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have been, God had long ere this poured in our Lord Jesus Christ. The Son of out upon you the fierceness of his anger, God having a full and perfect underit would have been no more than you standing of our wants, and miseries, have merited, nor could a word of com- and destitution, has placed himself beplaint have been justly uttered against fore us under those aspects which enhim, if he had done so. Your mouth courage our trust, and assure us of every must have been stopped, being convicted blessing. He says, “ I am the bread of of guilt in his presence. But as he has life. This is the bread which cometh forborne to punish, and has spared and down from heaven, that a man may eat preserved you till now, you have in this, thereof and not die. I am the living the extension of his long-suffering to- bread which came down from heaven, wards you, a most convincing proof that if any man eat of this bread he shall he has no pleasure in your death. live for ever.” This is the promise of
Yet once more it may be mentioned life given to all who repent and turn to as a confirmation of this statement, Christ. On the occasion of the Feast of that life — life everlasting, is pro- Tabernacles, on the last, the great day mised to all who turn to God and seek of the feast, " Jesus stood, and cried, his face. The exhortations to repent saying, If any man thirst let him come and believe the gospel, are enforced upon unto me and drink. He that believeth our notice, by the most gracious encou- on me, as the scripture hath said, out of ragements, that if we confess our sins, his belly shall flow rivers of living water." God is faithful and just to forgive us our Is it necessary to mention more of sins, and to cleanse us from all unright- the promises ? Hear again the word of
When the prodigal son the Lord,“ Come now, and let us reason came to himself and repented, and re- together, saith the Lord, though your solved to return to his father, and did sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white return, then his father welcomed him as snow; though they be red like crimto his house and his heart, and gracious- son, they shall be as wool.” “Seek ye ly forgave all his iniquity. Thus God the Lord while he may be found, call deals with returning prodigals; the soul ye upon him while he is near. Let the that hideth its sin shall not prosper, wicked forsake his way, and the unbut he that confesseth and forsaketh it righteous man his thoughts, and let him shall find mercy. And when the 3000 return unto the Lord, and he will have on the day of pentecost cried, “Men mercy upon him; and to our God, for he and brethren, what shall we do to be will abundantly pardon.” saved ?" and in conformity to the di- Multitudes have by faith in the divine rection of the apostles repented and promises, and in Christ in whom they were baptized for the remission of sins, are all yea and amen, found acceptance then God forgave them, and adopted with God, have received the pardon of them into his family.
their sins, peace in their consciences, joy So, also, with respect to faith. Christ in their hearts, life in their souls, and is proclaimed “the end of the law for have gone on their way rejoicing in righteousness to every one that believ- Christ Jesus as their life, with joy uneth.” Thus as a righteousness is neces- speakable and full of glory. These insary in order to our acceptance with vitations and promises are held out, my God, and our entrance into heaven, he reader, to you, that you may forsake your becomes our righteousness when we be-sins, and seek and find mercy through lieve; and this is the gracious promise Christ Jesus. Held out as they have of life to every one that exercises faith | been to you for so long; waiting as God
still is to be gracious to you; ready as gospel.” Repent, and be converted he is to fulfil them in your experience, that your sins may be blotted out they give to you a most convincing when the times of refreshing shall come proof that God has no pleasure in your from the presence of the Lord.” death. “Repent, then, and believe the 9, Coborn Street, Bow Road.
THE GREEK WORD WHICH SIGNIFIES IMMERSION.
BY THE REV NATHAN BROWN, A.M.
MR. BROWN, a missionary of the attached to the doctrine and ritual of American Baptist Missionary Union primitive Christianity ?” labouring in Assam, has recently pub- “While travelling in Greece,” says lished two sermons on the Gospel Mes- Mr. Hague, “I was struck with the fact sage and on Christian Ordinances, to that it is impossible for a Greek to which are appended Illustrative Notes. associate any idea with the term bapFrom a copy of this work with which tism except that of immersion. At he has favoured us, we extract an Kalaimachi, a village on the Gulf of article of the Appendix containing Athens, I was introduced to a learned Greek and other testimonies to the Greek who spoke various languages. meaning of the word baptism, which Among other subjects of inquiry, I will be new to many of our readers, spoke of the Greek church, and took though others are interspersed with occasion to say to him, the Italian them which have often been quoted. church does not practise baptism as It is as follows:
you do. As if to correct my inadvertent
phraseology, he immediately rejoined, The Rev. Mr. Hague, in his His-Baptism ! oh no, no—they have rantism torical Discourse on the second centen- (sprinkling); we have baptism.'' nial anniversary of the first baptist Hague's Hist. Discourse, p. 178. church in the United States, gives the In the year 1837, the bishop of the following extract from a work of Cyclades, who is a member of the synod ALEXANDER DE STOURZA, a writer of of the kingdom of Greece, published at the Greek church, published at Stud-Athens a theological treatise, entitled gart in 1816.
“ The western church “ The Orthodox Doctrine.” Referring to has done violence both to the word and to the popish practice of sprinkling, he the idea, in practising baptism by asper- exclaims : "Where has the pope taken sion, the very enunciation of which is a this practice from? Where has the ludicrous contradiction. In truth the western church seen it adopted, that word baptize has but one signification. she declares it to be right ? Has she It signifies literally and perpetually to learnt it from the baptism of the Lord ? immerse. Baptism and immersion are Let Jordan bear witness, and first proidentical; and to say baptism by asper- claim the immersions and the emersions. sion, is the same as to say immersion From the words of our Lord ? Hear by aspersion, or any other contradiction them aright; Disciple the nations, in terms. Who, then, perceiving this, then baptize them.' He says not, then can hesitate to render homage to the anoint them, or sprinkle them, but he sage fidelity of our church, always plainly commissions his apostles to bap
tize. The word BAPTIZO, explained, did we submerge (demersimus) your means a veritable dipping (boutuma), heads in the sacred fountain." St.Chryand in fact, a perfect dipping. An ob-SOSTOM: “We, as in a sepulchre, imject is baptized, when it is completely mersing our heads in water, the old submerged (kruptetai, concealed); this is man is buried, and sinking doron the the proper explanation of the word whole is concealed at once; then, as we
Did the pope then learn it emerge, the new man again rises." from the apostles? Or from the word Stuart on Baptism, p. 358. and the expression ? Or from the St. Basil, archbishop of Cæsarea : church in the splendour of her anti- “How can we be placed in a condition quity? Nowhere did such a practice of likeness to his death? By being prevail
, nowhere can a scriptural pas- buried with him in baptism. How are sage be found, to afford a shelter to the we to go down with him into the grave? opinions of the western church."- Leslie's By imitating the burial' of Christ in Hist. View, p. 32.
baptism; for the bodies of the baptized “The Nestorians, the Armenians, the are in a sense buried in water."— RobinAsian Jacobites, inhabiting principally son's Hist. of Bap. p. 65. Syria and Mesopotamia, the African SALMASIUS, professor of History at Jacobites, Copts, and Abyssinians, ad- Leyden, says: "The clinics only, because minister baptism by trine immersion ; they were confined to their beds, were as also do the Georgians. No branch baptized in a manner of which they of the nominally Christian church, how- were capable: not in the entire laver, ever corrupt in other respects, has as those who plunge the head under dared to change the law of immersion water: but the whole body had water into sprinkling, except the Roman poured upon it. Thus Novatus, when hierarchy, and those churches which sick, received baptism; being pereckyderived sprinkling from that polluted theis, besprinkled, not baptistheis, bapsource."—Hinton's Hist. of Bap. pp. 189, tized."-Apud Witsium, Econ. Fæd. l. iv.
The writings of the early fathers The case referred to by Salmasius, speak only of immersion. Hermas, a is thus narrated by EUSEBIUS: “ He fell contemporary of the apostles, in his into a grievous distemper, and it being work entitled “Pastor" (Simil. 9, § 16), supposed that he would die immediately, says: “the water of baptism, into which he received baptism, being perich atheis men go down bound to death, but come [lit, poured around] with water, on the up appointed to life.”
bed whereon he lay, if that can be termed TERTULLIAN writes : “There is no baptism."--Eccles. Hist. b. vi. c. 43. difference whether baptism takes place Magnus inquired of CYPRIAN (see in the sea or in a pond, in the river or Epist. 76), whether persons thus bapthe fountain, the lake or the bath ; nor tized“ were to be regarded as legitimate between those who were baptized in the Christians, inasmuch as they were not Jordan by John, and those who were baptized by bathing, bút by affusion." baptized in the Tiber by Peter." Again: Cyprian expresses his opinion, that “We are immersed three times, fulfilling “when there is a pressing necessity, with somewhat more than our Lord has de- God's indulgence, the holy ordinances, creed in the gospel."-Tertullian de Bap. though outwardly abridged, confer the ch. it.
entire blessing upon those who believe." AUGUSTINE (Hom. iv.), says: “After -Christian Review, vol. iii. p. 106. you professed your belief, three times “We read not in the scripture," says
Bossuet, bishop of Meaux," that baptism the sake of dyeing - To be baptized in was otherwise administered [than by water signifies no other than to be implunging]; and we are able to make it mersed in water, which is the external appear by the acts of councils, and by ceremony of baptism."-Booth's Pæd. the ancient rituals, that for thirteen Exam. hundred years, baptism was thus admi- BRETSCHNEIDER, in his Theology, nistered throughout the whole church, vol. ii. pp. 673, 681, says: An entire as far as was possible."-Dr. Stennett | immersion belongs to the nature of against Russen, p. 175.
baptism,”_" This is the meaning of the TYNDALE: "The plungynge into the word.” water sygnyfyeth that we dye and are Hann, Theol. p. 656: “According buryed with Chryst, as concernyge the to apostolic instruction and example, olde lyfe of Synne, which is Adam. baptism was performed by immersing And the pullynge out agayn sygnyfyeth the whole man.” that we ryse agayne with Chryste in a VON COELLIN, Hist. Theol. Opin. newe lyfe."-Obedyence of a Chrysten vol. i. p. 459: "Baptism was by imMan, fol. 76.
mersion; only in cases of the sick by Calvin, who lent his influence to sprinkling. It was held necessary to the establishment of pouring or sprink- salvation, except in cases of martyrling, makes the following concession : dom.” “ The word baptizo signifies to immerse, NEANDER, vol. i. p. 361 : "Only with and the rite of immersion was observed the sick was there an exception," in reby the ancient church.”-Institutes, 1. v. gard to immersion. ch. 15, § 2.
FRITSCH, Bib. Theology, vol. iii. p. LUTHER: “Baptism is a Greek word, 507:“ With infant baptism, still another and may be translated immersion, as change, in the outward form of baptism, when we immerse something in water, was introduced, that of sprinkling with that it may be wholly covered. And water, instead of the former practice of although it is almost wholly abolished, immersion.” for they do not dip the whole children, “In this country,” says the Edinbut only pour a little water on them, burgh Encyclopædia, art. Baptism, they ought nevertheless to be wholly im- “sprinkling was never used in ordinary mersed, and then immediately drawn cases till after the Reformation." out; for that the etymology of the word Dr. WALL, vicar of Shoreham in seems to demand.”—Luth. Op. vol. i. p. Kent, a strenuous advocate of pædo336.
baptism, referring to the primitive VENEMA: “The word baptizein, to practice of immersion, says: “ This is so baptize, is nowhere used in the scripture plain and clear, by an infinite number for sprinkling."--Inst. Hist. Eccl. Vet. et of passages, that as one cannot but pity Nov. Test. tom. iii. sec. i. § 138. the weak endeavours of such pædobap
BEZA remarks as follows: “Christ tists as would maintain the negative of commanded us to be baptized; by which it, so we ought to disown and show a word, it is certain, immersion is signi- dislike to the profane scoffs which some fied. --Baptizesthai, in this place (Mark people give to the English anti-pædovii. 4), is more than niptein; because baptists merely for the use of dipping: that seems to respect the whole body, when it was, in all probability, the this only the hands. Nor does baptizein way by which our BLESSED Saviour, signify to wash, except by consequence; and, for certain, was the most usual for it properly signifies to immerse for land ordinary way by which the ancient
Christians did receive their baptism. / and others, thus proceeds: "But cnough 'Tis a great want of prudence, as wellIt is,' says Augusti, 'a thing made out,' as of honesty, to refuse to grant to an viz. the ancient practice of immersion. adversary what is certainly true, and So indeed all the writers, who have may be proved 80."--Hist. of Infant Bap- thoroughly investigated this subject, tism, vol. ii. p. 351.
conclude. I know of no one usage of Professor STUART, a learned Ameri- ancient times, which seems to be more can pædobaptist divine, after exhibiting clearly and certainly made out. I canextracts from Hermas, Justin Martyr, not see how it is possible for any candid Tertullian, Chrysostom, Ambrose, Au- man, who examines the subject, to deny gustine, Dionysius, Gregory Nyssen, this."-Stuart on Baptism, p. 359.
ORIGIN OF INFANT BAPTISM.
BY TUE REV. FRANCIS CLOWES.
Some testimonials from the first Dr. Räss and Dr. Weiss, with a preface modern pædobaptist scholars on the by Mr. Lorenz Doller, formerly professor continent respecting the origin of in- of Esthetics at Heidelburg. Third enfant baptism were presented to the larged edition, with an introduction by readers of the Baptist Magazine last both the translators, with the approbaFebruary A few more, which have tion of the Right Reverend Grand Vibeen sent to the writer, may perhaps be cariate. Maintz, 1825: advantageously included in the same “We will now speak particularly of volume. The first, and it is a very the sacraments, and, first, of baptism; valuable one, was sent by J. E. Ryland, but briefly, since the controversies reEsq., of Northampton; it is from the specting it, up to the present time, are pen of the great Leibnitz. It is re- not very numerous or important. It markable that our greater or equally must be confessed, that without the authorgreat Newton, who was the compeer of ity of the church, the baptism of children Leibnitz, should have borne substan- could not be adequately defended. For tially the same testimony in his cele- there is no example in its favour in the brated remark, that “the baptists are sacred scriptures
, which appear, besides the only denomination of Christians water, to demand faith also. To attribute who have not symbolized with the faith, however, as some do, to those who church of Rome !" Certainly the con cannot yet use their reason, is far too current opinion of two of the greatest arbitrary and delusive, and quite destitute philosophers whom the world ever saw, of probability. For as St. Augustine and great scholars too, is entitled to says
, in his letter to Dardanus, ' If we some consideration, an opinion given, wish to show in words, that children too, in opposition to educational pre- who are not acquainted with human possessions. The remainder were kindly things, yet comprehend divine things, I forwarded by Mr. E. B. Underhill. fear lest we do injustice to our senses,
From Leibnitz's SYSTEM OF THEo- since we use speech to persuade in a LOGY, according to the Hanover Manu- case where the evidence of the truth script, translated into German (with surpasses all the powers and purposes of the Latin text in parallel columns) by speech. Hence it appears to me, that