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terrors to restrain them. The sagacity, of
Cominen ernors appears in their shewing, that they have the address to plant their laws in the hearts of a tractable and obedient people. The most tremen- Instruction. dous sanctions will be incurred by men of ungov. ernable dispositions ; but those, whose minds have received from education and good police, a proper bent, will behave well, though left to themselves. The business, therefore, is not so much, to find ways of punishing offenders, as to form the minds of the people, so that they shall have no disposition to offend.
I hope no Athenian, who hears me this day, Self def. nca will shew such malice, as to accuse me of attempting to promote innovations. To advise, that we
Apology. should return to the institutions of our ancestors, is, surely, a very different matter from proposing innovations. And to propose the re-establishment of those arts of government, which we know to have been judicious, from their producing the most desirable effects, is far enough from shewing a love of novelty. Experience may teach us, if Alarm. we be disposed to learn, what we have to expect, if we go on in the track we are now in ; and what the consequences will be, if we restore the common- Encourage. wealth to the condition in which our wise ancestors established and maintained it. Let us attend Instruction. to the effects which our conduct will have upon those, we are most concerned with, viz. The other states of Greeee, our rivals, and the Persians our enemies. The truth is too notorious to be dissem Reproof. bled; we have, by our misconduct, and neglect of the public concerns, brought matters to such a pass, that part of the rival states despise, and part hate us. And, as for the Persian monarch, we have his sentiments of us in his letters.
I have, in perfect sincerity, declared to you,' Apology. Athenians, as far as my judgment reaches, the precarious state of the commonwealth at present; with its causes and cure.
You will shew your
Advising wisdom and your patriotism, by taking into your
serious consideration these important objects; and setting yourselves with speed and diligence to find out, and carry into execution, the most proper and effectual means of redressing those evils, which otherwise will draw after then the most ruinous consequences.
BLUNT REPROOF. WARNING.
The Speech of the Scythian ambassadors to Alex
ANDER, viho was preparing war against them. [Q. Curt. xii.]
If your person were as gigantic as your desires,
proof. the world would not contain you.
Your right hand would touch the east, and your left the west, at the same time. You grasp at more than you are equal to. From Europe you reach Asia : froin Asia you lay hold on Europe. And if you should conquer all mankind, you seem disposed io page war with woods and snows, with rivers
and wild beasts, and to attempt to subdue nature. Warning. But have you considered the usual course of things?
Have you reflected, that great trees are many
şears a growing to their height, and are cut down €»ntcmpt. in an hour. It is foolishi to think of the fruit
only, without considering the height you have to Warning: climb, to come at it. Take care lest, while you
strive to reach the top, you fall to the ground with the branches you have laid hold on. The lion, when dead, is devoured by ravens; and rust consumes the hardness of iron. There is nothing so strong, but it is in danger from what is weak. It will, therefore, be your wisdom to take care
llow you venture beyond your reach. Besides, Re:nonfa what have you to do with the Scythians, or the
Scythians with you? We have never invaded Macedon: Why should you attack Scythia? Weinhabit vast desarts, and pathless woods, where we do not want to hear of the name of Alexander. are not disposed to submit to slavery, and we Coura: . have no ambition to tyrannise over any nation. That you may understand the genius of the Scythians, we present you with a yoke of oxen, an arrow, and a goblet. We use these respectively in our commerce with friends, and with foes. We give to our friends the corn, which we raise by the labour of our oxen. With the goblet we join with them in pouring drink-offerings to the gods ; and with arrows we attack our enemies. We have conquered those, who have attempted to tyrannise over us in our own country, and likewise the kings of the Medes and Persians, when they made unjust war upon us; and we have opened to ourselves a way into Egypt. You pretend to be Acculing. the punisher of robbers; and are yourself the general robber of mankind. You have taken Lydia : you have seized Syria : you are master of Persia : you have subdued the Bactrians : and attacked India. All this will not satisfy you, unless you lay your greedy and unsatiable hands upon our flocks and our herds. How imprudent is your Remonstr. conduct? You grasp at riches, the possession of which only increases your avarice. You increase your hunger by what should produce satiety : so that the more you have, the more you desire. But have you forgotten how long the conquest of the Bactrians detained you? While you were subduing them, the Sogdians revolted. Your victóries serve no other purpose, than to find
you employment by producing new wars.
For the busi- Instruction, of
every conquest is two-fold ; to win and to preserve. And though you inay be the greatest Warning. of warriors, you must expect that the nations you conquer, will endeavour to shake off the joke as fast as possible. For what people chooses to be Courage.
under foreign dominion ? If you will cross the Tanais, you may travel over Scythia, and observe
how extensive a territory we inhabit. But to conWarning. quer us is quite another business. Your army is
loaded with the cumbrous spoils of many nations.
You will find the poverty of the Scythians, at one Threatning time, too nimble for your pursuit ; and, at ano
ther time, when you think we are fled far enough from you, you will have us surprise you in your
camp; For the Scythians attack with no less vigRemonftr. our than they fly. Why should we put you in
mind of the vastness of the country you will have to conquer ? The desarts of Scythia are commonly talked of in Greece; and all the world knows that our delight is to dwell at large, and not in towns or plantations. It will therefore be your wisdom
to keep, with strict attention, what you have Warning. gained. Catching at more, you may lose what
We have a proverbial saying in Scythia, " That fortune has no feet ; and is furnished only with hands, to distribute her capri
cious favours, and with fins to elude the grasp of Reproof. those to whom she has been bountiful. You give Contempt. yourself out to be a god, the son of Jupiter Ham
It suits the character of a god to bestow favours on mortals, not to deprive them of what
they have. But, if you are no god, reflect on the Reproof. precarious condition of humanity. You will thus
shew more wisdom than by dwelling on those sub
jects which have puffed up your pride, and made Reinonstr. you forget yourself. You see how little you are
likely to gain by attempting the conquest of ScyOffering thia. On the other hand, you may, if you please, i friendihip. have in us a valuable alliance. We command Instruēting, the borders of both Europe and Asia. There
is nothing between us and Bactria but the river Tanais ; and our territory extends to Thrace, which, as we have heard, borders on Macedon. If you decline attacking us in a hostile manner, you may have our friendship. Nations, which
have never been at war, are on an equal footing, But it is in vain that confidence is reposed in a Warning: conquered people. There can be no sincere friendship between the oppressors and the oppressed. Even in peace, the latter think themselves entitled to the rights of war against the former. We Offering. will, if you think good, enter into a treaty with you, according to our manner, which is, not by signing, sealing, and taking the gods to witness, as is the Grecian custom ; but by doing actual services. The Scythians are not used to promise, Bluntneşs. but to perform without promising. And they think an appeal to the gods superfluous : for that those who have no regard for the esteem of men, will not hesitate to offend the gods by perjury. You may therefore consider with
yourself, whether you had better have a people of such a character, (and so situated, as to have it in their
power either to serve you or, to annoy you, according as you treat them) for allies, or for enemies.
OUTCRY. EXAMINATION. SELF DE
FENCE. CHIDING. LAMENTATION.
(See Moliere's L'AVARE.)
HIEVES! Robbers! Thieves ! Outcry. Robbers! Thieves ! Robbers! Traitors! Murderers ! Justice ! Help! I ain robbed ! I am Lamenta ruined! I am dead! I am buried ! O my money, my money! My guineas ! My golden guineas ! My thousand guineas ! My precious treasure ! My comfort ! My support! My life! My all is Extravagant gone, plundered, robbed, carried off, strong-box distrels. and all ! O that I had never been born! O