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shone with unwonted lustre, like stars limer honours among the spirits of just in a dark and stormy night. Through- men made perfect. With many of them out our denomination he was greatly he had enjoyed communion below, and esteemed by all who enjoyed his friend- not a few of them owed their salvation ship-in the home and foreign missions to him as an instrument in the hands of he took a deep interest—and the com- God. mittees of both those societies placed Thither he soon followed Mr. Dougin him a degree of confidence which he las, whose memoir he wrote for the well deserved. Ministers and members September magazine, in the midst of of other communions loved him for the great weakness, and against the wishes spirit of Jesus which he breathed, and of his relatives who trembled for the for his readiness to every good work. consequences upon his own delicate and Making no pretensions to brilliant parts attenuated frame. But love constrained or to literary attainments, yet by the him to perform this act of friendship eloquence of holy living and by the for one who had been his companion at greatness of self-denial, he steadily ad- college, and his regular correspondent vanced in moral power for more than until separated by death. In truth it forty years, and resembled “ the shining may be said that David Douglas and light that shineth more and more unto George Sample “ were pleasant in their the perfect day.” Failings he had, lives, and in their death they were not without doubt, though many of them long divided.” Both now sleep in Jeleaned to the side of virtue, and he sus, and rest from their labours. sought pardon for them all in the precious blood of Christ. All his hopes of In closing this sketch of my predeeternal life centred in the cross, which cessor in office, who was one of the best had been the theme of his ministry and men it has been my happiness to know, the ground of his rejoicing. Holding I cannot but regret his removal from firmly his own views of believers' bap- amongst us at a time when his influence tism, he waged war against the vile over the northern churches was so gedogma of sacramental efficacy, and as a neral and so beneficial. sinner ready to perish he found a refuge
“But lo! the Master called. in the righteousness of Christ. But So, laying down the bible that he loved, while calmly reviewing the past, and
That single weapon that he so meek had borne
Through all life's tribulation, he gave back hopefully waiting for the future, his
The spirit to the Giver, and went home. Master called him away to receive sub- Yes,-full of honours as of days, -went home."
THOUGHTS ON GERMAN THEOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY.
BY THE REV. JOHN NEAVE,
It is said that many exclaim against the mass of mysticism published by the Germanism in theology and mental phi- would-be philosophers and divines of losophy who do not understand either, Germany? If ever human thought was and are, therefore, wholly incompetent left to wander in airy and phantastic judges. I would ask the objector if he regions, it is in the notions of these himself understands, if he can even read writers. One thing, however, is obvious
to any intelligent reader, that these sidiously or boldly proposed for our men have made what they call reason in belief. That devotion which arises man the supreme judge of truth in both from ignorance or superstition is spurireligion and morals. Now if human ous. The maxim of the Romish church, reason were infallible it might be made “that ignorance is the mother of devothe arbiter in everything relating to tion,” ought to be scorned by every these. But we find those who profess serious inquirer after truth. to be guided by pure reason, arriving at What, then, is the province of reason conclusions so different and contradic- in respect to religion and morals? Just tory to each other, that we are forced that which it is in respect to any other to reject the claims of human reason to subject of investigation not religious; arbitrate respecting religious truth. simply to draw its conclusions from Truth, on all subjects, is unalterable and evidence, indubitable evidence. As an eternally the same, and in no way de- illustration of its proper application, I pending on the exercise of our perceptive shall suppose the following train of or reasoning faculties. If my reason, thought. I feel myself to be a living, therefore, admits a certain statement to thinking being-any attempt to prove be true, and another man's reason de- this would be absurd. I find myself, cides it to be a falsehood, I have no also, surrounded by other living beings, other alternative but to conclude that and a world of most exquisite mechanwhat is called reason is an incompetent ism, everywhere evincing design, harjudge.
mony, and benevolence. My experience But what is reason ? It is that soon teaches me that where there is faculty of the mind by which we infer design, there must have been a designer. from certain known principles, the truth If in my travels I come on the ruins of of which we have discovered, either by some large city or once magnificent intuition or a process of proof arising building, I can have no doubt that from first principles, the certainty of these were the work of intelligent beother facts. Its exercise is, therefore, ings capable of rearing them. Applying connected with a patient attention to the same mode of reasoning to the evidence either intuitive or legitimately world around me, and extending it to drawn from first, intuitive principles. the universe as far as my eye can reach, If my reason jump at a conclusion the conclusion comes to my mind with without this process of proof, it is an irresistible force, that there must be a unsafe guide, and can never be the great, wise, and powerful being that standard of truth. Truth exists inde- made them all. That being I call God. pendent of reason. Reason is only that Fain would I know more of his person faculty by which we trace the process and character. Ardent desire is roused of proof which infallibly leads to cer- to know the relation in which I stand tainty respecting any truth which may to such a being. Alas! without sube the subject of our investigation. perior light I can only conjecture.
Far be it from us to discard the exer- Reason makes certain advances, but soon cise of reason in religious matters. The feels herself compelled to stop for want more rational our investigations on such of evidence. matters are, the more correct will be our I am, then, informed that God has conclusions, the firmer our faith, and revealed himself in a book which lays the deeper our piety. We are no friends claim to inspiration. That in compasto that implicit confidence which would sion to his creature, man, he has made make us the victims of error when in such a revelation of himself and of his gracious purposes as may conduce to are all produced by something exterior his happiness, and guide him to truth to the mind itself, and operating upon on all that most concerns him. The it. They may be just or groundless announcement fills my heart with joy. feelings, but they are so just as the opeBut I pause and ask, “ Can this indeed rating cause is real or imaginary. A be true? What evidence is there of its child, or even a man, may have the feeltruth ?" The legitimate province of ing of fear excited in his mind, when reason is to investigate that evidence. passing a burial-ground in a lonely Being once satisfied that the bible is place in a dark night, by the thought of such a revelation; that it is indeed God's ghosts. This feeling is unjust, a merely book, my duty is, then, not to dispute imaginary fear, for it arises from an the truths which it reveals, but simply imaginary danger. True feeling is the to ascertain what it does reveal, and result of a reality the knowledge of implicitly to receive it as truth. which the mind has attained. The
Those writers and professors who are great point, then, to which I would classed among the opponents of neology draw attention is, that all our feelings and scepticism, and the restorers of true, are the result of a cause. evangelical religion in Germany, are Now let us apply this reasoning to the still chargeable with a most injurious actual state of feeling which is the remysticism in their description of the sult of a scriptural knowledge of God Christian religion. Schleirmuher and and his ways, and which is founded on his followers place all religion in feeling, evidence inducing belief in what is re feeling of dependence on God. They vealed. A man believes that there is exalt human nature in opposition to the one God, the creator and preserver of declaration of God himself, who declares all things, almighty, everywhere present, that the imaginations of the thoughts of and knowing all things, a wise, good, man's heart are evil continually. They and merciful being, holy, just, and true; teach that there is a substratum of good that he has so loved the world that in man, and salvation consists in excit- he has given his only-begotten Son, that ing this inward feeling into preponder- whosoever believeth in him should not ating activity by some mystical connexion perish but have everlasting life ; that with Christ. They admit a second this unspeakable gift was made in conorder of feeling in connexion with the sequence of our helpless and perishing world, a moral feeling which manifests state. What feelings will be produced itself in action. Combined with the by such a faith? Godly sorrow for sin, superior feeling of dependence on God, humility, confidence in Christ, hope, it leads to the practice of virtue in peace, joy, love, gratitude, a sense of various forms. But how absurd and obligation to serve and honour God. mystical is all this when compared with The more thoroughly these truths are the lucid and simple statements of the believed, the deeper will these feelings bible ?
be. Now, all genuine feeling is influenThey take it for granted that this tial. We see the man, therefore, a new feeling is something innate, a first prin creature. The love of Christ constrains ciple in the mind itself. But any man him, not to live to himself, but to him who will examine his own mind, will who died for him. All counter-emotions perceive that all his feelings are the re- perish or are weakened. Here is an sult of something either real or imagin- operating cause, namely, divine truth ary, operating on his mind. Fear, joy, brought home to the heart by the Spirit sorrow, hope, love, hatred, anger, &c., of God. Here are feelings expanding
themselves into obedience to God and | inquiries after truth. The vain jargon benevolence to man. All these combined of the schools is now what it has ever constitute religion. Faith, and feeling, been, a mist rising from the stagnant and practice, go hand in hand and pro- pool of human pride, to obscure the duce that beautiful harmony which simple truth which shines like constitutes true religion.
beam in the pages of the divine word. How different is all this from that Guided by that word you will not only mystic philosophy which pretends to be save yourselves but them that hear you. an advance on Christianity as it existed The simple gospel is equally adapted to in the time of its divine Founder and all states of society. To the learned and his apostles—a progressive movement unlearned, to the savage and the civilto meet the superior intelligence of the ized, it is equally the power of God age. To young friends who are prepar- unto salvation. Be determined to know ing for the ministry I would earnestly nothing among men but Jesus Christ say, “ Beware, lest any man spoil you and him crucified. It is a fearful thing through philosophy and vain deceit to pander to the false taste of any age after the rudiments of the world, and or state of society. No refinement in not after Christ.” If you are satisfied language or thought can atone for the that the bible is God's book, take it as want of the simplicity that is in Christ. your guide, the light of your feet, and A dying moment will convince us all the lamp of your path. Seek the teach- that all preaching that hides the cross ing of the Holy Spirit in all your is worthless, nay more, ruinous.
Gatscombe House, Portsmouth.
THE EFFECTS OF INFANT BAPTISM.
BY THE HON. AND REV. BAPTIST WRIOTHESLEY NOEL, M.A.
Its first effect is to abolish almost are precluded; and the church, the entirely in any church and in any na- congregation, the world, lose the imtion the baptism of believers. It is pressions which might be derived from not an addition to the baptism of be- witnessing the act by which believers, lievers, but supersedes it; because when lately turned from darkness to light, a nation adopts the profession of Chris- and from the power of Satan to God, tianity, almost all its children are surrender themselves to the service of baptized, and there remain no adults the Redeemer. Christ's baptism, with unbaptized. The consequence is, that all its blessings, is set aside to introduce all the effects of the baptism of believ- another baptism derived from false ers vanish with it. A baptism of dedi- analogies and forced inferences, of cation, not sanctioned by Christ, and of which neither Christ nor his apostles which no instance is found in the New have said one word. Through the Testament, has abolished the baptism baptism of unconscious infants, the of profession instituted by Christ, and solemn, affecting, and salutary baptism alone declared to be practised by apos- of repentance, faith, and self-dedication tles. The intense emotions with which to God, has nearly vanished from the converts might give themselves in churches baptism to the service of the Redeemer What have the churches gained by
VOL. XII.-FOURTI SERIES,
this substitution ? I can find no bene- | by his docility and artlessness, by the fit whatever derived from infant bap- sacred trust which God has put in the tism by infants, or their parents, or hands of his parents, by the parental the churches, or the world. Infants love with which he has implored them, altogether unconscious are thus dedi- are they bound and urged to dedicate cated to tod, falsely by unbelieving him from his infancy to God, to instruct parents, and sincerely by parents who and train him for God, and guide him believe. In the former case, parents by precept and example to the knowsin by an act of hypocrisy; in the ledge and love of his Maker. Can bapsecond, they do what they would do tism add anything to these obligations! without baptism, and no more. But Does it in fact ? Even parents who what does the infant gain ? Without have sprinkled their children feel the baptism he might receive parental force of these natural motives day by training, be placed under a pious mas- day a thousand times more than they ter, listen to earnest preaching, join in do the influence of that religious the prayers of the congregation, asso- sprinkling. Pious parents do not need ciate with godly friends, be instructed this new inducement to educate their at a good school, become a member of children well; ungodly parents cannot the pastor's bible-class, and attend the feel its force. On the other hand, the prayer-meetings of the congregation. actual practice of pædobaptist churches From what means of instruction is the too clearly proves that the churches unbaptized child of Christian parents themselves take very little interest in excluded which would be open to the the ceremony. Baptism, except as far baptized child ?
Under the Mosaic as superstition has invested it with economy, which was exclusive, circum- imaginary spiritual power, seems to me cision admitted the child to the temple to have dwindled into a formality. worship, to the teaching of the rabbins Yet even this formality is fraught or priests, to the passover and other with the elements of positive mischief. festivals, to association with the chosen For since all who are baptized are in people, to the use of all the means of some sense disciples (Matt. xxviii. 19), instruction then in the world, from all baptized infants are thought to be which the uncircumcised were excluded; become Christiang. The Anglican but under the Christian economy, churches say of them, that they are which is meant for the world, there is “members of Christ, children of God, no such exclusion. The unbaptized and inheritors of the kingdom of child has all the advantages which were heaven." Church Catechism. “The possessed by the circumcised child, and visible society which God was pleased many more; nay, further, he has all the to institute amongst men • since advantages possessed by the baptized the day of Pentecost, has consisted of child. In no respect does the first baptized families enlarging to many differ from the second, except that he baptized nations.”—McNeile's Lectures, does not bear a name which by itself is 14. “It is undeniable, that in scripture delusive and worse than worthless. the visible number of the baptized is The unauthorized baptism of infants called the church.”—Ibid. 18. In the cannot be shown to render to them any baptismal service each Anglican minisservice whatever. It renders no advan- ter says of each child brought to him tage to their parents. By the complete to be sprinkled, “We receive this child subjection of a child to the will of his into the congregation of Christ's flock :" parents, by his imploring helplessness, and adds, " This child is regenerate and