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on the

104 to 11 tons of steam at 180 ib pressure per hour, the

the latter purpose.

It has been lately extended by loss by condensation in the steam supply pipe, which Tomson to six- and eight-decked cages. In another is rather more than a quarter of a mile long, being only arrangement by Darphin the cage is received at the surface 12 cwt. per hour. The engines are of the four-cylinder triple by hydraulic keeps, which support it at its highest level expansion class in twin tandem form. A still larger and progressively lower it to bring each deck in succession example of the same kind, now under construction for the down to the landing place, when the loaded tubs are run Harpen Collieries, is intended for a maximum duty of 25 out and replaced by empty ones without moving the main tons of water raised 1640 feet per minute, representing engine. The time occupied in landing and changing the about 3500 H.P. Probably the heaviest existing colliery load of twelve tubs is from 20 to 25 seconds. Many pumping plant is that at the Miike Colliery in Japan, improvements have been made in the construction of which has a capacity of 40•3 tons per minute lifted 900 winding engines of late years, in order to reduce the feet. This is done by four Davy compound engines consumption of steam, by the adoption of variable expanplaced side by side at the surface, each working two lines sion gear, and the substitution of compound for single of rods in the shaft, which is of the unusual size of 40 by engines. The two-cylinder compound engine has been 12 feet. In the indirect system of hydraulic transmission used in some cases, but a preferable form is the twin a steam-engine at the surface pumps water continuously into tandem compound adopted by Mr W. Galloway at Llana system of pipes against a resistance of 2500 to 3000 lb bradach in 1894, and since introduced into many of per square inch, and the pressure so obtained drives a the deep pits in France and Germany. The steam is pump underground through a pipe carried down the shaft, exhausted into a central condenser, where a permanent the water returning by another pipe to the surface engine vacuum is maintained, as the intermittent nature of the in a continuous circuit. This system, originally used as work prevents the use of a separate condenser. a method of transmitting small power underground by In very deep mines the moment of the load at different Messrs West & Darlington in Cornwall, and since points of the lift varies considerably when a cylindrical developed to a high degree by Mr R. Moore, Mr H. drum is used, and becomes negative during the last part Davey, Messrs Kaselowsky & Prött, and other hydraulic of the lift, owing to the excess weight of the rope on the engineers, has many advantages, particularly in the small descending side. In order to keep the work of the engines

, dimension of the engines, which require much smaller more nearly constant, various systems of counterbalancing walled chambers in the mine than steam-engines of by auxiliary chains, &c., have been adopted, as previously similar power; but great care is required to keep the described. In addition to these, Koepe's method of winddriving water perfectly clean, to prevent wear

ing has of late years obtained some favour. In this system valves, as on account of the high pressure employed a very the drum is replaced by a disc with a grooved rim for the small leakage gives rise to a large waste of power. rope, which passes from the top of one cage over the guide Engines of this class are made in a great variety of forms, pulley, round the disc, and back over the second guide to both reciprocating with long stroke, and rotating with the second cage, and a tail rope, passing round a pulley short stroke high speed pumps. The largest class in use at the bottom of the shaft, connects the bottoms of the forces 7 tons per minute 2000 to 2300 feet high. Pump- cages, so that the dead weight of cage, tubs, and rope is ing by electric transmission, although of comparatively completely counterbalanced at all positions of the cages, recent introduction, has taken up a leading position in and the work of the engine is confined to the useful deep mining, and probably will be almost exclusively used weight of coal raised. Motion is communicated to the at no very distant date. At first it was mainly applied to rope by frictional contact with the drum, which is covered small special purposes, such us raising feeders of water

through about one-half of the circumference. This system from isolated workings to a main pumping engine, but was used for some time at Bestwood, in Nottinghamshire, now large self-contained installations, with generating and is still employed at Sneyd, in North Staffordshire.

dynamos from 800 to 1000 H.P., are in use. In the In Belgium it was tried in a pit 940 metres deep, largest plant of this class, intended for a maximum duty of but has since been replaced by flat hempen ropes, and is 15 tons per minute lifted 1260 feet, three compound now restricted to shallower workings at 250 metres. In engines of 750 H.P. are provided, each driving its pump Westphalia it is applied in about thirty different pits to a by a separate generator and motor by an alternating maximum depth of 761 metres. The system of countercurrent of 2000 volts. Under ordinary conditions the balancing by the use of spiral drums is limited by their water charge in coal mining is considerable, and in old excessive size and weight when both ropes wind on the mines with a large extent of open workings it becomes same drum, This has to some extent been met by Tomson's very burdensome, the weight of water to be lifted being modification, where a separate conical drum is used for often many times that of the coal produced. In the each rope. They are mounted upon parallel axes, but Westphalian coal-field in 1899, 169.5 million tons of turned in opposite directions, the base of one towards the water were lifted for an output of 55 million tons of coal, point of the other. In this way the weight and breadth or rather more than 3 tons to 1 ton of coal. In the older of the drum is notably diminished, but the engine is and partly worked-out districts the proportion rises to as complicated by the addition of a rocking beam and much as 8 to 1. In South Staffordshire, where the ground additional coupling rod for working the second drum. is honeycombed with old thick coal workings, from 24 to An engine of this kind has been in use since 1896 at 281 tons of water per ton of coal raised were pumped in Preussen Colliery, Westphalia, and has also been adopted 1898.

for the 1015-metre pits at Ronchamp, in France. The principal improvements in the hoisting arrange- As regards the form and material of winding ropes, ments of modern colliery plants have been in the direction while round ropes of steel wire of high tensile strength

of larger engine power, and arrangements for load- and tapered in thickness for great depths are generally Winding ing and discharging the cages with the sinallest preferred in England and Germany, opinion in Belgium, and

loss of time. mines.

Where deep cages, carrying from to some extent in the north of France, favours the use of four to six tiers of tubs superposed, are employed, flat ropes made of " aloes” or Manilla hemp, really plantain Fowler's hydraulic arrangement, using auxiliary cages fibre. Those in deep pits are of considerable size and upon hydraulic lifts at the surface and pit bottom weight, e.4., tapering from 15.6 inches to 9 inches in breadth (Ency. Brit. vol. vi. p. 76), is one of the best devices for and 2 inches to 13 inch in thickness, and weighing 143

from deep

tons per 1200 metres. Stassart (loc. cit. p. 465) considers the heavier waste falls and is discharged at a lower level, that they should be used in preference to flat steel wire or through a valve at the bottom of the machine. The ropes down to 1500 metres. The new large engine of the larger or “nut” sizes, from 1 inch upwards, are washed Anzi Company, to lift a gross load of 15 tons from 750 on plain sieve plates, but for finer-grained duff the sieve metres, is also fitted with flat ropes. These are 3 inches is covered with a bed of broken felspar lumps about 3 thick and 221 inches broad at the drum end, weigh inches thick, forming a kind of filter, through which the 18 tons each, and coil upon a diameter increasing from fine dirt passes to the bottom of the hutch. The cleaned 14 to 26-3 feet.

coal is carried by a stream of water to a bucket elevator The continuous change in direction experienced by the and delivered to the storage bunkers, or both water and rope between the head-gear pulley and the drum in coiling coal may be lifted by a centrifugal pump into a large on or off (the so-called "angling” of the rope) is a source of cylindrical tank, where the water drains away, leaving the wear when the depth becomes considerable. This is to coal sufficiently dry for use. Modern screening and washsome extent diminished by placing the engine at some ing plants, especially when the small coal forms a condistance from the pit, up to 50 or 60 yards ; but a complete siderable proportion of the output, are large and costly, remedy has been proposed by Mr W. Morgan, who uses requiring machinery of a capacity of 100 to 150 tons per a winding engine upon a frame carried upon two lines of hour, which absorbs 350 to 400 horse-power. In this, as railway, which is shifted laterally though a distance equal in many other cases, electric motors supplied from a central to the thickness of the rope at each revolution of the station are now preferred to separate steam-engines. drum, so that the end of the coil is always in the same In addition to its use as fuel, there are two principal vertical plane with the guide pulley and the cage. The first outlets for small coal, namely, as briquettes, or patent engine of this class has just been erected at Dolcoath tin fuel, and coke, the former being adopted for mine in Cornwall, at a shaft which is to be carried down non-caking and the latter for caking coals. For Briquettes. to 3000 feet in depth.

briquettes the small coal, if previously washed, is dried to In the United Kingdom the drawing of coal is generally reduce the moisture to at most 4 per cent., and, if necesconfined to the day shift of eight or ten hours, with an sary, crushed in a disintegrator and incorporated in a pug output of 100 to 150 tons per hour, according to the mill with from 8 to 10 per cent. of gas pitch, softened by depth, capacity of coal tubs, and facilities for landing and heating to between 70° and 90° C. to a plastic mass, which changing tubs.

With Fowler's hydraulic arrangement is then moulded into blocks and compacted by a pressure 2000 tons are raised 600 yards in eight hours. In the of } to 2 tons per square inch in a machine with a rotating deeper German pits, where great thicknesses of water- die plate somewhat like that used in making semi-plastic bearing strata have to be traversed, the first establishment clay bricks. When cold, the briquettes, usually weighing expenses are so great that in order to increase output the from 7 to 20 lb each, although smaller sizes are made shaft is sometimes provided with a complete double equip- for domestic use, become quite hard, and can be handled ment of cages and engines. In such cases the engines with less breakage than the original coal. Their principal may be placed in line on opposite sides of the pit, or at use is as fuel for marine and locomotive boilers, the right angles to each other. According to Köhne, the evaporative value being about the same or somewhat more output of single shafts has been raised by this method to than that of coal. The principal seat of the manufacture 3500 and 4500 tons in the double shift of sixteen hours. in Great Britain is in South Wales, where the dust and It is particularly well suited to mines where groups of smalls resulting from the handling of the best steam coals seams at different depths are worked simultaneously. Some (which are very brittle) is obtainable in large quantities characteristic figures of the yield for British collieries in and finds no other use. Some varieties of lignite, when 1898 are given below:

crushed and pressed at a steam heat, soften sufficiently to

furnish compact briquettes without requiring any cementing Albion Colliery, South 551,000 tons in a year for one shaft Wales

and one engine.

material. These are now made to a very large extent from Silksworth Colliery, North- 1 535,000 tons in a year for shaft 580 the tertiary lignites in the vicinity of Cologne, and are umberland

yards deep, two engines. used mainly for house fuel on the Lower Rhine and in Bolsover Colliery, Derby : 598,798 tons in 279 days, shaft 365


yards deep. Denaby Main Colliery, 1629,947 tons in 281 days, maximum

The principal novelty of interest in connexion with cokeYorkshire

per day 2673 tons.

making is the development of the so-called by-product

ovens, where, in addition to the carbonized fuel, Coal as raised from the pit is now generally subjected to

Cokevolatile products, such as tar, benzol, and am

making. some final process of classification and cleaning before being monia, are recovered by condensation from the

despatched to the consumer. The nature and gases evolved in the oven before the latter are burnt to Surface

extent of these operations vary with the character supply the necessary heat for the coking process. The arrangements.

of the coal, which if hard and free from shale part- first successful application of this principle was made by Mr

ings may be finished by simple screening into Carvės at Besseges, in France, and it was introduced into large and nut sizes and smaller slack or duff, with a final Great Britain, with some modifications in details, by the late hand-picking to remove shale and dust from the larger sizes. Mr H. Simon, under the name of the Simon-Carvės system. But when there is much small duff, with intermixed shale, Other and subsequent developments were those of Semetmore elaborate sizing and washing plant becomes necessary. Solvay and Hüssener. The whole of these have a common Where hand-picking is done, the larger-sized coal, separated feature in the narrow A-shaped oven, which is heated by a by 3-inch bar screens, is spread out on a travelling band, series of parallel horizontal flues in the side walls, while in which may be 300 feet long and from 3 to 5 wide, and the Otto-Hoffmann system, which has been most largely carried past a line of pickers stationed along one side, who adopted, the Coppée oven with vertical heating flues is take out and remove the waste as it passes by, leaving the used. The condensing arrangements, which are generally clean coal on the belt. The smaller duff is separated by similar for all the systems, resemble those of an ordinary vibrating or rotating screens into a great number of sizes, gas-works, somewhat simplified. The gas given off by the which are cleaned by washing in continuous-current or coal is led by one or two openings in the roof, through pulsating jigging machines, where the lighter coal rises to water-sealed dip pipes, to a collecting main leading to a the surface and is removed by a stream of water, while system of atmospheric condensers, pipes cooled by exposure

S. III. – 16


to the air, where its temperature is reduced, and the tar is

REFERENCES.—Most of the detailed information concerning imcondensed and removed. The flow of gas is maintained provements in the practice of coal mining and the improvement in by rotating exhausters, which force it forward through a

plant and machinery is contained in the published proceedings of

the different professional societies, including the Transactions of the series of scrubber towers, where the ammonia vapour is Institution of Mining Engineers, the South Wales Institute of separated by a graduated system of washing with water Engineers, the British Society of Mining Students, and the American and ammoniacal liquor. The final removal of benzol is

Institute of Mining Engineers. Among special works dealing with effected by washing the partially purified gas with creosote

modern practice, Professor Galloway's lectures (published by the

South Wales Institute, Cardiff, 1900), and the larger Text-Book on oil. When the condensible products are removed, the gas .

Coal Mining, by Mr H. W. Hughes (fourth edition, London, 1901), is returned by a common supply pipe for distribution to are the most notable, the latter being especially valuable for the dethe heating flues of the ovens. In the Otto-Hoffmann tailed classified list of original authorities given at the end of each oven of the earlier and most generally used form, the gas

chapter. Very complete references are also given in the systematic is fired with heated air in a horizontal fue running along

abstracts published in the half-yearly volumes of the Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute.

(H. B.) the bottom of the coking chamber; this is divided into two parts by a partition in the middle of its length, and Coaling Stations.-Maritime war in all ages the flame rises through the vertical side passages of the has required that the ships of the belligerents should have first half of the oven to two horizontal collectors at the the use of sheltered waters for repairs and for replenishtop, where the direction being reversed, it passes downwards ment of supplies. The operations of commerce from the along the second half to the chimney, after giving up some earliest days demanded natural harbours, round which, as of the surplus heat to a Siemens regenerator, in which the in the conspicuous instance of Syracuse, large populations air for combustion is heated after the next reversal. The gathered. Such points, where wealth and resources of all gas supply is introduced alternately from the front and kinds accumulated, became objects of attack, and great back of the oven, there being a regenerator for air- efforts were expended upon their capture. As maritime heating at either end. In the newer form of this oven operations extended, the importance of a seaboard the air regenerators and reversal of the flame have been increased, and the possession of good natural harbours abandoned in favour of a system of continuous heating, became more and more advantageous. At the same time, the gas distributed by pipes in a chamber below the the growing size of ships and the complexity of fitments bottom of the oven supplying a series of large Bunsen caused by the development of the sailing art, imposed burners at equal distances apart along the bottom, whose new demands upon the equipment of ports alike for purflames pass continuously upward through the side flues, poses of construction and for repairs; while the differentiaThere is some difference of opinion as to the merits of the tion between warships and the commercial marine led to two forms, but the new system is generally held to give the establishment of naval bases and dockyards provided more uniform heating, as well as being simpler in con- with special resources. From the days when the great struction. In the horizontally-heated ovens the flues are

sailors of Elizabeth carried war into distant seas, remote arranged as parallel superposed passages along the length harbours began to assume naval importance. Expeditionof the wall. The gas entering the lowest one is fired, and ary forces required temporary bases, such as Guantanamo passes four times backwards and forwards to the chimney Bay, in Cuba, which was so utilized by Admiral Vernon in flue. This is usually of thin brickwork, so that a portion 1741. As outlying territories began to be occupied, and of the waste heat is transmitted to the air supplied for jurisdiction to be exercised over their ports, the harbours combustion, which passes in the opposite direction through available for the free use of a belligerent were gradually

a adjacent parallel flues in the brickwork of the foundation, reduced in number, and it became occasionally necessary forming a continuous "recuperator," as distinguished from to take them by force. Thus, in 1782, the capture of the intermittent Siemens regenerator.

Trincomalee was an object of sufficient importance to The time of coking in retort ovens varies with the justify special effort, and Suffren gained a much-needed quality of the coal and size of the charge, which may be refuge for his ships, at the same time compelling his

, from 5 to 7 tons, about thirty-six hours being required in opponent to depend upon the open roadstead of Madras, the newer kinds. The coke produced is not so dense or and even to send ships to Bombay. In this case a distant brilliant as that made in beehive ovens, but the waste harbour acquired strategic importance, mainly because being less, there is a decided saving, apart from the value sheltered waters, in the seas where Hughes and Suffren of the condensed products. In one instance the coke was strove for naval supremacy, were few and far between. found to be about 5 per cent. less efficient in the blast A sailing man-of-war usually carried from five to six furnace, while the yield was increased 10 per cent. In months' provisions and water for 100 to 120 days. the further treatment of the condensed products by dis- Other needs required to be met, and during the wars of tillation the tar gives burning oil and pitch, the benzol the French Revolution it was usual, when possible, to allow is separated from the creosote oil by steam-heated stills, ships engaged in blockade to return to port every five or six and the ammoniacal liquor, after some lime has been added weeks "to refresh.” For a sailing fleet acting on the offento decompose fixed ammonium compounds, is heated to sive, a port from which it could easily get to sea was a great vaporize the ammonia, which is condensed in lead or advantage. Thus Raleigh protested against the use of copper lined tanks containing strong sulphuric acid to closely landlocked harbours. “ Certain it is,” he wrote, produce a crystalline powder of ammonium sulphate, which that these ships are purposely to serve His Majesty and accumulates in the receiver and is fished out from time to defend the kingdom from danger, and not to to be so to time. The yield of by-products averages about 1 per penned up from casualitie as that they should be less cent. of sulphate of ammonium, about 31 per cent. of tar, able or serviceable in times of need.” Nelson for this reason and 0.6 to 0.9 per cent. of benzol of the weight of the made great use of Maddalena Bay, in Sardinia, and was coal carbonized. Besides heating the ovens and supplying not greatly impressed with the strategic value of Malta in steam for the machinery of the condensing plant and the spite of its fine natural harbour. The introduction of coke ovens, there is usually a considerable surplus of gas, steam gave rise to a new naval requirement—coal—which which may be used for lighting or driving gas-engines. soon became vital. Commerce under steam quickly settled For the latter purpose, however, it is necessary to remove down upon fixed routes, and depots of coal were estabthe last traces of tar, which acts very prejudicially in lished to meet its needs. Coaling stations thus came into fouling the valves when the gas is not completely purified. existence by a natural process, arising from the exi

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gencies of trade, and began later to supply the needs of armaments to be sent to Cape Town, Singapore, and Hong Kong, na vies.

there to be mounted after much delay in roughly designed

works. At the same time, the great colonies of Australasia began For many years there was no inquiry into the war requirements to set about the defence of their ports with commendable of the British fleet as regards coal, and no attempt to regularize earnestness. There is no machinery for giving effect to the British

Sucor to fortify the ports at which it was stored.

recommendations of a royal commission, and until 1887, when cessful naval war had won for Great Britain many extracts were laid before the first colonial Conference, the valuable coaling

points of vantage throughout the world, and in some report was veiled in secrecy. After several years, during which stations.

cases the strategic value of ports had been proved by Lord Carnarvon persistently endeavoured to direct attention to actual experience. The extreme importance of the Cape of Good the coaling stations, the work was begun. In 1885 a fresh panic Hope, obscured for a time after the opening of the Suez Canal, arose out of the Panjdeh difficulty, which supplied an impetus was fully realized in sailing days, and the naval conditions of to the belated proceedings. Little had then been accomplished, those days to some extent determined the choice of islands and and the works were scarcely completed before the introduction of harbours for occupation. There does not, however, appear to have long breech-loading guns rendered their armaments obsolete. been any careful study of relative strategic values. Treaties The fortification of the coaling stations for the British Empire were occasionally drafted by persons whose geographical know- is still proceeding on a scale which, in some cases, cannot easily ledge was at fault, and positions were, in some cases, abandoned be reconciled with the principles laid down by the president which ought to have been retained, or tenaciously held when of the Cabinet committee of defence. At the Guildhall, they might have been abandoned. It was left to the personal London, on 3rd December 1896, the duke of Devonshire exertions of Sir Stamford Raffles to secure such a supremely stated that “The maintenance of sea supremacy has been important roadstead as that of Singapore for the empire. assumed as the basis of the system of imperial defence against Although, therefore, the relative values of positions was not always attack from over the sea. This is the determining factor recognized, Great Britain obtained as a legacy from sailing days in fixing the whole defensive policy of the empire.” a large number of harbours admirably adapted for use as coaling however, he added, necessary to provide against “the predatory stations. Since the dawn of the era of steam, she has acquired raids of cruisers ” ; but “it is in the highest degree improbable Aden, Perim, Hong Kong, North Borneo, Fiji, part of New Guinea, that this raiding attack would be made by more than a few ships, Fanning Island, and many other islands in the Pacific, while nor could it be of any permanent effect unless troops were landed.' the striking development of Australia and New Zealand has This is an unexceptionable statement of the requirements of added to the long roll of British ports. The coaling stations, passive defence in the case of the coaling stations of the British actual and potential, of the empire are unrivalled in number, in Empire. Their protection must depend primarily on the navy. convenience of geographical distribution, and in resources. Of Their immobile armaments are needed to ward off a raiding the numerous British ports abroad which contained coal stores, attack, and a few effective guns, well mounted, manned by wellonly the four so-called " fortresses”—Gibraltar, Malta, Halifax, trained men, and kept in full readiness, will amply suffice. and Bermuda-were at first fortified as naval stations after the introduction of rifled ordnance. The term fortress is a misnomer

If the command of the sea is lost, large expeditionary in every case except Gibraltar, which, being a peninsula separated forces can be brought to bear upon coaling stations, and only by a neck of neutral ground from the territory of a foreign their security will thus depend upon their mobile garrisons, Power, exists under fortress conditions. Large sums were expended on these places with little regard to principles, and the

not upon their passive defences. In any case, where coal defences of Bermuda, which were very slowly constructed, are

is stored on shore, it cannot be destroyed by the fire of a monuments of misapplied ingenuity.

ship, and it can only be appropriated by landing men. A In 1878 great alarm arose from strained relations with Russia. small force, well armed and well handled, can effectually Rumours of the presence of Russian cruisers in many waters, and of hostile projects, were readily believed, although the Russian navy,

prevent a raid of this nature without any assistance from which had just shown itself unable to face that of Turkey, would

heavy guns.

In war, the possession of secure coal stores Carnarvon

at this period have been practically powerless. Wide- in distant ports may be a great advantage, but it will Commis

spread fears for the security of coaling stations led to rarely suffice for the needs of a fleet engaged in offensive sion.

the appointment of a strong royal commission, under
the presidency of the earl of Carnarvon, which was

operations, and requiring to be accompanied or met at instructed to inquire into and report upon the protection of

prearranged rendezvous by colliers from which coal can be British commerce at sea. This was the first attempt to formulate transferred in any sheltered waters. In the British any principles, or to determine which of the many ports where

Modern naval maneuvres of 1892, Admiral Sir Michael

condicoal was storedl should be treated as coaling stations essential for the purposes of war. The terms of the reference to the commis

Seymour succeeded in coaling his squadron at tions. sion were ill-conceived. The basis of all defence of sea-borne

sea, and by the aid of mechanical appliances commerce is a mobile navy. It is the movement of commerce this is frequently possible. In the Spanish-American war upon the sea during war, not its security in port, that is essen- of 1898 some coaling was thus accomplished ; but Guantial to the British Empire, and a navy able to protect commerce

tanamo Bay served the purpose of a coaling station during at sea must evidently protect ports and coaling stations. The first object' of inquiry should, therefore, have been to lay down

the operations against Santiago. Watering at sea was the necessary standard of naval force. The vital question of the usually carried out by means of casks in sailing days, and navy was not referred to the royal commission, and the four for- must have been almost as difficult as coaling. As, howtresses were also strangely excluded from its purview. It followed inevitably that the protection of commerce was approached at

ever, it is certainty of coaling in a given time that is of the wrong end, and that the labours of the commission were to a

primary importance, the utilization of sheltered waters as great extent vitiated by the elimination of the principal factor. improvised coaling stations is sure to be a marked feature Voluminous and important evidence, which has not been made of future naval wars. Although coaling stations are now public, was, however, accumulated, and the final report was com- eagerly sought for by all Powers which cherish naval pleted in 1881. The commissioners recalled attention to the extreme importance of the Cape route to the East; they care

ambitions, the annexation of the Sandwich Islands by the fully examined the main maritime communications of the empire,

United States being a case in point, it is probable that and the distribution of trade upon each ; they selected certain they will play a somewhat less important part than has harbours for defence, and they obtained from the War Office been assumed. A fleet which is able to assert and to and endorsed projects of fortification in every case ; lastly, they condemned the great dispersion of troops in the West Indies,

maintain the command of the sea, will not find great which had arisen in days when it was a political object to keep difficulty in its coal supply. Moreover, the increased the standing army out of sight of the British people, and had coal endurance of ships of war tends to make their since been maintained by pure inadvertence. Although the principal outcome of the careful inquiries of the commission was

necessary replenishment less frequent. On the other to initiate a great system of passive defence, the able reports

hand, the modern warship, being entirely dependent were a distinct gain. Some principles were at last formulated by

upon a mass of complex machinery, requires the assistance authority, and the information collected, if it had been rendered of workshops to maintain her continuous efficiency, and accessible to the public, would have exercised a beneficial influence unless docked at intervals suffers a material reduction of upon opinion. Moreover, the commissioners, overstepping the bounds of their charter, delivered a wise and statesmanlike

speed. Prolonged operations in waters far distant from warning as to the position of the navy.

home bases will therefore be greatly facilitated in the case Meanwhile, the impulse of the fears of 1878 caused indifferent of the Power which possesses local docks and means of




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-CO BLEN Z executing repairs. Injuries received in action, which of late years. The Great Cobar copper mine is the most might otherwise disable a ship during a campaign, important in the state. Population (1881), 1859; (1901),

may thus be remedied. During the hostilities about 5500. Secondary between France and China in 1884 the French ship La Galissonnière was struck by a shell

Cobet, Carel Gabriel (1813-1889), one of

the most famous classical scholars of the 19th century, from one of the Min forts, which, though failing to burst, inflicted serious damage. As, by a technical fiction, a state

was born at Paris on 28th November 1813, of a Dutch

father and French mother. It has often been said that of war was not considered to exist, the La Galissonnière was repaired at Hong Kong and enabled again to take the

the twofold origin is apparent in his work, which shows Local stores of reserve ammunition and of spare

traces of Gallic brilliancy along with Dutch erudition. armaments confer evident advantages. Thus, independ

Cobet was educated in Holland at the Hague Gymnasium, ently of the question of coal supply, modern fleets

where he was fortunate enough to have as his master a employed at great distances from their bases require the

man of remarkable teaching power and genuine love of assistance of ports furnished with special resources, and a

In 1832 Cobet learning, Kappeyne van de Capello.

entered the University of Leyden, and devoted himself Power like Japan with well-equipped naval bases in the China Sea, and possessing large sources of coal, occupies, exclusively to classical scholarship. In 1836 he won a for that reason, a favoured position in regard to naval

gold medal for an essay entitled “Prosopographia Xenooperations in the Far East. As the term “ coaling hontea,” a brilliant characterization of all the persons

introduced into the "Memorabilia," "Symposium," and station ” refers only to a naval need which can often be satisfied without a visit to any port, it appears less suit

“Economicus” of Xenophon. In 1840 he published and able to modern conditions than secondary base.”

defended a thesis entitled Observationes criticæ in Platonis Secondary bases, or coaling stations, when associated with

comici reliquias, which first revealed his remarkable

critical faculty. The university now conferred on him a powerful mobile navy, are sources of maritime strength in proportion to the services they can render, and to their

an honorary degree, since he had declined to follow the

course that led to the ordinary one, and recommended him convenience of geographical position. In the hands of an inferior naval Power, they may be used, as

to the Government for a travelling pension, to enable him Mauritius in 1809–10, as points from which to carry on

to study manuscripts in foreign libraries. The ostensible

purpose of his journey was to collate the texts of Simplicius, operations against commerce ; but unless situated near to

but the Aristotelian commentator seems to have engaged trade routes, which must be followed in war, they are

but little of Cobet's time, and he never even published an probably less useful for this purpose than in sailing days, since convoys can now be more effectively protected, and

edition of Simplicius. Instead, he contrived to make a steamers have considerable latitude of courses. Isolated

careful study of almost every Greek manuscript in the ports dependent on sea-borne resources, and without

Italian libraries, and returned after five years with an

intimate knowledge of the peculiarities of copyists and the strong bodies of organized fighting men at their backs are now, as always, hostages offered to the Power which

history of manuscripts. In 1816 he married, and in the obtains command of the sea.

(G. S. c.)

same year he was appointed to a professorship at Leyden.

His inaugural address, De arte interpretandi grammatices Coatbridge, a municipal burgh (since 1885) of et critices fundamentis innixa, has been called the most Lanarkshire, Scotland, about 9 miles cast of Glasgow by perfect piece of Latin prose written in the century. rail. The surrounding coal and iron field is the most im- The rest of his life was passed uneventfully at Leyden in portant in the country. There are some 20 active collieries, study and work. In 1856 he became joint editor of and the iron and steel industry of the town is very Mnemosyne, a philological review, which he soon raised to important. Modern crections are a theatre, three churches, a leading position among classical journals. In it appeared a technical school and mining college (1891, under parish from time to time critical notes and suggested emendations school board), and municipal buildings (at a cost of from Cobet's pen, dealing with a great variety of Greek £10,000). There are two public parks, one opened in authors. These were afterwards collected in book form 1887. Population (1881), 24,812;. (1891), 30,034 ; under the titles Novæ Lectiones, l'ariæ Lectiones, and

( (1901), 36,981. The parish of Old Monkland contains Miscellanea Critica. In 1875 he took a prominent part ten villages in addition to Coatbridge.

at the Leyden Tercentenary, and impressed all hearers by Coatesville, a borough of Chester county, Penn

his wonderful facility in Latin improvisation. In 1884, sylvania, U.S.A., on Brandywine Creek, 40 miles west of

when his health was failing, he retired as emeritus professor.

He died on 26th October 1889. Cobet's special weapon Philadelphia. It contains rolling-mills and boiler-works.

as a critic was his consummate knowledge of palæography, Population (1890), 3680; (1900), 5721.

but he was no less distinguished for his rare acumen and Coban, a city of Guatemala, Central America, has the extensive command of classical literature with which greatly increased in prosperity, owing partly to the fertility he illustrated and defended his criticisms. He has been of the district, but chiefly to the amazing industry of the sometimes blamed for rashness in attempting to emend Quecchi Indians, who are its main inhabitants. The chief difficult passages, and for neglecting the comments of other trade is in coffee and Peruvian bark. An exceptionally scholars. He had little sympathy for the German school large number of foreigners, especially Germans, have settled of criticism, and maintained that the best combination for in the city, but it consists mainly of native cottages em- a scholar was English good sense with French taste. He bosomed in gardens of flowering shrubs. It is divided

It is divided always expressed his obligation to the English, saying that into eleven “barrios” or wards, each named after a par- his masters were three Richards—Bentley, Porson, and ticular saint. In the plaza is the great church, with the Dawes.

(A. Z.) convento. The population is about 18,000.

Coblenz, or COBLENTZ, a town of Prussia, capital of Cobar, a town in New South Wales, Australia, 459 the Rhine province, on the left bank of the Rhine, 57 miles miles west of Sydney, in the county of Robinson, with a south-south-cast from Cologne by rail, headquarters of the terminal station on the railway line from Nyngan. Large Eighth German Army Corps. About a mile above the quantities of copper ore are raised in the district, and gold- town the river is crossed by an iron bridge of double span bearing reefs have been discovered and worked successfully | (completed in 1879), carrying the Berlin-Metz Railway.

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