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to destroy the life, or in other words, never raise the person to life again.
But to illustrate this still further, it ought to be duly considered, if in scripture psuhe, or life, is ever spoken about as existing separate from the body. That pneuma, spirit, is thus spoken of, we think is obvious from the above texts. But we do not find psuhe so mentioned, but the contrary. This we have seen from the quotation from Whitby on Acts ii. 27. 66 Thou wilt not leave
soul (psuhe) in hell.” Here his life or soul is considered as along with his body in Hades or the grave. But ob." serve, that his pneuma, spirit, which he commended into the hands of his father, is never said to be in Hades or in the grave. This is not said of him, nor of any other per
It is easily seen, then, that there is nothing more strange in speaking of both life and body being destroyed in hell or Gehenna, than there is in saying that our Lord's life or soul was not left in Hades or the state of the dead. By his life or soul not being left there, is evidently meant that he did not continue dead, but on the third day lived again. So in the passage under consideration, God is said to be able to destroy both body and soul in Gehenna or hell, or to prevent the persons from ever living again. This men could not do; they could only kill the body. The Jews killed the body of our Lord by crucifying him. Had God not raised him from the dead, his soul or life would have been killed. But God raised him from the dead, and consequently his soul was not killed or left in Hades. Now, in the passages before us, where God is said to be able to destroy or kill the soul, after he hath destroyed the body, its continuance in this state is all that seems to be meant; for the persons are not spoken of as existing or suffering after this in soul or body in any place. On the contrary, soul and body is
said to be destroyed in Gehenna. But God is only said to be able or to have power to do this. But in the first of the passages we are considering, as we have seen, both soul and body are mentioned; but in the second, Luke, recording the same discourse of our Lord, only mentions the body. It is evident that he considered only mentioning the body to include all our Lord meant, and which is expressed by Matthew by the words, “ both soul and body.” It is evident then, that by both soul and body, nothing more is meant than what is expressed in some of the other passages, by the phrase," whole body.” Besides, we think it will be admitted that the punishment here mentioned is nothing more than what we have seen mentioned in the other passages already considered.
We have now one remark to make, and we deem it conclusive on this subject. Supposing then that Gehenna, in the passages under consideration, does mean the place of endless misery. Let this be considered, for argument's sake, a truth; yea, let it also be granted that the punishment of this place is of endless duration, I ask what follows from these passages? It only follows that the body, or if you please, body and soul, or the life, are destroyed there. It does not follow that the pneuma, spirit, or immortal part, has any concern in this punishment. No; for we have seen them expressly distinguished; and in these passages not a word is said about it either being in Gehenna, or punished there. No; nothing like this is to be found in the Bible. We read there of nephish, psuhe, soul, or life, going to Sheol or Hades, and hear of its being destroyed in Gehenna; but do we ever read of the pneuma, spirit being in any of those places ? No; at death it returns to God, who gave it. So far from the pneuma, spirit, being tormented, killed or destroyed in Gehenna, or any of those places, it is never represented as being in them at all. But every child who has learned his catechism, knows that the common belief is that the spirits or souls of all the wicked go to hell at death, to suffer its torments forever. It, to be sure, may be said the rich man was in hell. Yes, he was in Hades, but not in Gehenna, according to the representation given in the parable. But the passages we are now considering do not speak of Hades, but of Gehenna. It will not do thus to confound two places as distinct as London and Boston, or to found such a doctrine on a parable which has been shown above to afford it no support. The place where God is said to destroy both soul and body is Gehenna or hell. This is the only text where any thing like this is mentioned in the Bible. But it should be remembered, that it is not pneuma, but psuhe, natural life, which is said to be destroyed. We call on any man to produce an instance from scripture where it is ever said the pneuma, spirit, is in Gehenna, or killed or destroyed in Gehenna. Though nothing like this is to be found in the sacred writings, yet people from the passage we are eonsidering, conclude that the immortal spirit of man is to be killed or destroyed in Gehenna. Even in the parable of the rich man, it is not said his pneuma, spirit, was there, or tormented in Hades. No such representations are given in the Bible, either about Hades or Gehenna. But ought not such representations to be found there, if the common belief be the doctrine of scripture? It certainly is the common opinion that the spirits of the wicked go to hell, at death. But from what part of the scriptures do we learn this? If evidence of such a doctrine is to be found there, let it be produced.
In confirmation of all the above remarks, it may be noticed, that the more those texts and their contexts are considered, Gehenna in them will appear to have the same sense which we have seen it has in other places. Indeed, it would be surprising if in this solitary instance it should mean a place of eternal misery, and in all the others only temporal punishment; that it should be used in this sense when addressing the disciples, and that our Lord should never have used it so when he addressed the unbelieving Jews. If it means this in these two passages, it would be in the face of facts, and other texts, altogether irreconcilable with it. The language, we see, agrees with other passages already considered. If we read here of body and soul destroyed in hell or Gehenna, this agrees to other places considered above, where it is said, “ and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.” See Matth. v. 29, 30. The phrase whole body includes all that is meant by soul and body in the passages under consideration. The language of these passages does not accord with common belief; for it is believed that the soul only goes to Gehenna, or the place of endless misery, at death, and the body suffers not its punishment until the resurrection. But if soul means the spirit, or immortal part, and Gehenna means a place of endless misery, it is a plain case, that, soul and body being destroyed, or the whole body being cast into hell, both go there together. And if killed or destroyed, are they not annihilated ?
But we think, if the contexts of these two passages are examined, and the occasion of what is said to the disci. ples considered, it very strongly confirms the view taken of them. It also confirms all that is said of Gehenna in other passages. Let us glance at this for a moment. By comparing Matth. x. and xxiv. all may see that many things stated in both are very similar, or rather the same. No man can read them without seeing this. The sufferings the disciples were to endure, are similar. The sources from whence they should arise, are the same;
and the directions given to them, how they should conduct themselves under them, are similar. But there is one thing mentioned in both, wbich deserves particular notice. It is said in Matth. X. 22. and xxiv. 13,-6 but he that endureth to the end shall be saved." What end is meant in both passages ? Evidently the end of the Jewish dispensation, or state, when all the tribulations mentioned, Matth. xxiv. should come on the Jewish nation. This evidently shows that in both chapters our Lord's discourse related to the same time and events. During the period which was to elapse before this end should come, the disciples were to be employed in publishing the gospel. In the two passages before us, our Lord warns them against the fear of man, and the fear of God is enforced on them in view of their labors and sufferings. See Matth. X. 26, 27. Luke xii. 1-3. He assures them of the protecting care of God, if they feared him, Matth. X. 29, 31. Luke xii. 6. The sufferings they were to endure would prove them, whether they feared God or man. Matth. x. 31–39. Luke xii. 8, 9. Should any one of them, being influenced by the fear of man, apostatize from the faith of Christ, seeking thereby to save his life, (psuhe) he should lose it. They should, with the rest of the Jewish nation, be involved in all the miseries coming on that generation. On the contrary, he that did endure to the end, should be saved from them, as we have seen that they were ; for all the disciples left the city, and were saved. We have seen that Gehenna, or the valley of Hinnom, was made by the prophet Jeremiah an emblem of this very punishment coming on the Jewish na. tion. We see then, that in this passage, as well as in the preceding texts, that it is when our Lord was speaking in reference to the destruction of Jerusalem, that he says any thing about the punishment of Gehenna. Can it be