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gospels. Joseph was a carpenter; and world, as I am not of the world.” All if the testimony of those who could not that is in the world is evil. If we be be ignorant of his employment if he strangers and pilgrims, and seek a followed one, and who could have no better land, we cannot be devoting all motive for misstatement, is to be re- our time and power to the acquisition ceived, the great Maker of all things of money, or the attainment of rank, worked at the same employment. “Is or the possession of civil authority. not this the carpenter ?" Mark vi. 3. Politics cannot have the chief place in Surely no Christian need be ashamed of our hearts, nor can I reconcile likeness the lowest occupation, but endeavour to to Christ in his professing friends with honour it by diligence, by application, the leading part which some take in by honesty, and by sobriety. “ Not general or local politics. slothful in business, fervent in spirit, This was not the temper or conduct serving the Lord."

of Christians for two centuries after The public or ministerial course of Christ. They appear to have addicted our great Master was one of incessant themselves to the preaching of the gostoil. In about three years or little pel and the cultivation of a holy, moral more, he traversed the towns and conduct, and looked on these two, acvillages of Canaan which were then companied by divine influence, as sufnumerous and populous, from one end ficient to remove every evil in our fallen to the other, and in every direction, and world. Let us try the same experiment, on both sides of the Jordan. He in humble dependence on the blessed preached in private houses, in the syna- Spirit, and we shall see in measure the gogues, in the fields, in the markets, same results. and in the temple at the great festivals. Let us endeavour to estimate our He came to do as well as to suffer the obligations to follow Christ's example. will of his Father; to be the Teacher as They are addressed to the understandwell as the Redeemer of men; to finish ing, to the heart, and to the conscience. the work which the Father gave him to Remember the dignity of his person do; to be obedient even unto the death who has furnished this pattern, the of the cross. And dare we be idle in very brightness of the Father's glory, his cause and the salvation of men ? and the image of the invisible God. “Be not slothful, but followers of them His obedience is at once our model, who now inherit the promises.” and the justifying righteousness with

6. Deadness to the world and hea- which God is pleased. His stripes are venly-mindedness. I need not dwell at once the atonement by which our on this characteristic of our blessed sins are expiated, and the healing of Master. He was from heaven and our souls when viewed by faith. The breathed its air ; his heart and affec- Father has predestinated us to be contions were above, and his purpose and formed to the likeness of his Son. The aim in all he said and did was to bring Son has given himself for us, to redeem straying men to his Father's house. us from all iniquity, and to purify us to

The riches, the honours, the rank, himself. the merely secular affairs of the world, The Spirit saves and calls with a holy had no charms for him, and had no calling, and by the washing of regenerainfluence on his conduct. In this spirit tion fits for the fellowship and service he has left an example which we are of God here and hereafter. My evidence bound to imitate. “Be not conformed of interest in his obedience as justifying to this world.” “Ye are not of the me before God is my love and my con272 BAPTISM IN THE HOLY SPIRIT, AND BAPTISM IN FIRE. formity to it. My evidence of interest an anointed person anointed with in his sufferings is my desire to be Christ, having his mind, and tracing clothed with humility, and to cultivate his footsteps through this world's wilthat meek spirit which, in the sight of derness to a better land. God, is of great price. A Christian is Liverpool.

J. L.



BY PROFESSOR RIPLEY OF NEWTON, MASSACHUSETTS. The term Holy Spirit is preferable to Spirit, what has now been stated as the term Holy Ghost, as the word ghost drawn from the meaning of the terms, is attended with unpleasant associa- will be confirmed. In Acts i. 5, the retions in many minds. The word trans- mark occurs,“ John truly baptized with lated with would be better rendered in; water; but ye shall be baptized with it is the same word, in the original, as the Holy Ghost not many days hence.” is used in the beginning of this verse, The fulfilment of this promise we find and as is translated in in the sixth in Acts ii. 2, 4, 17, 18, 33, 38. A most verse. But what is it to baptize in the copious imparting of the Holy Spirit's Holy Spirit ? This expression, which influence was granted, giving new light has occasioned so much difficulty, would and courage to the apostles, and enabling be rendered, in a great measure, clear them "to speak with other tongues," by referring to the radical meaning that is, in other languages than their of the Greek word corresponding to own. Thus were they baptized [im

word baptize. The primary, mersed] in the influences of the Holy radical meaning of this word in Spirit. In other words, abundant inthe original is, to dip, to immerse. As fluences of the Holy Spirit were shed intimately connected with this primary forth upon them, so that they might be meaning, the word also expresses the said to have been surrounded by those idea of a most copious imparting, inas- influences. much as one who is immersed in a fluid, In Acts xi. 16, again occurs the same most copiously partakes of it. To be declaration of Jesus as we find in Acts immersed in the Holy Spirit, then, is to i. 5, “ Then remembered I the word of receive a most copious imparting of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed the Holy Spirit. By the Holy Spirit, baptized with [in] water; but ye shall we are here to understand those divine be baptized with [immersed in] the influences which were so abundantly Holy Spirit.” Immediately before this imparted to the first Christians, making declaration, and as reminding of what them truly of one heart, filling them the Lord had said, it is stated, that with spiritual consolation, and enabling when Peter began to speak to Cornelius them, by pious example, and, in many and his company, "the IIoly Spirit fell instances, by miraculous operations, to on them as on us at the beginning.” stand forth as witnesses for the truth of The imparting, then, of the Holy Spirit Christianity, and preparing them for on this occasion, was the same as bapthe glories of heaven. By a reference tizing in the IIoly Spirit. If, now, we to the passages which speak of this turn to Acts x. 44–47, we shall find baptism, or immersion, in the Holy that when " the Holy Spirit fell on all BAPTISM IN TIIE HOLY SPIRIT, AND BAPTISM IN FIRE. 273 them that heard the word” from Peter, / would appear, and that with far greater they spoke “ with tongues,” that is, in authority than he possessed; he would other languages, "and magnified God,” come with power to bestow the rewards -a striking similarity to what occurred and to inflict the punishments approon the day of Pentecost; and clearly priate to the new dispensation; and as showing that to be baptized in the Holy | the result of his coming, on some would Ghost, is to enjoy a most copious com- be most copiously shed tokens of divine munication of divine influence. favour, while on others would be most

There is another passage which may copiously poured tokens of divine be brought into comparison with those indignation. already produced. It is in 1 Cor. xii. 13, A similar instance of contrast in “For by one Spirit are we all baptized respect to the Messiah, though in less into one body;" the idea of which forcible language, occurs in Luke ii. 34, words seems to be, that by our copious “ This child is set for the fall and the partaking of divine influences we have rising again of many in Israel,” that is, become closely united together, what he will prove an occasion for the ruin ever may be our outward distinctions. of many, and for the exalted bliss of Here no allusion is made to the bestowal many, in Israel. of miraculous gifts, but to mutual love, In still further urging this thought and to the mutual participation of the of separation, as to destiny, between blissful hope which the gospel inspires. the righteous and the wicked, John

He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit, draws an illustration from the operathen, means, he will most copiously im- tions of husbandry, with which his part divine influences, which will be hearers were familiar. In the eastern connected with signal bliss on earth, countries, the grain, when ripe, is depoand lead to most distinguished bliss in sited upon the threshing-floor, and after heaven.

being trodden by cattle, or beaten out, And with fire; he will baptize you is by the winnowing fan separated from with fire; that is, he will immerse you the chaff. The pure kernels, separated in fire. And what is the meaning of from the useless mass, are laid up in the this expression ? In the verse imme- granary, the chaff and the stubble are diately before this, and in the verse im- committed to the flames. A similar mediately after it, the word fire occurs award will be made by the Messiah. as meaning extreme misery. The word Discriminating between the characters in this verse, then, most naturally has of men, and administering with perfect the same signification. In other places, rectitude the affairs of the divine kingfire is used as an emblem of punishment. dom, he will welcome some to bliss, and See Matt. XXV. 41; Jude 7; Rev. xx. consign others to remediless woe. See 14, 15, xxi. 8; Mal. iv. 1. To be im- Matt xxv. 31-46. mersed in fire, then, is to be over- Fan; winnowing fan or shovel, by whelmed in misery. The verse thus which the grain mingled with chaff was presents an affecting contrast. John exposed to the wind, so that the chaff declares that he himself had a compara- was blown away. tively inferior work to perform, namely, Thoroughly purge his floor; thoroughly to call the people to repentance, and to clear off his threshing-floor. The baptize those who professed repentance, threshing-floor was in some elevated as a preparation for the Messiah, whose part of the field; it was of a circular coming he announced. But soon the form, thirty or forty paces in diameter, great Lord of the new dispensation having the ground beaten down and


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levelled. Compare Judges vi. 37–40., verses 10-12, compare Mark i. 7, 8, Garner; granary, storehouse.

and Luke iii. 9, 16, 17. Mark expresses Unquenchable fire; fire that will not the thoughts in a briefer form; Luke be put out, but which will make an with the same fulness as we find in utter destruction. In reference to the Matthew. We cannot fail to notice future punishment of the wicked, which here, that certain and awful destruction is manifestly here spoken of, this ex- awaits the impenitent, while to those pression cuts off the hope of their ever who obey Christ and trust in him there being relieved from it; as parallel with will be safety and glory.



There is great uncertainty respecting, the private gatherings of our churches the time when the baptists of this were broken up by informers, by solcountry began to unite in county or diers, and by magistrates : it is not district associations for the advance- likely, therefore, that men in power ment of religion and for the extension would have winked at public meetings of denominational interests. Only a of ministers and messengers who had few of them kept any minutes of their come from different parts, and someproceedings, or if they did the docu- times continued their deliberations for ments have perished in the lapse of several days. For this, as well as for ages; and in abatement of any censure many other privileges, our forefathers that might be cast upon them for this were indebted to Hampden, Cromwell, omission, it is enough to plead the and their compatriots, who threw themdangers which menaced their assemblies selves into the breach when Charles from high quarters, and the risks they and Laud where marching on to abso must have run by keeping papers which lute despotism, and never withdrew their enemies might have used for their from the contest until they had placed conviction in courts of law and before our civil and religious liberties upon a spiritual tribunals. Amid the gloom solid foundation. and the commotions which marked the There is documentary evidence to early part of the seventeenth century show that in the year 1644 seven of the these associations began to assume a churches in London were united in visible form, and the state of public these bonds of friendship, and to them opinion did not render such a step pru- was due the honour of publishing one dent at an earlier period. Monarchs of our earliest confessions of faith. On would have looked with a jealous eye a small scale they were an association upon assemblies of nonconformists and of churches having one Lord, one faith, of baptists such as are under considera- one baptism, and one hope. Some of tion, and primates would have alarmed the Welsh associations bear the date of the country with orations on the spread 1649 or 1650, and sundry churches in of heresy and the danger of the church. the west of England held their annual From the days of Henry VIII. down to meetings at Chard, Wells, and Bridgethe time of wbich we are writing even water, between the years 1653 and 1659.* Coincident with these meetings royal assent the baptist ministers of in the west, others took place in Lin- London convened a meeting of their colnshire, where the brethren made brethren from all parts of the country arrangements for sending ministers to to deliberate on the state of the preach the gospel into destitute parts churches. It was held in the metropoof the land. In the year 1665, the lis, September 3, 1689, and attended by Midland Association was formed — an deputies from more than one hundred act of courage on the part of the men churches in England and Wales. Nine who did it which deserves our admira- days were spent by the conference in tion, inasmuch as the Restoration had prayer, in thanksgiving, in deliberation, brought back to this country the reign and in forming plans for the spiritual of terror, dispersed many of the non- good of the denomination.

Such a conforming churches, and driven their gathering of friends, who saw eye to pastors into exile or shut them up in eye on articles of faith and modes of prison. The baptists of the midland worship, must have been refreshing in counties, however, fearing not the wrath no common degree after the dark and of the king, or the plots of his prime dismal scenes through which the proviminister, formed themselves into an dence of God had led them. More association for the revival of religion than once the conference re-assembled and for the glory of God, although in London, with many advantages to more than five persons assembling for the churches, but distance and expense public worship, contrary to the forms rendered its continuance at first inconof the established church, were liable venient, and in the end impracticable. to fines, imprisonment, or banishment When, therefore, the brethren met in to the American plantations. A few London, A. D. 1692, they resolved, years later similar meetings were held “That whereas for some years past the in the counties of Herts, Kent, North- churches have had several associate and ampton, and Buckingham, at the last of county meetings, and one general one which fifty-four messengers attended. in London annually, it is now proposed Writing of the same period Thomas to divide the general meeting into two, Grantham said, “The baptized churches and to keep one in the west and the of this age and nation have kept another in the east, that in the west to be assembly general for many years, for the at Bristol, and the other in London.” * better settlement of the churches to Within two or three years the metrowhich they are related, and do hope to politan association was dissolved from see a good issue thereof towards the causes not explained, but that in the better manifestation of such truths, as west continued in existence a longer by reason of the corruption of former period; at length, however, the western times have been neglected, and that by union was broken up also, and supermen who yet have done very worthily seded by local associations on a smaller in many things pertaining to the resti- scale. These minor assemblies of pastution of Christianity.F

tors and churches went on increasing in Soon after the revolution of 1688 the number until they embraced almost three estates of the realm agreed to every county in the land, and the strength TOLERATE the religious meetings of of the denomination. They have come nonconformists, and as early as possible down to our own times the same in after the Toleration Act received the substance, if not in form, and they still

* Ivimey, vol. iv., 257-262.

| Christ. Prim., p. 137.

* Iyimey, vol. 1, 515-519.

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