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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XVIII
MEDAL to MUMPS

NEW YORK
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1911

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by
The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XVIII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. Com
A. E. G.

ncology and the Miracle.

A. E. S.

A. F. P.

A. Go.

A. G. D.

A. Ha.
A. H.-S.
A. J. G.

Meshed.

ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S.
See the biographical article, CAYLEY, ARTHUR.

Monge, Gaspard.
Rev. ALFRED ERNEST GARVIE, M.A., D.D.

Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Thcology and the
Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the inner Life of

Jesus; &c.
ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge.' Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. { Mesozoa.

Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
Alpert FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls'
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- Morton, John.
1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford), 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of

England under the Proiector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.

Monius; Mennonites;
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.

Menno, Simons;

Morone.
ARTHUR GEORGE DOUCHTY, M.A., LITT.D., C.M.G.

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada.
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relatine to the 1 Mercier, Honore.

Constitutional History of Canada.
ADOLF HARNACK.
See the biographical article, HARNACK, ADOLE.

Millennium; Montanism.
Sir A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D.

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College,
Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore Missions (in part). .

Educational Service.
ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX.

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Formerly Editor of the Mexico: Geography.

Rio News, Rio de Janeiro.
ANDREW LANG.
See the biographical article, Lang, ANDREW.

Molière.
AGNES MARY CLERKE.

Mouchez.
See the biographical article, CLERKE, A. M.

| Megapode; Merganser; ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

Mocking Bird;
See the biographical article, Newton, ALFRED.

Moor-Hen; Morillon;

Motmot; Mouse-Bird.
ADAM SEDGWICK, M.A., F.R.S.

Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London.
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology

on Metamorphosis.
in the University of Cambridge, 1907-1909.
BARON ALFRED VON GUTSCHMID.

Moses of Chorene (in parh).
Sec the biographical article, GUTSCHMID, ALFRED, BARON VON.
ARTHUR Waugh, MA.

New College, Oxford. Newdigate Prize, 1888. Author of Gordon in Africa; Alfred, Morris. William.
Lord TennysonEditor of Johnson's Lives of the Pocks; cditions of Dickens, Tensy 1
son, Arnold, Lamb; &c.

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

A. J. L.

A. L.

A. M. C.

A.N.

A. Se.

A. v. G.

A. Wa.

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BERNHARD JÜLG (1825-1886).
Formerly Professor of Classical Philology in the University of Innsbrück

Fersity of Innsbrück, Author

Author

Mongols: Longuage. of Mongolische Märchensammlung: Über Wesen und Aufgabe der Sprachwissenschaft;

and on the Present State of Mongolian Researches. BUDGETT MEAKIN (1866-1906).

Formerly Editor of the Times of Morocco. Author of The Land of the Moors; The Morocco (in part).

Moorish Empire; Life in Morocco; &c.
CLEVELAND ABBE, A.M., LL.D.

Professor of Meteorology, U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington. Director of the
Cincinnati Observatory, 1863-1873. Editor of Monthly Weather Review; and {Meteorology.
Bulletin of Mount Weather Observatory. Author of Meteorological Apparatus and

Methods; &c.
CHARLES BERTIE WEDD, F.G.S.

Millstone Grit; Mlocent.
Joint-author of various memoirs and maps of the Geological Survey
CHARLES CREIGHTON, M.A., M.D.

Monster (in part);
King's College, Cambridge. Author of A History of Epidemics in Britain; Jenner
and Vaccination; Plague in India; &c.

Morgagnia
SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College,
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East

Mordvinians.

M
Africa Protectorate: Agent and Consul-gencral at Zanzibar; and Consul-general

for German East Africa, 1900-1904.
CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON

J Medal: W'ar Decoration,
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, ist City of London (Royal
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.

(in part).
CHARLES FRANCIS BASTABLE, M.A., LL.D.

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University Monetary Conferences:
of Ďublin. Author of Public Finance: Commerce of Nations; Theory of International Money

Trade; &c.
CHALONER GRENVILLE ALABASTER.

Money-Lending.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.
CHARLES JASPER BLUNT, A.O.D.

Major. Royal Artillery. Chief Ordnance Officer, Singapore. Served through Mohmand Campaign.

Chitral Campaign.
CONSTANCE JOCELYN FFOULKES.

Morelli.
Translator of Morelli's Italian Painters; &c.
SIR CHARLES JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (Edin.).

Secretary. Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King's College.
London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889-1894. { Mofaddaltyát,
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of Translations

of Ancient Arabic Poetry: &c.
CHEDOMILLE MIJATOVICH.

Michael Obrenovich II. Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo

Milosh Obrenovich L.
tentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900, and 1902-1903. (
WILLIAM CosmO MONKHOUSE.

{Millais.
See the biographical article, MONKHOUSE, WILLIAM Cosmo.
CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D-s.-L.

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author Merovingians.

of Etudes sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.
CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.HIST.S.

| Mela, Pomponius
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow

Ow (in part);
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography,
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry Mercator;
the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

| Monte Corvino.
C. R. W. Biccar, M.A., K.C.

Mowat, Sir Oliver.
Hon. CHARLES STEWART ROLLS, M.A., F.R.G.S. (1877-1910).

Motor Vehicles:
Trinity College, Cambridge. British Pioneer of Motoring and Aviation. Formerly
Managing Director of Rolls-Royce, Ltd.

Licht Vehicles.
CECIL WEATHERLY.

Monument.
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author
of Development of Muslim Theology. Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory: 71

{Mufti.
Selections from Ibn Khaldun: Religious Allilude and Life in Islam; dc.
DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.

Melody;
Author 01 Essays in Musical Analysis comprising The Cloccical Concerto Th Mendelssoan-Bartholdy
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of
yses of many other classical works.

(in part);

| Motet; Mozart (in part, SIR DAVID GILL, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.RAS.DSc. H.M. Astronomer at Cape of Good Hope.

Hope 1879-1907. Served on Geodetic Survey of Egypt, and on the expedition to Ascensioni

ision Island to determine the Solar Parallax) Micrometer. by observations of Mars. Directed Geodetic Sur

curvey of Natal, Cape Colony, and of Geodetic Survey of South Africa: Catalogues of Stars for the Rhodesia. Author of Geodetic Survey of South Afr Equinoxes, 1850, 1860, 1885, 1800, 1900; &c.

C. MI.

C. Mo.
C. Pl.

C. R. B.

C. R. W. B.
C. S. R.

c. We.

D. B. Ma.

D. F. T.

D. GI.

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