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with the tenants, but went off in a whirlwind to town, just as some of them came into the yard in the morning.-Castle Rackrent.

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EDGEWORTH, RICHARD LOVELL, the father of Maria, born at Bath, England, in 1744; died in 1817. He came of an Irish family, and was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and at Oxford. He had great mechanical ingenuity. In 1771 he took part in the superintendence of works undertaken to alter the course of the Rhone, and resided in Lyons for two years. In 1782 he removed to Ireland. He entered the Irish Parliament in 1798, and was one of the opponents of the union of England and Ireland. Besides parliamentary reports he wrote, either alone, or in conjunction with his daughter, Practical Education (1798); Early Lessons, Essay on Irish Bulls (1802); Professional Education (1808); Essay on the Construction of Roads and Carriages (1813), and numerous essays on scientific subjects. His Memoirs, begun by him, were completed after his death by his daughter.


EDGREN - LEFFLER, ANNE CHARLOTTE, Swedish novelist, dramatist, and social reformer, was born at Stockholm, October 16, 1849; died at Naples, Italy, October 24, 1892. She was the daughter of School Superintendent Leffler of Stockholm, where she received a thoroughly good education, being, as her biographer says, far better educated than the majority of women, as she grew up in the companionship of two brothers who were afterward professors. Her first work, a little play in two acts, entitled The Actress, was published when she was nineteen years old, under the pseudonym of “Carlot.” Other of her early writings were issued anonymously; and still others under the pen name of “Abrun Leifson.” In 1872 she married a brother of Professor Edgren of the University of Lund. Her husband was in the service of the government; their married life was an unhappy one, and was ended by a divorce; and Madame Edgren became a lecturer and an acknowledged leader of the Swedish woman's rights movement. During her travels she became acquainted with the Duke of Cajanello, an Italian mathematician, professor at the Lyceum at Naples. She fell desperately in love with him; and in May, 1890, a little more than two years before her death, she became the Duchess of Cajanello. In her dramas and novels she advocated the cause of the emancipation of woman. Of the former, the principal are Skadespelerskan (1873); Under Toffeln (1876); Elfvan (1880); Sanna Gvinnor (1883); En Raddande Engel (1883); Hurman gor Godt (1884). A collection of her stories was published at Stockholm in 1882 in four volumes, under the title Ur Lifvet; this has passed through many editions. A recent critic says that Elfvan (The Elf) is her best play; and that Aurora Bunge and Love and Womanhood are by far the best of her stories, her longest completed novel being A Tale of Summer.

Laura Marholm Hansson, in her psychological sketches in Modern Women, thus expresses her opinion of Madame Edgren-Leffler: “The age in which we live has produced a class of women who, since they represent the strongest majority, must be reckoned as the type. It is natural that they should have neither the influence nor the fascination of the older generation, and they are not as happy. They are neither happy themselves, nor do they make others happy; the reason is that they are less.womanly than the others were. From their midst the modern authoresses have gone forth, women who in days to come will be named in connection with the progress of culture; and I think that Anne Charlotte Edgren-Leffler, Duchess of Cajanello, will long be remembered as the most characteristic representative of the type.

“There is nothing that woman resents more keenly than when a man plays with her affections, and neglects her afterward. The more inexperienced the woman the more unmanly this behavior seems. If she is a true woman her disappointment will be all the greater; she will feel it not only with regard to this single individual, but it will cast a shadow over all men.

“Fru Edgren-Leffler belonged to that class of women whose senses slumber long because their vital strength gives them the expectation of long youth. But when the day comes that they are awakened the same vitality that kept them asleep overflows with an intensity that attracts like a beacon on a dark night. It is the woman who attracts the man, not the reverse.

Fru EdgrenLeffler found in her fortieth year that which she had sought for in vain in her twentieth and thirtieth,-love! The unfruitful became fruitful; the emaciated became beautiful, the woman's rights woman sang a song to the mystery of love; and the last short years of happiness, too soon interrupted by death, were a contradiction to the long insipid period of literary production.”

A recent writer in Blackwood, à propos of Laura Hansson's sketch of Madame Leffler, thus summarizes her life as seen from his stand-point: her early days Fru Leffler was the champion of the Swedish Woman's Rights movement, and interested herself in all the ‘isms, such as socialism, anarchism, theosophy, positivism, and atheism, but late in life she seems to have learned that the highest altruism, as well as the truest happiness, for women lies in performing the duties of wife and mother. Fru Hansson uses the story of her life to enforce her favorite theory-namely, that individualism in woman is a mistake, because she

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cannot exist alone, being 'spiritually and mentally an empty vessel, which must be replenished by man.' I try to picture to myself what Mrs. Sarah Grand's feelings must have been if ever she read this sentence. One fears, too, lest the dissemination of such views should have a bad effect upon man, and tend to make the creature more insupportable than ever. Fru Hansson, however, is most emphatic on the point, and asserts that those ladies who seek to exert their influence by main force, and manitest a desire to dispense with man altogether,' are acting most imprudently. Far be it from me to express an opinion on this delicate point, though one cannot help thinking that Eve without Adam, or vice versa, might after a while find even Paradise a bore. Anyhow, Fru Leffler seems to have grown to this opinion, for, though as a disciple of Ibsen she had raged against the unhappiness of married life, she fell violently in love at the age of forty, and abandoned her active championship of the rights of femininism in order to enjoy liberty, love, and the South' in Italy. Unfortunately, like Sonia Kovalevsky, she died young, but her closing days were unclouded by grief."

SONYA KOVALEVSKY, It is but natural that my first meeting with Sónya, now that she is dead, should be vividly recalled to my mind, even to its slightest details. She arrived by the evening boat from Finland, and came to my brother Leffler's house as my guest; and I went there the next day. We had already heard so much of each other, that we were quite ready to be friends, and in haste to become personally acquainted. Perhaps she looked for

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