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President Santa Maria.

was

an active member of the Opposition and involved in various to an end, and another Liberal, Señor Balmaceda, then revolutionary conspiracies; for his participation in these succeeded to power. plots he was at one time exiled from the country, but The election of Balmaceda was bitterly opposed by the returned and received official employment under President Conservatives and dissentient Liberals, but was finally Perez. The principal task confronting President Santa successfully carried by the official influence Maria on assuming the presidency was to negotiate a exercised by President Santa Maria.

Balmaceda treaty of peace with Peru and provide for the suming office President Balmaceda endeavoured

President. evacuation of the Chilian army of occupation. to bring about a reconciliation of all sections The presence of the Peruvian General Cáceres of the Liberal party in Congress and so form a solid

and his forces in the interior of Peru prevented majority to support the administration, and to this end he for some

two years the formation of any Peruvian nominated as ministers representatives of the different national administration in Lima with which the Chilian political groups. Six months later the Cabinet authorities could deal. In August of 1883 the Peruvians reorganized, and two most bitter opponents to the recent were defeated by the forces commanded by Admiral election of President Balmaceda were accorded portfolios. Lynch, and a Government was then organized under Believing that he had now secured the support of the the leadership of General Iglesias. A provisional treaty majority in Congress on behalf of any measures he decided of peace was then drawn up and signed by General to put forward, the new President initiated a policy of Iglesias and the Chilian representative, and this was heavy expenditure on public works, the building of finally ratified by the Chilian and Peruvian Congresses schools, and the strengthening of the naval and military respectively in April 1884. By the terms of this treaty forces of the republic. Contracts were given out to the Peru ceded to Chile unconditionally the province of value of £6,000,000 for the construction of railways in Tarapacá, and the provinces of Tacna and Arica were the southern districts; some 10,000,000 dollars were placed under Chilian authority for the term of ten years, the expended in the erection of schools and colleges; three inhabitants having then to decide by a general vote whether cruisers and two sea - going torpedo boats were added to they remained a part of Chile or elected to belong once the squadron; the construction of the naval port at, more to Peru. In the event of the decision being favour- Talcahuano was actively pushed forward ; new armament able to Peru a sum of 10,000,000 dollars was to be paid was purchased for the infantry and artillery branches of by Peru to Chile. On the ratification of this treaty the the army, and heavy guns were acquired for the purpose Chilian forces were immediately withdrawn from Lima of permanently and strongly fortifying the neighbourhoods. and other points of occupation in Peruvian territory of Valparaiso, Talcahuano, and Iquique. In itself this The Government of Bolivia also attempted to negotiate policy was not unreasonable, and in many ways extremely a treaty of peace with Chile in 1884, and for this beneficial for the country. Unfortunately corruption purpose sent representatives to Santiago. No satisfac- crept into the expenditure of the large sums necessary to. tory terms, however, could be arranged, and the negotia- carry out this programme.

Contracts were given by tions ended in only an armistice being agreed to, by which favour and not by merit, and the progress made in the Chile remained in occupation of the Bolivian seaboard construction of the new public works was far from pending a definite settlement at some future period. satisfactory. The opposition in Congress to President.

The administration of President Santa Maria met with Balmaceda began to increase rapidly towards the close of violent opposition from the Conservatives, who included 1887, and further gained ground in 1888. In order to the Clerical party in their ranks, and also from a certain ensure a majority favourable to his views, the President. section of the Liberals. The dislike of the Conservatives to threw the whole weight of his official influence into the President Santa Maria was occasioned by his introduction elections for senators and deputies in 1888; but many of the law of civil marriage, the civil registration of births of the members returned to the Chambers through this and deaths, and the freeing of the cemeteries. Hitherto official influence joined the Opposition shortly after taking no marriage was legal unless celebrated according to the their seats. In 1889 Congress became distinctly hostile rites of the Roman Catholic religion, and all registers of to the administration of President Balmaceda, and the births and deaths were kept by the parish priests. Civil political situation became grave, and at times threatened. cmployees were now appointed under the new laws to attend to involve the country in civil war. According to usage to this work. Formerly the cemeteries were entirely under and custom in Chile, a ministry does not remain in office the control of the Church, and, with the exception of a unless supported by a majority in the Chambers. Balmafew places specially created for the purpose, were reserved ceda now found himself in the impossible position of being: solely for the burial of Roman Catholics. Under the new unable to appoint any ministry that could control a régime these cemeteries were made common to the dead of majority in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies and at all religions. Under President Perez, in 1865, a clause in the same time be in accordance with his own views of the law of constitution had been introduced permitting the administration of public affairs. At this juncture the exercise of all creeds of religion, and this was now put the President assumed that the Constitution gave him into practice, all restrictions being removed. On several the power of nominating and maintaining in office any occasions, notably in 1882 and 1885, President Santa ministers he might consider fitting persons for the purpose, Maria used his influence in the elections of senators and and that Congress had no right of interference in the deputies to Congress for the purpose of creating a sub)- matter. The Chambers were now only waiting for a. stantial majority in his favour. He was induced to take suitable opportunity to assert their authority. In 1890 this course in consequence of the violent opposition raised it was stated that President Balmaceda had determined to in the Chambers by the liberal policy he pursued in nominate and cause to be elected as his, successor at the connexion with Church matters. This intervention expiration of his term of office in 1891 one of his own caused great irritation amongst the Conservatives and personal friends. This question of the election of another dissentient Liberals, and the political situation on more President brought matters to a head, and Congress refused than one occasion became so strained as to bring the to vote supplies to carry on the Government. To avoid country to the verge of armed revolution. No outbreak, trouble Balmaceda entered into a compromise with however, took place, and in 1886 the five years of office Congress, and agreed to nominate a ministry to their for which President Santa Maria had been elected came I liking on condition that the supplies for 1890 were voted..

Civil war.

This Cabinet, however, was of short duration, and resigned slowly. Much difficulty was experienced in obtaining the when the ministers understood the full amount of friction necessary arms and ammunition. A supply of between the President and Congress. Balmaceda then rifles was bought in the United States, and nominated a ministry not in accord with the views of embarked on board the Itata, a Chilian vessel in the Congress, and, to prevent any expression of opinion upon service of the rebels. The United States authorities his conduct in the matter, refrained from summoning an refused to allow this steamer to leave San Diego, and extraordinary session of the legislature for the discus a guard was stationed on the ship. The Itata, however, sion of the estimates of revenue and expenditure for 1891. slipped away and made for the Chilian coast, carrying When 1st January 1891 arrived, the President published with her the representatives of the United States. a decree in the Diario Oficial to the effect that the budget A fast cruiser was immediately sent in pursuit, but only of 1890 would be considered the official budget for succeeded in overhauling the rebel ship after she was 1891. This act was illegal and beyond the attributes at her destination. The Itata was then forced to return Outbreak

of the executive power. As a protest against to San Diego without landing her cargo for the insurgents. of the the action of President Balmaceda, the Vice- The necessary arms and ammunition were arranged for revolution President of the Senate, Señor Waldo Silva, and in Europe ; they were shipped in a British vessel, and of 1891.

the President of the Chamber of Deputies, Señor transferred to a Chilian steamer at Fortune Bay, in Tierra Ramon Barros Luco, issued a proclamation appointing del Fuego, close to the Strait of Magellan and the FalkCaptain Jorje Montt in command of the squadron, and land Islands, and thence carried to Iquique, where they stating that the navy could not recognize the authority of were safely disembarked early in July 1891. A force of Balmaceda so long as he did not administer public affairs 10,000 men was now raised by the junta of the revolution, in accordance with the constitutional law of Chile. The and preparations were rapidly pushed forward for a move majority of the members of the Chambers sided with this to the south with the object of attacking Valparaiso and movement, and on 7th January Señores Waldo Silva, Barros Santiago. Early in August a portion of the revolutionary Luco, and a number of senators and deputies embarked on squadron, comprising the Blanco Encalada and other ships, board the Chilian warship Blanco Encalada, sailing out was sent to the southward for reconnoitring purposes, and of Valparaiso harbour and proceeding northwards to put into the port of Caldera. During the night, and whilst Tarapaca to organize armed resistance against the the Blanco Encalada was lying quietly at anchor, a torpedo President. It was not alone this action of Balmaceda in boat called the Almirante Lynch, belonging to the Balmaconnexion with Congress that brought about the revolu- ceda faction, steamed into the bay of Caldera and distion. He had alienated the sympathy of the aristocratic charged a torpedo at the rebel ship. The Blanco Encalada classes of Chile by his personal vanity and ambition. | sank in a few minutes, and 300 of her crew perished. The oligarchy composed of the great landowners have In the middle of August 1891 the rebel forces were always been an important factor in the political life of embarked at Iquique, numbering in all about 9000 men, the republic; when President Balmaceda found that he and sailed for the south. On 21st August the insurgent was not a persona grata to this circle he determined to army was disembarked near Concon, about twenty miles endeavour to govern without their support, and to bring north of Valparaiso. A severe fight ensued, in which the into the administration a set of men who had no tradi- troops of President Balmaceda were defeated with heavy tions and with whom his personality would be all-power- loss. This reverse roused the worst passions of the ful. The Clerical influence was also thrown against him President, and he ordered the arrest and imprisonment of in consequence of his radical ideas in respect of Church all persons suspected of sympathy with the revolutionary matters.

The population generally were, however, distinctly Immediately on the outbreak of the revolution President antagonistic to Balmaceda ; and this feeling had become Balmaceda published a decree declaring Montt and his accentuated since 17th August 1891, on which date he companions to be traitors, and without delay organized an had ordered the execution of a number of youths belongarmy of some 40,000 men for the suppression of the in- ing to the military college at San Lorenzo on a charge of surrectionary movement. Meanwhile the squadron under seditious practices. The shooting of these boys created Montt had obtained possession of Iquique after some a feeling of horror throughout the country, and a sensation severe fighting, the garrison of that district offering a stout of uncertainty as to what measures of severity might not resistance to the landing of the rebel forces from the men be practised in the future if Balmaceda won the day. After of-war. Tarapacá was the key of the position in Chile at the victory at Concon the insurgent army, under command this moment, the possession of that district and the port of General Campos, marched in a southerly direction of Iquique meaning that money could be obtained freely towards Viña del Mar, and thence to Placilla, where the final from the export duties on nitrate of soda. A lull now struggle in the conflict took place. Balmaceda had massed occurred in the struggle while both sides were preparing his troops in the vicinity, and confidently expected a victory for the final shock. President Balmaceda administered the on account of the superior number of his forces. The government under dictatorial powers with a Congress fighting was fierce, but the rebel artillery was well directed of his own nomination. In June 1891 Balmaceda and thoroughly prepared the way for an assault of the ordered the presidential election to be held, and Señor positions. The rebels drove their opponents at the point Claudio Vicuña was duly declared chosen as President of of the bayonet from one line of trenches to another, until the republic for the term commencing in September 1891. they remained absolute masters of the field and the The resources of Balmaceda were running short on account Balmacedist army was in full flight without attempting of the heavy military expenses, and he determined to to preserve any sort of order or discipline. Defeat and dispose of the reserve of silver bullion accumulated in Three days later the victorious insurgents suicide of the vaults of the Casa de Moneda in accordance with the entered Santiago and assumed the government Balmaterms of the law for the conversion of the note issue. of the republic. After the battle of Placilla it ceda. The silver was conveyed abroad in a British man-of-war, was clear to President Balmaceda that he could no longer and disposed of partly for the purchase of a fast steamer hope to find a sufficient strength amongst his adherents to to be fitted as an auxiliary cruiser and partly in payment maintain himself in power, and in view of the rapid for other kinds of war material.

approach of the rebel army he abandoned his official The organization of the revolutionary forces went on duties to seek an asylum in the Argentine Legation.

cause.

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The President remained concealed in this retreat until | ment. Almost absolute power was now given these cor-
18th September. On the evening of that date, when the porations to manage their own concerns, and the organiza-
term for which he had been elected President of the tion of the police was placed in their hands; at a later
republic terminated, he committed suicide by shooting period, however, it was found necessary to modify this
himself. The excuse for this act, put forward in letters latter condition.
written shortly before his end, was that he did not believe President Montt next turned his attention towards the
the conquerors would give him an impartial trial. The question of how best to repair the damage occasioned to
death of Balmaceda finished all cause of contention in the country by eight months of civil warfare. The plan
Chile, and was the closing act of the most severe and of public works authorized in 1887 was reconsidered, and
bloodiest struggle that country had ever witnessed. In the construction of portions of the various undertakings
the various engagements throughout the conflict more than recommenced. The army and navy were reorganized.
10,000 lives were lost, and the joint expenditure of the Additional instructors were brought from Germany, and
two Governments on military preparations and the purchase all arms of the military service were placed on a thoroughly
of war material exceeded £10,000,000 sterling. (See also efficient footing in matters of drill and discipline. Several
the section on the war below.)

new and powerful cruisers were added to the navy, and An unfortunate occurrence soon after the close of the the internal economy of this branch of the national defence revolution brought strained relations for a short period was thoroughly inspected and many defects were remedied. between the Governments of the United States and Chile. President Montt then took in hand the question of a A number of men of the U.S.S. Baltimore having been reform of the currency, the abolition of inconvertible given liberty on shore, an argument arose between some of paper money, and the re-establishment of a gold basis them and a group of Chilian sailors in a drinking den in as the monetary standard of the republic. This reform Valparaiso. Words led to blows. The Americans were of the currency became the key-note of the President's badly handled, one of their number being killed and policy during the remainder of his term of office. Great others severely hurt. The United States Government opposition was raised by the representatives of the debtor characterized the affair as an outrage, demanding an in- class in Congress to the suppression of the inconvertible demnity of $1,000,000 as satisfaction. The Chilian paper money, but in the end President Montt carried the authorities demurred at this attitude, and attempted to day, and on 11th February 1895 a measure finally argue the matter. Mr Blaine, then Secretary of State, became law establishing a gold currency as the only legal refused peremptorily to listen to any explanations. In tender in Chile. In July 1896 the Conversion Act was the end Chile paid an indemnity as asked, but the affair put in force, a dollar of 18d. being the monetary unit left bad feeling in its train.

adopted. In 1895 relations with the neighbouring The close of the revolution against Balmaceda left the republic of Argentina began to become somewhat strained government of Chile in the hands of the junta under in regard to the interpretation of the treaty concerning

whose guidance the military and naval opera- the boundary between the two countries. The treaties of
tions had been organized. Admiral Jorje Montt 1881, 1893, and 1895 left doubts in the minds of both

had been the head of this revolutionary com Chilians and Argentines as to the position of the frontier
mittee, and he acted as President of the provisional Govern- line. On 17th April 1896 another protocol was drawn
ment when the administration of the country changed hands up, by which the contending parties agreed to submit
after the victory of the Congressional party. An election any differences to the arbitration of Great Britain, at the
was now immediately ordered for the choice of a President instance of one or both Governments. President Montt
of the republic and for representatives in the Senate and had now fulfilled his term of office, and on 18th September
Chamber of Deputies. Admiral Montt, as head of the 1896 he handed over the presidential power to his suc-
executive power, staunchly refused to allow official influence cessor, Señor Federico Errazuriz, who had been duly elected
to be brought to bear in any way in the Presidential cam in the month of June previously.
paign. The great majority of the voters, however, The election for the position of President of the republic
required no pressure to decide who was in their opinion was closely contested in 1896 between Señor Errazuriz
the man most fitted to administer the affairs of the and Señor Reyes, and ended in the triumph of
republic. For the first time in the history of Chile a the former candidate by the narrow majority of

President

Errazuriz. perfectly free election was held, and Admiral Montt was one vote, The father of the new President had duly chosen by a nearly unanimous vote to be chief been chief magistrate of Chile from 1871 to 1876, and magistrate for the constitutional term of five years. The his administration had been one of the best the countıy Senate and Chamber of Deputies were formally constituted had ever enjoyed ; his son had therefore traditions to in due course, and the Government of the republic resumed uphold in the post he was now called upon to fill. At normal conditions of existence. The new President showed the commencement of 1897 the public attention was admirable tact in dealing with the difficult problem he was absorbed by foreign political questions. The problems to called upon to face. Party feeling still ran high between be solved were the frontier difficulty with Argentina, the the partisans to the two sides of the recent conflict. question of the possession of Tacna and Arica with Peru, Admiral Montt took the view that it was politic and just and the necessity of fulfilling the obligation contracted to let bygones be bygones, and he acted conscientiously with Bolivia to give that country a seaport on the Pacific by this principle in all administrative measures in con coast. The treaty made in 1896 with the Argentine nexion with the supporters of the late President Balmaceda. Government, referring to the arbitration of disputed points Early in 1892 an amnesty was granted to the officers of concerning the boundary, became practically for the the Balmaceda régime, and they were freely permitted to moment a dead letter, and both Argentines and Chilians return to Chile without any attempt being made to molest began to talk openly of an appeal to arms to settle the them. The first political act of national importance of matter once for all. The Governments of both countries the new Government was the grant of control to the began to purchase large supplies of war material, and municipalities, which hitherto had possessed little power generally to make preparations for a possible conflict. to direct local affairs, and were not even permitted to dis- these circumstances no final settlement with Peru and pose of the municipal revenues to any important amount Bolivia was possible, the authorities of those republics without first obtaining the consent of the central Govern. I holding back to see the issue of the Chile-Argentine

President
Montt.

In

Riesco.

dispute, and Chile being in no position at the time to tive, Liberal, and coalition ministries held office at short
insist on any terms being arranged. So matters drifted intervals. These unsettled political circumstances checked
until the beginning of 1898. In July of that year the any continuity of policy, and tended to block the passage
crisis reached an acute stage. Both Chile and Argentina of all useful legislation to help forward the economic
put forward certain pretensions to territory in the Atacama development of the country and inhabitants ; on the other
district to the north, and also to a section of Patagonia in hand, the financial situation was better by the end of 1899
the south. Neither side would give way, nor was any than in the previous year, since all proposals for a fresh
disposition exhibited to refer the matter to arbitration paper issue had been vetoed; and the elections for Congress
under the protocol of 1896. The cry of an acute financial and municipal office at the opening of 1900 returned a
crisis emanating from the fear of war with Argentina was majority favourable to a stable currency policy.
now raised in Chile. The President was advised that the In September 1900 a fresh outburst of hostile feeling
only way of averting the financial ruin of the banking against Chile was created in Argentina by a note addressed
institutions of the republic was to suspend the conversion by the Chilian Government to Bolivia, intimating that
law and lend from the national treasury inconvertible Chile was no longer inclined to hand over the port of
notes to the banks. Señor Errazuriz weakly gave way, Arica or any other port on the Pacific, but considered the

and a decree was promulgated placing the cur time ripe for a final settlement of the questions connected Argentina. rency once more on an inconvertible paper with the Chilian occupation of Bolivian territory, which

money basis until 1902. In August of 1898 had now been outstanding for sixteen years. The foreign the Chilian Government determined to insist upon the policy of Chile, as indicated by this note, was considered terms of the protocol of 1896 being acted upon, and inti- by Argentina to be grasping and unconciliatory, and there mated to Argentina that they demanded the fulfilment were rumours of an anti-Chilian South American federaof the clause relating to arbitration on disputed points. tion. Chile disclaimed any aggressive intentions; but in This was practically an ultimatum, and a refusal on the December the Bolivian Congress declined to relinquish part of the Argentine Government to comply with the their claim to a port, and refused to conclude a definite terms of the 1896 agreement meant a declaration of war treaty of peace. The year closed with a frontier incident by Chile. For a few days the issue hung in the balance, between Chile and Argentina in the disputed territory of and then the Argentine Government accepted the provisions Ultima Esperanza, where some Argentine colonists were made in 1896 for arbitration. The dispute concerning ejected by Chilian police; but both Governments signed prothe Atacama district was submitted to an arbitration tocols agreeing not to take aggressive action in consequence. tribunal, consisting of the representative of the United At the opening of 1901 the country was chiefly States in Argentina, assisted by one Argentine and one interested in the forthcoming Presidential election, for Chilian commissioner. This tribunal, after due investiga- which the candidates were Don Pedro Montt

President tion, gave their decision in April 1899, and the verdict (Conservative and Clerical) and Señor Ferman was accepted unreservedly by both Governments. The Riesco (Liberal). The relations between President dispute regarding the Patagonian territory was submitted Errazuriz and Congress became rather strained, owing to to the arbitration of Great Britain, and a commission the former's inclination to retain in office a ministry on (consisting of Lord Macnaghten, Sir John Ardagh, and which Congress had passed a vote of censure; but ErrazSir T. H. Holdich) was appointed in 1899 to hear the uriz had been in ill-health for more than a year, and on case.

1st May he resigned, and died in July. At the ensuing The Argentine difficulty was ended, but Chile still had election Riesco was elected President. The attitude of to find a settlement with Peru and Bolivia. The treaty Chile towards the Pan-American Congress at Mexico made with the former country in 1893 was not ratified, became a matter of interest in the autumn, particularly as it was thought to concede too much to Peru, and the in connexion with the proposal for compulsory arbitration subsequent ad referendum treaty was rejected on account between all American Governments, The Chilian Governof Peru claiming that only Peruvians, and not all residents, ment made it quite clear that they would withdraw froin should have the right to vote in the plebiscite to be taken the Congress if this proposal was meant to be retroactive; by the terms of the treaty of 1883 for the possession of and their unyielding attitude testified to the apprehensions Tacna and Arica. By the terms of the armistice of 1883 felt by Chile concerning United States interference. In between Chile and Bolivia, a three years' notice had to be October the Chilian Government announced that the congiven by either Government wishing to denounce that templated conversion scheme, for which gold had been agreement. By the protocol of 1895 Chile agreed to give accumulated, would be postponed for two years (till October to Bolivia the port of Arica, or some other suitable position | 1903), the gold being held as a reserve fund pending the on the seaboard. On these lines a settlement was proposed. result of the arbitration over the Argentine frontier. This Vitor, a landing-place a little to the south of Arica, was was generally considered to be a reasonable and statesmanoffered by the Chilian Government to Bolivia, but refused like course. Unfortunately, a recrudescence of the exciteas not complying with the conditions stated in the protocol ment over the boundary dispute was occasioned by the of 1895; the Bolivians furthermore preferred to wait and irritation created in Argentina by the fact that, pending a see if Arica was finally ceded by Peru to Chile, and if so to decision, Chile was constructing roads in the disputed terriclaim the fulfilment of the terms of the protocol.

tory. During December 1901 relations were exceedingly After the accession to office of President Errazuriz there strained, and troops were called out on both sides. But was no stability of any ministry. Political parties in at the end of the month it was agreed to leave the question Congress were so evenly divided that a vote against the to the British arbitrators, and the latter decided to send ministry was easy to obtain, and the resignation of the one of their number (Sir T. H. Holdich) to examine the Cabinet immediately followed in accordance with the territory

(c. E. A.) so-called parliamentary system in vogue in Chile. The President of the republic has no power to dissolve the The Civil War of 1891.-The military aspects of the Chambers, to endeavour to remedy the evil by one or conflict between President Balmaceda and Congress another political party obtaining a substantial working of the Chilian republic, which began in 1890, and led, majority, but must wait to see the results of the triennial early in the following years, to civil war, are worth elections. As a consequence of these conditions Conserva- I considering separately. The merits of the original dispute

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are not by any means clear, but powerful foreign interests were attacked and defeated. The position was a strong were arrayed on the side of Congress, and financial support one, and the defenders were greatly superior in field was forthcoming in defence of those interests. The artillery, but suffered somewhat from the fire of the geographical conditions of Chile are such as to render Congressionalist vessels. The troops were, however, badly sea power the dominating factor in any internal or external handled, and both flanks were turned. The battle conflict. The country is practically a long strip of sea of Concon was the first in which one side was armed board, with few or no longitudinal communications on wholly with repeating rifles. The Congressionalists took shore. Sea transport was therefore vital to military 1500 prisoners, “ most of whom asked for and obtained operations. On 7th January 1891 the Chilian fleet, which leave" to change their flag. The advance on Valparaiso included the armour-clads Blanco Encalada, Cochrane, continued, and it was intended to attack the position of and Huascar, declared for Congress. The army, con Viña del Mar, about 4 miles from the town, on the 23rd. sisting at this time of about 6000 men, adhered to the attack was not delivered, as the Congressionalist the President. One side was thus driven to create an troops did not reach their appointed positions in time army, while the other sought to improvise a fleet. The and two of the brigade commanders considered the enCongressionalists determined therefore to seize Iquique as trenchments impregnable. After an ineffective artillery a base and to carry on their preparations in the province engagement the plan was abandoned in favour of a flank of Tarapacá. Hostilities commenced by the bombardment march with a view to approach Valparaiso from the south. and capture of Pisagua, a coast town about 35 miles to This offered a great opportunity, which the Balmacedist the north of Iquique. Pisagua was retaken by the Presi- forces totally neglected. On 27th August the Congresdent's forces, and again occupied by the Congressionalists sionalist army arrived in front of the heights of La Placilla, after a heavy naval bombardment. Colonel Robles, the | where the enemy, about 14,000 strong, were attacked on commander-in-chief of the army, endeavouring to recapture the following day. The left flank of the position was Pisagua, was defeated, and the garrison of Iquique being turned and the victory was complete, the loss of the withdrawn to his assistance, the Congressionalists occupied defending and attacking forces being about 3400 and 1800 the place. Collecting part of his forces, Colonel Robles respectively. The Männlicher rifles doubtless contributed succeeded in retaking Iquique, which was then heavily to the victory, but the waste of ammunition was great, bombarded on 17th February, and was surrendered and the imported arms showed some weakness. The upon terms arranged on board H.M.S. Warspite, the Balmacedist roops were, however, badly commanded British flagship. The Congressionalists, under Colonel throughout this brief campaign, which affords few Canto, made great preparations to hold their position, military lessons. After the battle of La Placilla, Valand Colonel Robles, without waiting to concentrate a paraiso at once surrendered, and the triumph of the sufficient force, attacked them at Pozo al Monte. The Congressionalist party was complete. troops, about 1400 in number, were disastrously defeated The Chilian civil war supplies a remarkable example and the commander-in-chief was killed. The rest of the of the influence of sea power. The revolt of the navy President's forces in this district then crossed the Andes proved fatal to President Balmaceda's cause. Unable to and made their way southwards under great difficulties. reinforce his troops in the north, he lost Iquique, the The effect of these preliminary operations was to give province of Tarapacá, and the nitrate revenues.

It was the Congressionalists a good base at Iquique and a firm thus open to the Congressionalists to raise and equip an footing in the province of Tarapacá, which is isolated by army at leisure and to disembark it wherever they chose. desert country from the rest of Chile. Time was on their Military success, for which the way was prepared by the side, and, moving gradually south, they occupied Caldera navy, produced decisive results, and the Chilian civil war and set about the creation of an army. Männlicher conformed exactly to the teaching of history. (G. S. c.) repeating rifles and large stores of ammunition were

Chillan, a town of Chile, capital of the province purchased in Europe, and the services of Colonel Körner, of Nuble and of the department of Chillan, 248 miles S. a German expert, were obtained.

By August about of Santiago by rail.

of Santiago by rail. It is reputed to be one of the most 10,000 men had been armed, organized, and drilled.

Meanwhile the 700-ton torpedo gunboats Condell and picturesque cities of Chile, with fine streets and public
Lynch had arrived at Valparaiso from Europe, and the squares. Population (1898), 32,769.
Imperial, a mail steamer of 3300 tons and 15 knots, had U.S.A., situated in the northern part of the state, on

Chillicothe, capital of Livingston county, Missouri, been chartered by the President and was armed to serve as

Grand river, at an altitude of 765 feet. It has three an extemporized cruiser. These three vessels went to sea on 18th April, and on the night of the 22nd the Condell railways, the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, the Chicago, and Lynch found and attacked the Blanco Encalada at Milwaukee, and St Paul, and the Wabash. Population anchor in Caldera Bay. Many of the Congressionalist (1880), 4078; (1890), 5717; (1900), 6905, of whom 255

were foreign-born and 538 were negroes. officers were dining on shore, and a bad look-out was kept. The Condell discharged three torpedoes at about 100 yards' Chillicothe, capital of Ross county, Ohio, U.S.A., distance without result; but the Lynch, closing the armour situated in 39° 8' N. lat. and 82° 52' W. long., in the clad on the other side, succeeded in striking her amid southern part of the state, at an altitude of 620 feet. It ships. The Blanco Encalada sank in a few minutes

, the has a regular plan with broad streets, on a level plain on Condell and Lynch escaping without much damage to the right bank of Scioto river, which here is not navigable. either, and with a loss of one killed and ten wounded. It is at the intersection of three great railways, the BaltiThis was a striking achievement, carried out with great more and Ohio South-Western, the Cincinnati, Hamilton, gallantry; but the attack would probably have failed if and Dayton, and the Norfolk and Western. Population a proper watch had been kept on board the Blanco (1880), 10,938; (1890), 11,288; (1900), 12,976, of whom Encalada, and although the gunboats made other cruises, 910 were foreign-born and 986 were negroes. nothing further was effected.

Chimkent, a district town of Russian Central Asia, On 20th August the Congressionalist forces, 9280 province Syr-dari-insk, on the mountain stream Badam. It strong, disembarked in Quinteros Bay, about 28 miles has seven cotton-cleaning mills and soapworks, and its trade north of Valparaiso. On the following day the President's is mainly in cattle, hides, wool, raw cotton, grain, oil, and troops holding the southern bank of the Aconcagua river | leather. Population, 10,756.

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