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In 1890 the demolition of the landward defences was and was estimated in 1898 at 375,800. The capital, begun, and since then a great alteration has taken place Cochabamba, has 40,000 inhabitants. The department is on that side of the town. In 1897 a magnificent divided into nine provinces. It had in 1878, 120 schools, monument by Bruno Schmitz and Hundrieser to the attended by 8337 pupils. Emperor William I. was erected at the point where the Moselle meets the Rhine. Coblenz also boasts

Cochin, a feudatory state of Southern India, in of a museum (1891) of antiquities; monuments to

political subordination to Madras, with an area of 1362

square miles. The population in 1891 was 722,906, being General von Goeben (died here in 1880), the physiologist Johannes Müller (born here in 1801), the poet

531 persons per square mile; in 1901 the population Max von Schenkendorf (died here in 1817), and the

was 815,218, showing an increase of 13 per cent. More Empress Augusta (1896), who loved to reside at Coblenz ;

than one-fifth are Christians, mostly Syrians and Roman

Catholics. a new Roman Catholic church, St Joseph's (1896-98); a

The revenue is estimated at Rs.20,00,000,

subject to a tribute of Rs. 2,00,000. handsome promenade by the Rhine, 11 miles long; a

During recent theatre and a musical institute. Coblenz is a principal

years a balance has been accumulated of Rs.44,00,000,

most of which is invested in securities of the Indian seat of the Rhenish and Moselle wine trade, and its manufactures include pianos, paper, cardboard, machinery, timber, cardamoms, pepper, and a little coffee. Salt is

Government. The principal products are rice, coconuts, and boats and barges. It is an important transit centre for the Rhine railways and those of the Lahn and Moselle,

manufactured along the coast. The capital is Ernakolam, and for the Rhine navigation. Population (1885), 31,669;

but the raja resides at Tripunthora. Apart from the (1900), 45,039.

British town of Cochin, the principal seaport is Malipuram.

The chief means of communication is by boat along the Cobourg, the capital of Northumberland county,

backwaters; but a metre gauge line is being constructed Ontario, Canada, 70 miles east of Toronto by rail, on Lake

at the cost of the state across the hills, from Ernakolam Ontario. It has a safe and commodious harbour, and has

to Shoranur on the Madras Railway. The length will

In steamboat communication with St Lawrence and Lake

be 65 miles, and the estimated cost is £337,000. Ontario ports. It contains car-works, carpet and woollen

1897–98 the total number of schools was 1020, attended factories, and foundries. Population (1881), 4957;

by 30,550 pupils. (1900), 4239.

The town of Cochin is comprised within the British

district of Malabar. Its population in 1891 was 16,147; Coburg, a town of Germany, capital (alternating the municipal income in 1897–98 was Rs.21,530. Conwith Gotha) of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 72 miles siderable sea-borne trade is still carried on. In 1897–98 by rail north from Nuremberg. The most notable addition the number of vessels that entered and cleared for foreign to the public buildings is the Edinburgh palace (1881). trade was 58, with an aggregate burthen of 99,775 tons. The old castle of Coburg now contains a museum of art

A lighthouse stands on the ruins of the old fort. The and antiquities; the town also possesses an anthropological chief exports are coconut products, for the preparation of A bronze statue of Prince Albert (consort

which there are factories. There are a missionary high of Queen Victoria), by Theed, adorns the market-place school, three printing-presses, and a library (1865); and there is a monument of the 1870-71 war

Cochin-China.—This term formerly included the in Ernest Square. Both trade and industry are flourishing, the chief branches of the latter being brewing, manu

whole Annamese Empire—Tongking, Annam, and Lower factures of machinery, colours, and porcelain, iron-founding,

Cochin-China, but it now comprises only the French colony and saw-milling. Population (1885), 16,210; (1895), provinces of the Annamese Empire which were taken

of Lower Cochin-China ; this consists of the six southern 18,688.

possession of by France after a war with the Emperor Cocanada or Coconada, a town of British

Tu Duc. It lies between 8° and 11° 30' N. lat. and 101° India, in the Godavari district of Madras, on the seacoast

25' 55" and 107° 29' 55" E. long., and is bounded on in the extreme north of the Godavari delta, about 315

the N. by Annam and Cambodia, on the W. by Cammiles north of Madras. It had in 1881 a population of

bodia, on the E. by the China Sea, and on the S. and 28,856, in 1891 of 40,068, and in 1901 of 47,866, show W. by the Gulf of Siam. It embraces almost the whole ing an increase of 18 per cent. The municipal revenue in

of the Mekong delta, which is intermingled with the mouths 1897–98 was Rs.2,09,460. As the administrative head of the Saigon river and of the two rivers Vaico, and conquarters of the district, and the chief port on the eastern

sists mainly of a vast plain, almost entirely flooded. In the coast after Madras, Cocanada is steadily growing in im

east, however, lies a mountain group of moderate altitude portance. It is connected by navigable channels with the extending from Cape St Jacques to the frontier of Annam), canal system of the Godavari delta, and by a branch line from which descend the rivers Donnai and Saigon. This with Samalkot on the East Coast Railway. The anchorage region is inhabited by the Mois. The Mekong enters the is an open roadstead, with two lighthouses. In 1897–98 sea by numerous mouths, which shift position under the the total sea-borne trade amounted to Rs.2,07,82,027, of

varying effects of flood currents. Canals from Chaudoc to which just one-half was conducted with foreign countries ; Hatien (Cancao) and from Long-Xuyen to Rash-Gia unite 25 vessels entered and cleared for foreign trade, with an

it with the Gulf of Siam. Several canals connect the aggregate burthen of 23,367 tons. The chief exports are

Saigon river with the eastern arm of the Mekong. The rice, cotton, sugar, and oilseeds. Mills have been ports of Saigon and Mytho are accessible to the largest established for cleaning rice. It contains a college, a high vessels, and are connected by a railway. The roadsteads of school with 408 pupils, a literary association, and five

Rash-Gia, Camao, and Hatien can accommodate only vessels printing-presses.

of low tonnage. The climate, which is hot and damp, is

divided into two very regular seasons by the north-east Cochabamba, a department of Bolivia, bounded and south - west monsoons, the former prevailing from on the N. by that of La Paz, on the E. by Santa Cruz, October 15th to April 15th, the latter from April 15th to on the S. by Chuquisaca and Potosi, and by Oruro October 15th. The temperature varies from 60°:8 to 86° and La Paz on the w., has an area of 21,420 square F. during the former, to 82°:4 to 95° F., or even higher, miles. In 1893 the population numbered 360,220, | during the latter. Rains and tornadoes occur daily from




Saigon R.



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May to July, and from the middle of August to the end made provinces, to secure uniformity of nomenclature of of September.

administrative areas. Cochin-China is represented in the The area of Cochin-China is returned at 23,160 square French Chamber by a deputy. Asiatic foreigners are miles, and in 1899 the inhabitants numbered 2,323,499, subjected to a déclaration de séjour, and also pay a of whom 4451 were Europeans, 1601 being officials, and capitation fee. Besides French troops maintained by 1023 the members of their families. The Annamese France, there are 2405 native soldiers maintained by the number 2,054,831 ; the Cambodians, 182,659; the Mois, budget of Indo-China. 6374; the Chams, 2656; the Chinese, 65,801; the Commerce.—About one-sixth of the total area is cultiMalays, 4130. The remainder consists of Tagals, Indians, , vated, the chief crop being rice. The imports of merchandise Japanese, &c. Saigon, which in 1882 numbered only in 1898 amounted to 54,964,222 francs; the exports to 13,000 inhabitants, has now a population of 44,764, and 108,010,322 francs. The chief exports in 1898 were rice, is the capital not only of Cochin-China, but also of French 772,789 tons (of which 296,845 tons were cargo rice, and Indo-China. In 1899 there were in the colony 232 286,841 tons white rice), of a total value, according to schools, with 115 European and 1183 native teachers, and the customs returns, of £3,557,525 ; fish, value £233,440; 28,000 pupils. The Roman Catholic population numbered cotton, £64,928; silk, £77,225; hides, isinglass, pepper, 73,234; and the Buddhists, 1,688,270. Cochin-China cardamom. Coffee culture is increasing, the number of was autonomous until 1887, when it was divided into six coffee plants in 1899 being 429,228, mostly belonging to provinces under the authority of a governor, assisted by a Europeans. Cochin - China and Cambodia now forms a Colonial Council. The prosperity of the colony grew single customs district, and the commercial statistics for rapidly, and when Tongking and Annam were conquered, both are included under one head. The total trade Cochin-China contributed 5,000,000 piastres to the Tong for 1889 amounted to 177,238,958 francs, of which king budget. This contribution fell in 1892 to 4,000,000 66,234,008 francs represented imports and 111,004,950

francs exports. At Saigon, in 1899, 669 vessels of 811,157 tons entered ; of these, 234 of 333,714 tons were French, and 435 of 477,443 tons foreign. There are 51 miles of railway, Saigon to Mytho, and 2676 miles of telegraph line, and 85 telegraph offices. There are 79 post offices. The construction of 850 miles of new railway is proposed. See also INDO-CHINA.

(J. M. A. DE L.) Saigon

Cock, Edward (1805–1892), British surgeon, Chaudoc

was born in 1805. He was a nephew of Sir Astley

Cooper, and through him became at an early age a Long Hatien Shuyen


member of the staff of the Borough Hospital in London,

C. St.Jacques where he worked in the dissecting room for thirteen years.
Mekong R.

Afterwards he became in 1838 assistant surgeon at Guy's,

where from 1819 to 1871 he was surgeon, and from 1871 Delta

to 1892 consulting surgeon. He rose to be president of CHINA

the College of Surgeons in 1869. He was an excellent GULF

anatomist, a bold operator, and a clear and incisive writer, Camad

and though in lecturing he was afflicted with a stutter, he


frequently utilized it with humorous effect and emphasis.

From 1843 to 1849 he was editor of Guy's Hospital SIAM


Reports, which contain many of his papers, particularly C.

English Miles on stricture of the urethra, puncture of the bladder, Camao


injuries to the head, and hernia. He was the first English B. V.Darbishire C 0.J.R. Howarth

Oxford 1901 surgeon to perform pharyngotomy with success, and also

one of the first to succeed in trephining for middle

meningeal hæmorrhage; but the operation by which his piastres, and on the unification of Indo-China it ceased,

name is known is that of opening the urethra through the Cochin-China furnishing, as do the other countries, its

perinæum (see Guy's Hospital Reports, 1866). He died share to the general budget. The local budget for 1900

at Kingston in 1892. was estimated at 4,439,500 piastres for revenue and expenditure ; for 1901 it was estimated at 4,204,244 piastres, Cockburn, Sir Alexander James revenue and expenditure. According to official accounts, Edmund, BÁRT. (1802-1880), Lord Chief Justice the actual receipts to August 31, 1899, amounted to of England, was born on 24th December 1802, and came 4,253,192 piastres. The local government is now ad of ancient Scottish stock. An ancestor, Alexander de ministered by a lieutenant-governor, who has a seat on Cockburn (descended from Petrus de Cockburn of the Superior Council of Indo-China, and is assisted by a Berwickshire, A.D. 1214), was granted in 1358 the Colonial Council composed of fifteen members, of whom barony of Carriden, county Linlithgow, and eight are Europeans and seven Asiatics. Four of the appointed with his heirs for ever Ostiarius Parliamenti European members are elected by universal suffrage, two (usher of the White Rod) by King David II. A subare delegated by the Chamber of Commerce, and two by sequent ancestor, Sir William Cockburn, who was created the Privy Council, which assists the governor-general. a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1627, had some difficulty Cochin-China is divided into six provinces, Saigon, Mytho, in asserting his right to this office, but ultimately sucVinh-Long, Bassac, Saigon, and Cholon; and twenty cceded, and afterwards alienated a moiety of it, becoming districts, each having at its head an administrator of a joint usher with Colonel Cunningham. His son, Archinative affairs, who presides over all civil service not bald, however, in 1674, bought back the half-right so undertaken by the general government. The self-adminis- disposed of, and obtained a fresh grant. The fifth baronet tering municipalities of Saigon and Cholon districts used fell at Fontenoy in 1745, and his cousin, James Cockburn, to be, but by a recent decision these arrondissements were at one time M.P. for Peebles, succeeded him as sixth











Three years

baronet. This gentleman, who in 1757 sold Langton, Derby winner Running Rein — in substance to deterwhich had been the seat of the family since the fourteenth mine, if possible, the vexed question whether Running century, had a large family. His three elder sons held Rein was a four-year-old or a three-year-old when he was the title in succession, while the future Lord Chief Justice racing as the latter. Running Rein could not be proof England was the only son of the fourth son, Alexander, duced by Mr Wood, and Baron Alderson took a strong and eventually in 1858 followed his uncle, Sir William view of this circumstance, so that Cockburn found himself Cockburn, dean of York, as tenth baronet. Mr Alex on the losing side, while his strenuous advocacy of his ander Cockburn, the father of Sir Alexander, was British client's cause had led him into making, in his opening Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the speech, strictures on Lord George Bentinck's conduct in the State of Columbia, and married Yolande, daughter of the case which had better have been reserved to a later stage. Vicomte de Vignier. Young Alexander was at one time He was, however, a hard fighter, but not an unfair one, intended for the diplomatic service, and frequently a little irritable at times, but on the whole a courteous during the legal career which he ultimately adopted he was gentleman, and his practice went on increasing. In 1813 able to make considerable use of the knowledge of foreign he decided to stand for Parliament, and was elected languages, especially French, with which birth and early without a contest at Southampton, standing as a Liberal education had equipped him. He went eventually to and a reformer. During his first year or two in Parliament Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he did well, winning he showed himself to be a useful speaker on topics of prizes for Latin and English composition, and appearing legal reform, and gained the respect of his fellow members; second in the first class of the law-tripos in 1825, although and in 1850 he had a chance, of which he availed himself he does not seem to have proceeded to his degree until to the utmost. The “Pacifico” dispute with Greece 1829. He was elected a fellow, and afterwards an related, it will be remembered, to the treatment of a M. honorary fellow of his college, and having entered at the Pacifico, and other persons said to be British subjects, by a Middle Temple in 1825, was called to the Bar in 1829; Greek mob, and to the forcible methods of Lord Palmerston but though he had shown himself a young man of in causing a British fleet to blockade the Piræus in order to considerable gifts, he had not exhibited promise of the enforce attention to his demands for compensation. The industry and energy which, in spite of a pleasure-loving Government was defeated in the House of Lords on this temperament, ultimately won for him success. He joined question, and in the House of Commons had a hard fight the Western Circuit, and for some time such practice to carry the vote of confidence proposed by Mr Roebuck, as he was able to obtain lay at the Devon Sessions, member for Sheffield. A lawyer was wanted to bring Quarter Sessions at that time affording an opening out the legal position of the Government. Mr Crowder, and a school of advocacy to young counsel not to be afterwards a judge, was not equal to the task; but on found anywhere fifty years later. In London he had so the third night of the debate Cockburn moved the little to do that only the persuasion of friends induced adjournment of the House after Mr Gladstone had him to keep his London Chambers open.

spoken, and on the following night made a speech, after his call to the Bar, however, the Reform Bill was of which Lord Palmerston wrote to Lord Normanby : passed, and the petitions which followed the ensuing “As to Cockburn's, I do not know that I ever in the general election gave rise to a large number of new course of my life heard a better speech from anybody, questions for the decision of Election Committees, and without any exception.” Cockburn made another excellent afforded an opening of which he promptly availed himself. speech very soon after this on the question of the treatThe decisions of the Committees had not been reported ment by Austria of the Magyar rebels; and when, less since 1821, and with Mr Rowe, another member of the than a month later, Sir John Jervis retired, and Sir John Western CircuitCockburn undertook new series Romilly was promoted to be Attorney-General, he became of Reports. They only published one volume, but the Solicitor-General and was knighted. He succeeded to the work was well done, and in 1833 Cockburn had Attorney - Generalship in 1851, on the appointment of his first parliamentary brief on behalf of Mr Henry Romilly as Master of the Rolls. Lytton Bulwer, and Mr Ellice, Secretary to the Treasury, In February 1852 the Ministry resigned, and Cockburn the sitting members for Coventry. In 1834 Cockburn vacated his post. During the short administration of was well enough thought of to be made a member of Lord Derby which followed, Thesiger was Attorney-General, the Commission to inquire into the state of the corpora and Cockburn was engaged against him in the case of tions of England and Wales. Other parliamentary work R. v. Newman, on the prosecution of Achilli. This was followed; but he had ambition to be more than a parlia the trial of a criminal information for libel filed against mentary counsel, and he attended diligently on his John Henry Newman, who had denounced a scandalous Circuit, besides appearing before Committees. In 1841 and profligate friar named Achilli

, then lecturing on he was in a position to take silk; and in that ycar a charge Roman Catholicism in England. Newman pleaded justifiof simony, brought against his uncle, the dean of York, cation; but the jury who heard the case in the Queen's enabled him to appear conspicuously in a case which Bench, with Lord Campbell presiding, found that the attracted considerable public attention, the proceedings justification was not proved except in one particular : a taking the form of a motion for prohibition duly obtained verdict which, together with the methods of the judge and against the Ecclesiastical Court, which had deprived Dr the conduct of the audience, attracted considerable comCockburn of his office. Not long after this, Sir Robert ment. The verdict was set aside, and a new trial ordered, Peel's secretary, Mr Drummond, was shot by the crazy but none ever took place. In December 1852, under Lord Scotchman, M Naughten, and Cockburn, briefed on behalf Aberdeen's Ministry, Cockburn became again Attorneyof the assassin, not only made a very brilliant speech, General, with Bethell as Solicitor-General, and so remained which established the defence of insanity, but also secured until 1856, taking part in many celebrated trials, such as the full publicity of a long report in the Morning Chronicle the Hopwood Will Case in 1855, and the Swynfen Will of the 6th of March 1843. Another well-known trial Case, but notably leading for the Crown in the trial of in which he appeared a year later was that of Wood v. William Palmer of Rugeley in Staffordshire, an ex-medical Peel (Times, 2nd and 3rd July 1844), the issue being man who had taken to the turf, and who had poisoned in form to determine the winner of a bet (the Gaming Act a friend of similar pursuits named Cook with strychnine, in was passed in the following year) as to the age of the order to obtain money from his estate by forgery and


otherwise. Sir Alexander Cockburn made an exhaustive study of the medical aspects of the case, and the prisoner's comment when convicted after a twelve days' trial was, alluding to the Attorney-General's advocacy, “It was the riding that did it.” In 1854 Cockburn was made recorder of Bristol. In 1856 Sir John Jervis died, and Cockburn became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. In 1859 Lord Campbell became Chancellor, and Cockburn became Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench, continuing as a judge for twenty-four years, and dying in harness. On Friday, the 19th of November 1880, he tried causes with special juries at Westminster; on Saturday, the 20th, he presided over a Court for the consideration of Crown Cases Reserved; he walked home, and on that night he died of angina pectoris at his house in Hertford Street. It is characteristic of the man that when he learnt that he was dying, his comment to his doctor was, “Well, I have had a good time.”

Sir Alexander Cockburn earned and deserved a high reputation as a judge. He was a man of brilliant cleverness and rapid intuition, rather than of profound and laboriously cultivated intellect. He had been a great advocate at the Bar, with a great charm of voice and manner, as well as a fluent and persuasive tongue, rather than a learned lawyer, but he was considered to be a good lawyer before he died, some assigning his unquestioned improvement in this respect to his frequent association on the bench with Blackburn. He had notorionsly little sympathy with the Judicature Acts. Many were of opinion that he was inclined to take an advocate's view of the cases before him, making up his mind as to their merits prematurely and, in consequence, wrongly, as well as giving undue prominence to the views which he so formed ; but he was beyond doubt always in intention, and generally in fact, scrupulously fair. Lord Russell of Killowen, L.C.J., writing of his immediate predecessor Lord Coleridge in 1894, gave his opinion that the beauty of Lord Coleridge's voice was unsurpassed in his experience, except perhaps by Sir Alexander Cockburn, Mr Gladstone, Sir Robert Peel, and Father Burke of the Dominican Order. Coleridge, he further says, “could not have made the great Don Pacifico speech of Sir Alexander Cockburn ; but then, who could ?". Commenting on the case of Saurin v. Starr (Feb. 1869), in which Coleridge led for the plaintiff, Lord Russell also wrote: “Sir Alexander Cockburn tried the case, and it afforded a strong illustration of a peculiarity in that remarkable man which those who practised before him will recognize. He began by being breast-high for the plaintiff, and so continued during the carlier stages of the trial ; but as the trial progressed, and especially after Mr Mellish's opening speech, he speedily turned round, and did all he could to secure a verdict for the defendants. But it was too late. The case was of a kind, not unnaturally, to excite prejudice against them, and the minds of the jury could not be turned back from the direction which the earlier action of the Chief Justice had given them.” This criticism is interesting as coming from so great an advocate and so masterful a Lord Chief Justice, himself by no means given to concealing his prejudices. It will further be remembered, however, that in this case Lord Russell, then Mr Charles Russell, was counsel on the losing side, that the case involved charges against a Roman Catholic religious establishment, and that he was himself a staunch Roman Catholic. Mr Justin M‘Carthy calls Cockburn“ of the few great advocates who ever made a political figure in the House of Commons.” Disraeli, in a characteristic speech, once said of him in the House : “He is a man of transcendent abilities ; . . . he sustained the reputation which he had attained here and in the Courts of his country with learning and majesty ... He has shown himself a jurist and a publicist of the highest character” (Times, 24th April 1875). This was on the occasion of an attack upon him by Dr Kenealy, M.P., the Tichborne claimant's counsel in the trial at Bar which consigned the claimant to penal servitude for perjury. Sir Alexander Cockburn, with Mr Justice Mellor and Mr Justice Lush, had tried him, the case lasting one hunılred and eighty-eight days, of which the Lord Chief Justice's summing up occupied eighteen. It is not necessary to enumerate the many causes cclèbres at which Sir Alexander Cockburn presided as a judge. It was thought that he went out of his way to arrange that they should come before him, and his successor, Lord Coleridge, writing in 1881 to Lord Branwell, to make the offer that he should try the murderer Lefroy as a last judicial act before retiring, added, “Poor dear Cockburn would hardly have given you such a chance." Be this as it may, Cockburn tried all cases which came before him, whether great or small, with the same thoroughness and with coi esy and dignity, so that no counsel or suitor could complain that he had not been

fully heard in a matter in which the issues were seemingly trivial ; while he certainly gave great attention to the elaboration of his judgments and charges to juries.

The greatest public occasion on which Sir Alexander Cockburn acted, outside his usual judicial functions, was that of the Alabama Arbitration, held at Geneva in 1872, in which he represented the British Government, and dissented from the view taken by the majority of the arbitrators, without being able to convince them. He prepared, with Mr C. F. Adams, the representative of the United States, the English trauslation of the award of the arbitrators, and published his reasons for dissenting in a vigorously worded document which did not meet with universal commendation. He admitted in substance the liability of England for the acts of the Alabama, but not on the grounds on which the decision of the majority was based, and he held England not to be liable in respect of the Florida and the Shenandoah. His opposition to the appointment of Sir Robert Collier to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council had, shortly before the arbitration, so embroiled him with the Government that, stung by a speech of the duke of Argyll, he had threatened to resign his position as arbitrator. His views on the Collier controversy were chiefly expressed in letters to Lord Westbury; he was at all times fond of controversy and controversial writing.

In personal appearance Sir Alexander Cockburn was of small stature, but his dignity of deportment caused this to be forgotten. His courtesy and polish of manner have been referred to. In private life he was fond of sport, and he was engaged in writing a series of articles on the “History of the Chase in the Nineteenth Century” at the time of his death. He took his relaxation during his last years in his yacht the Zouave, and he was also fond of music. He was fond, too, of society; and in the interesting debate on the Tichborne trial, to which reference has been made, some aid was lent to Kenealy's attack by a jocular, but somewhat imprudent, remark of Cockburn's to a lady at a dinner-party, which she was foolish enough to repeat. He was also throughout his life addicted to frivolities not altogether consistent with advancement in a learned profession, or with the positions of dignity which he successively occupied. Shooting once at Hinton with Lord Westbury, when a high rocketing pheasant was nearly dropped on his head by another gun, Sir Alexander Cockburn, who had not seen the bird, called out, “Fire high, fire high.” Whereupon Lord Westbury said, “Don't be alarmed, Chief Justice : you are quite safe. You are not as near heaven as that bird was when it was shot, and I am sadly afraid, after those stories of yours at luncheon, that you never will be.” At the same time he showed no lack of dignity in his public capacity. He had a high sense of what was due to, and expected from, his profession; and his utterance upon the limitations of advocacy, in his speech at the banquet given in the Middle Temple Hall to Mons. Berryer, the celebrated French advocate, may be called the classical authority on the subject. Lord Brougham, replying for the guests other than Berryer, had spoken of "the first great duty of an advocate to reckon everything subordinate to the interests of his client.” The Lord Chief Justice, replying to the toast of “the Judges of England,” dissented from this sweeping statement, saying, anid loud cheers from a distinguished assembly of lawyers, “The arms which an advocate wields he ought to use as a warrior, not as an assassin. He ought to uphold the interests of his clients per fas, not per nefas. He ought to know how to reconcile the interests of his clients with the eternal interests of truth and justice(Times, 9th Nov. 1864). Sir Alexander Cockburn was never married, and the baronetcy became extinct at his death.

AUTHORITIES. —Times, 22nd Nov. 1880; Law Journal ; Law Times ; Solicitors' Journal, 27th Nov. 1880 ; Law Magazine, new series, vol. xv. p. 193, 1851 ; Ashley's Life of Lord Palmerston ; Nash's Life of Lord Westbury; “Reminiscences of Lord Chief Justice Coleridge,” by Lord Russell of Killowen, in the North American Review, Sept. 1894 ; The Greville Memoirs ; Croker's Correspondence and Diaries; Justin M‘Carthy's History of Our Own Times ; Serjeant Ballantine's Experiences ; Bench and Bar, by Serjeant Robinson ; Fairchild's Life of Lord Bramwell ; Manson's Builders of Our Law; Burke's Peerage, ed. 1879; Fosters' Peerage, 1880.

(E. A. AR.) Cockermouth, a market-town in the Cockermouth parliamentary division (since 1885) of Cumberland, England, on the Derwent, 27 miles south-west of Carlisle by rail.

A statue was crected in 1875 to the sixth earl of Mayo, who represented the borough in parliament and was subsequently viceroy of India. Ironworks, tanneries, and confectionery works have been established. Area of township (an urban district), 2425 acres. Population (1881), 5353; (1901), 5355.

Cocos Islands, See KEELING ISLANDS.



Codex Bezæ.—The MS. which is known by the επικαταρατος και παραβατης ει του νομου = “ on the same name of Codex Bezæ, after the great Reformer, and which day having observed one working on the Sabbath he said is marked amongst the MSS. of the New Testament by the to him, Man, if thou knowest what thou dost, blessed art sign D (or rather by the two signs D, d, according as its thou ; but if thou knowest not, thou art accursed and a Greek or Latin side is under discussion), is a bilingual transgressor of the law"). These singular readings and [Græco-Latin) codex, containing, with some lacunæ, the interpolations are characteristic of the Codex Bezæ, and text of the Four Gospels and the Acts, in an uncial hand apparently Beza himself, though he quotes many of the which is commonly ascribed to the sixth century. From most surprising readings, felt some alarm at them, for he the fact that a fragment of the 3rd Epistle of John pre-explained to the University of Cambridge that the MS. cedes the Acts, it has been inferred that it at one time ought not to be published, for fear of giving offence (asser contained the Catholic Epistles, though not in the common vandum potius quam publicandum). At the same time he order, and from a study of the ancient numbering of the was alive to its critical value, and appears to have recogquires, it appears that the missing matter was not confined nized its relation to the old Latin and Syriac texts of to the Catholic Epistles, and that some other book was also the New Testament. included, but no satisfactory conjecture has yet been made

The MS. was not long in the possession of the university before as to the character of the missing portion. The order of its text was transcribed, more or less completely. It was tranthe Gospels is that which was once common in the West, in scribed in 1583 for Archbishop Whitgift, and partly collated by which the Apostolic Evangelists come first, namely, Mt,

Patrick Young. Archbishop Usher collated it for Walton's Poly

glot (1657), and Wetstein studied it closely in 1716. In 1732 it Joh, Lu, Mc, the whole book being denoted by

was collated by John Dickinson, with a view to remedy the errors Mt+Joh + Lu+Mc+X+Cath + Acts,

in the critical apparatus of Mill. However imperfect these and where X stands for the unknown missing matter, and Cath other collations may be, they have an occasional scientific value at for the portions of the Catholic Epistles which it once con

the present day in cases where the MS. has become illegible or tained (the three epistles of John, at the least).

damaged, e.g., Ac 2116, where Whitgift's transcript should be

consulted, along with the other early readers and collators. WhitThe MS. was presented by Beza to the University of Cambridge, gift's copy is in the Trinity College Library, Dickinson's in Jesus in whose public library it has since been preserved, in the year College Library, the others are to be consulted in the several New 1582. If Beza's own account can be trusted, it was brought to him Testaments to which they belong. In 1793 the first great attempt from the monastery of St Irenæus at Lyons, where it had been was made by the University of Cambridge to publish an accurate lying mutilated and covered with dust, the time of its discovery transcript of the whole text. The work was entrusted to Dr being the sack of Lyons in 1562. Some superficial grounds for Thomas Kipling, and splendidly issued in two folio volumes. The doubting the exactness of this statement are found in the facts (1) prolegomena were poor, but the transcript was fairly accurate; the that Beza in his latest Greek Testament (1598) calls it Claromon work was, however, fiercely attacked on two sides on which it was tanus, and not Lugdunensis (a term he never seems to apply, using singularly vulnerable, the Latin of the preface and its logic. instead the colourless vetustissimus); (2) that it was in Italy shortly Thomas Edwards, of Clare Hall, produced a tract on Kipling's before 1550, for this is undoubtedly the MS. marked B' from which work, which was written in the liveliest style of 18th century readings are given on the margin of Robert Stephen's edition of the polemic. The tract is, however, hardly intelligible without a N.T. in that year, and which is expressly stated by him to have knowledge of contemporary university politics into which Edwards been collated by our friends in Italy.” But these statements can frequently diverges, and which have little interest at the present be reconciled by adding the further evidence of Marianus Victorius day. A more serious defect was the use of a single fount of type, as to the production at the Council of Trent (in 1546 ?) of an ancient both for the text and the marginal annotations, which are centuries Greek MS. confirming the Latin reading of John

21". This MS. later than the body of the text, a fault which led Credner, and was produced by William à Prato, bishop of Clermont in the in our own time Resch, into serious errors with regard to the origin Auvergne, and the neighbourhood of Clermont Ferrand to Lyons of the text. The next great step in the knowledge of the text was may be thought sufficient to explain at once the presence of the taken when the MS. was edited by the Rev. F. H. Scrivener, in book in Italy and the fluctuation as to its title in the last Bezan 1864, with a very complete series of annotations and prolegomena, N.T. It should be remarked, however, that there has recently been in which everything was done, or almost everything that an editor a recrudescence of suspicions as to the accuracy of Beza's statements could do, to furnish the student with an exact representation, in concerning the Codex, and that some modern scholars, becoming ordinary type, of the contents of the MS., and to supply at the sceptical as to its connexion with Lyons at all, are looking for a same time criteria for discriminating the various hands by which home for the Codex in Italy, previous to its passing into Beza's the MS. had experienced correction or annotation, and generally hands.

recording the fortunes and the history both of the MS. and the Whatever may be the outcome of this demand for re-examination peculiar text which it transmits. Facsimiles were engraved of two of the Bezan statements, it should be noted that Beza had not tho corresponding pages of the Greek and Latin, and of a number of slightest suspicion that his beloved vetustissimus was the same as places where correcting or annotating hands had been at work ; the B' of Stephen ; for he quotes them as if they were two separate and, on the whole, a notable advance was made in the materials authorities, even in places where the Bezan Codex is most singular. for the history of the Codex. In 1900 the whole MS. was photoPerhaps we must not be too severe on him in this, for the very graphically reproduced for the university by the hands of Dujardin same doubling of the authorities is found in Bianchini, Er. Quad of Paris, the very fragile and much worn book being thus rendered ruplex, p. 483 (" Lucæ, c. 6, v. 4, extat hic et in Steph. B' insignis the secure possession of scholars everywhere. The use of the photopericope de homine operante die sabbati”), where the reading dis lithograph may sometimes mislead the reader, in cases where the cussed is the most conspicuous siugularity in the whole MS., the shades of colour of the inks employed are no longer discriminated, passage at which the MS. usually stands open in the University and where the extreme tenuity of the vellum lias allowed both the Library at Cambridge. If Bianchini fell into the same trap, we obverse and reverse of a leaf to appear at once in the transcript. must not judge Beza too hardly. In any case he cannot have known that his MS. had been collated for Robert Stephen in Italy.

A word should be said at this point with regard to the One would like to know something more about this collation. text and its annotators and correctors. Naturally, after Who were the friends that collated ? The term seems too vague Kipling and Scrivener there is not much to be added in for his son Henry, who probably was in Italy just at the right time for making the collation. Was there another hand ? Perhaps that

the way of readings to the text; but it should be observed of Vatablus? And was the collating done at Trent? On these that Blass (to whom we shall presently refer) has read points some further information may be accessible. Meanwhile we several places in the text where Scrivener had to resort to adhere provisionally, but with some hesitation, to the belief that it conjecture, e.g., the reading of Scrivener in is a Lyons MS.

'Acts 187 is jetaßas (de

ακυ] λα We have already alluded, in passing, to two singular

[εισηλθεν εις τον [o][κ]ον τινος, readings of the MS. in which it appears to be unique, whero Blass reads namely, the reading in Joh 21-9, cav αυτον θελω μενειν

μεταβας [απο του] ακυλα in the first line, ουτως εως ερχομαι (“if I wish him to remain thus until I and Harris reads come”), and the unique interpolation in Lu 64 (TY auty

και ηλθεν εις τον [0] [k]ον τινος ημερα θεασαμενος τινα εργαζομενον τω σαββατω ειπεν αυτω, , in the second line. ανθρωπε, ει μεν οιδας τι ποιεις, μακαριος ει: ει δε μη

οιδας, , The importance of the correction lies in the explanation

S. III. — 17


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