion cannot rule. Therefore I tell thee,

Thou dost conspire against thy friend, Iago,
If thou but think'st him wrong'd, and mak'st his ear

A stranger to thy thought.
Reluctance. Iago. I do beseech you,

From one, that so imperfectly conceits,
Your wisdom would not build yourself a trouble
Out of my scattering and unsure observance.
It were not for your quiet, nor your good,
Nor for my manhood, honesty, and wisdom,

To let you know my thoughts.
Question. Oth. What dost thou mean?
Pretended Iago. Good name in man, or woman, dear

Is the immediate jewel of their souls. Contempt. Who steals my purse, steals trash ; 'tis some

thing nothing Twas minetis his it has been slaves to thou

sands : Concern. But he who filches from me my good name,

Robs me of that, which makes not him the richer,

And makes me poor indeed. Charging.

Oth. I'll know thy thoughts. Refusing. Iago. You cannot, if my heart were in your

hand; (1)

my Lord,

(1) lago. You cannot, &c.; That is, “I hardly know myself, what to think ; and yet I cannot help suspecting Caflio."

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