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that Paul left, not Aquila, but Aquila's house; and in the was not translated all at once, but at two different times restoration of a curious syntactical construction which is and by two different hands. The Bezan text, therefore, peculiar to Codex Bezæ. Other corrections may be made. retains traces of the history and collection of the books But it is in the annotations that the student will, by the of the N.T. and of their translation which are not to be aid of the facsimile, add most to the Scrivener transcript, found in any other MS., and to be faithful thus in minimis and where he will make many corrections both as to the renders it certain that it is also trustworthy in greater matters deciphered and the dates to which the hands matters. The ultimate discrimination of the various are assigned. Of publications which in recent times have elements in the Bezan (Western) text has yet to be made, dealt with the Codex Bezæ, and the peculiar Western text and the suspicion is that the problem has not yet found of which it is the chief representative, the following should its Newton.

(J. R. HA.) be noted :-(1) J. Rendel Harris, Study of Codex Bezæ (1891), in which the problem of the Bezan text was reopened, Coelentera form a Group or Grade of the Animal and an attempt was made to explain the peculiarities by Kingdom, the zoological importance of which has risen the hypothesis of Latin reactions upon a Greek text, accom considerably since the time (1887) of the publication of panied in a lesser degree by some Syriac reactions, the the original article in the Ency. Brit., even though their additional matter being largely due to a glossator who was numbers have been reduced by the elevation of the Sponges probably under the influence of the Montanist movement. or Porifera to the rank of an independent Phylum under (2) F. H. Chase, Old Syriac Element in the Codex Bezæ the title Parazoa (Sollas, 1884). For the Cælentera thus (1893) and The Sylo-Latin Text of the Gospels (1895), restricted, the term Enterocola, in contrast to Cælomocæla in which substantially the whole of the Bezan peculiarities (the old Colomata), was suggested by Lankester (1900). were referred to Syriac influence, and an attempt was made From the more complex colonial Protozoa the Cælentera to find the original home of the text in Antioch. (3) The are readily separated by their possession of two distinct reply by Harris in Four Lectures on the l'estern Text (1894) sets of cells, with diverse functions, arranged in two should be studied, both for what it contradicts and what definite layers,—a condition found in no Protozoan. The it concedes, and especially for the proof it contains of the old criterion by which they and other Metazoa were once early diffusion of the Bezan accretions to the Acts in Meso- distinguished from Protozoa, namely, the differentiation potamia and other parts of the East. (4) But these and of large and small sexual cells from each other and from other attempts to explain the genesis of the Bezan text were the remaining cells of the body, has been broken down by cast into the shade by a brilliant hypothesis of Professor the discovery of numerous cases of such differentiation Blass of Halle, who maintained that the Lucan writings among Protozoa. The Calentera, as contrasted with other (St Luke and the Acts) in which the deviation of the Metazoa (but not Parazoa), consist of two layers of cells Codex Bezæ from canonical form is most conspicuous, only, an outer layer or ectoderm, an inner layer or were in reality extant in two separate editions produced endoderm. They have hence been described as Diploblasby St Luke himself, one of which he calls Antiochian, tica. In the remaining Metazoa certain cells are budded and the other Roman, a hypothesis which Blass defends off at an early stage of development from one or both of with astonishing learning and skill, and in which he en the two original layers, to form later a third layer, the listed, almost at once, a body of sympathizers such as mesoderm, which lies between the ectoderm and endoderm ; Nestle, Hilgenfeld, Belser, Salmon, and others, whose writ such forms have therefore received the name Triploblastica. ings must be referred to. Blass himself not only published | At the same time it is necessary to observe that it is by the Acts in what he supposed to be the original double no means certain that the mesoderm found in various edition, but defended himself against all attacks with groups of Metazoa is a similar or homologous formation amazing vigour, so that even Harnack has hardly suc

in all cases.

A second essential difference between Calenceeded in demolishing his theory. Whether, however, this tera and other Metazoa (except Parazoa) is that in the former theory can be finally sustained is still in lite. What is all spaces in the interior of the body are referable to a certain is that the Western text, as represented in the single cavity of endodermal origin, the "gastro-vascular Codex Bezæ and cognate authorities, is older and more cavity,” often termed the calenteron : the spaces widely diffused than had been generally recognized ; that always originally continuous with one another, and are in it was extant in Greek, Latin, and Syriac in the earliest almost every case permanently so. This single cavity and times ; and that no single series of linguistic reactions can its lining serve apparently for all those functions (digesexplain it away. And whatever be the exact value of the tion, excretion, circulation, and often reproduction) which Blass demonstrations and reconstructions, it is evident that in more complex organisms are distributed


various a great increase of critical weight has accrued to the Western cavities of independent and often very diverse origin. readings generally in consequence of them ; so that, even In the Coelentera the ectoderm and endoderm are set if it be conceded, as it must be, that the Codex Bezæ is apart from one another at a very early period in the lifesubject to all kinds of corrupting influences, such as lec history; generally either by delamination or invagination, tionary prefaces, harmonizations, and bad transcriptions, the processes described in the article EMBRYOLOGY. Benucleus of the text is as old as anything which we have tween these two cell-layers a mesoglea (Bourne, 1887) is in evidence for the text of the New Testament. A strik always intercalated as a secretion by one or both of them ; ing instance of this may be found in a far-reaching obser this is a gelatinoid, primitively structureless lamella, which vation of a pupil of Professor Blass, named Lippelt, who in the first instance serves merely as a basal support for found on examining the spelling of the name 'Iwávvns in the cells. In many cases, as, for example, in the Medusa the Codex Bezæ, that the name was almost uniformly spelt or jelly-fish, the mesoglæa may be so thick as to constitute with one v in the two Lucan books, although in the rest of the chief part of the body in bulk and weight. The the Codex the conventional spelling has prevailed. This ectoderm rarely consists of more than one layer of cells : striking testimony to the fact that the Bezan Luke and these are divisible by structure and function into nervous, Acts once circulated together in a separate volume, though muscular, and secretory cells, supported by interstitial cells. they are not now side by side, may be further extended The endoderm is generally also an epithelium one cell in by examining the Latin version, from which it appears thickness, the cells being digestive, secretory, and sometimes that the spelling with one n prevails in Luke, but not in muscular. Reproductive sexual cells may be found in Acts, the inference being that the combined Lucan volume either of these two layers, according to the class and


sub-class in question. The mesoglea is in itself an inert The ANTHOZOA differ from the Scyphomedusa in having non-cellular secretion, but the immigration of muscular and no medusoid form; they all more or less resemble a seaother cells into its substance, both from ectoderm and anemone, and may be termed actinioid. They are (with endoderm, gives it in many cases a strong resemblance to rare exceptions, probably secondarily acquired) hypogenetic, the mesoderm of Triploblastica, —a resemblance which, the offspring resembling the parent, and both being sexual. while probably superficial, may yet serve to indicate the The sexual cells are borne on the mesenteries in positions path of evolution of the mesoderm.

irrespective of obvious developmental radii. The Coelentera may thus be briefly defined as Metazoa The CTENOPHORA are so aberrant in structure that it which exhibit two embryonic cell-layers only,—the ecto has been proposed to separate them from the Cælentera derm and endoderm,—their body-cavities being referable altogether : they are, however, theoretically deducible from to a single cavity or cælenteron in the endoderm. Their an ancestor common to other Coelentera, but their extreme position in the Animal Kingdom and their main subdivisions specialization precludes the idea of any close relationship may be expressed in the following table :

with the rest (see CTENOPHORA). I. PROTOZOA.

As regards the other three groups, however, it is easy to II. PARAZOA.

conceive of them as derived from an ancestor, represented III. METAZOA.

to-day to some extent by the planula-larva (Ency. Brit., HYDROZOA, vol. xii. p. 548), which was Coelenterate in so

far as it was composed of an ectoderm and endoderm, and Coelentera


had an internal digestive cavity (I. of the table).
(including Coelomata).
Hydromedusa. Scyphomedusæ.


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Ctenophora ?



Anthozoa. On a comparison of these subdivisions with those adopted by Professor Lankester in the article Hydrozoa (Ency. Brit. vol. xii.), it will be noticed that the Scyphomedusae then included with the Hydromedusæ as Hydrozoa are here placed nearer to the Anthozoa than to their old pendants. The reasons for this may be stated briefly.

The HYDROMEDUSA are distinguished from the Scyphozoa chiefly by negative characters; they have no stomodaum, that is, no ingrowth of ectoderm at the mouth to form an oesophagus; they have no mesenteries (radiating partitions) which incompletely subdivide the calenteron ; and they have no concentration of digestive cells into special organs. Their ectodermal muscles are mainly longitudinal, their endodermal muscles are circularly arranged on the body-wall. Their sexual cells are (probably in all cases) produced from the ectoderm, and lie in those radii which are first accentuated in development. They typically present two structural forms, the non-sexual hydroid, and the sexual medusoid; in such a case there is an alternation of generations (metagensis), the hydroid giving rise to the medusoid by a sexual gemmation, the medusoid bearing sexual cells which develop into a hydroid. In some other cases inedusoid develops directly from medusoid (hypogenesis), whether by sexual cells or by gemmation. The medusoids have a muscular velum of ectoderm and mesogloca only.

The SCYPHOZOA have the following features in common: They typically exhibit an ectodermal stomodüum; partitions or mesenteries project into their calenteron from the body-wall

, and on these are generally concentrated digestive cells (to form mesenterial filaments, phaceuæ, etc.); the external musculature of the body-wall is circular (except in Cerianthus); the internal, longitudinal; and the sexual cells probably always arise in the endoderm.

The SCYPHOMEDUSÆ, like the Hydromedusa, typically present a metagenesis, the non-sexual scyphistomoid (corresponding to the hydroid) alternating with the sexual medusoid. In other cases the medusoid is hypogenetic, medusoid producing medusoid. The sexual cells of the medusoid lie in the endoderm on interradii, that is, on the second set of radii accentuated in the course of development. The medusoids have no true velum ; in some cases a structure more or less resembling this organ, termed a velarium, is present, permeated by endodermal canals.

At the point of divergence between Scyphozoa and Hydromedus (II. of the table of hypothetical descent), we may conceive of its descendant as tentaculate, capable of either floating (swimming) or fixation at will like Lucernaria to-day; and exhibiting incipient differentiation of myoepithial cells (neuro-muscular cells of HYDROZOA, loc. cit. p. 549). At the parting of the ways which led, on the one hand, to modern Scyphomedusa, on the other to Anthozoa (III.), it is probable that the common ancestor was marked by incipient mesenteries and by the limitation of the sexual cells to endoderm. The lines of descentII. to Hydromedusa, and III. to Scyphomedusae—represent periods during which the hypothetical ancestors II. and III., capable of either locomotion or fixation at will, were either differentiated into alternating generations of fixed sterile nutritive hydroids (scyphistomoids) and locomotor sexual medusoids, or abandoned the power of fixation in hypogenetic cases. During the period represented by the line of descent—III. to Anthozoa—this group abandoned its power of adult locomotion by swimming. During these periods were also attained those less important structural characters which these three groups present to-day.

(Gr. II. Fo.)

Cognac, chief town of arrondissement, department of Charente, France, 32 miles west by north of Angoulême, by rail. Large quantities of brandy and wine are exported to England, America, and Australia, and the total trade in alcoholic liquors of Cognac alone has a mean annual value of £1,200,000. Population (1881), 13,096 ; (1896), 18,932.

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Cohn, Ferdinand (1828–1898), German bot now its own laboratories, literature, and votaries specially anist, was born on 24th January 1828 at Breslau. He devoted to its extension in all directions. When it is was educated at Breslau and Berlin, subsequently being remembered that Cohn brought out and helped Koch in Professor of Botany at Breslau University. He had a publishing his celebrated paper on Anthrax (1876), the remarkable career owing to his Jewish origin.

He was

first clearly worked out case of a bacterial disease, the contemporary with Pringsheim, and worked with Goeppert, significance of his influence on bacteriology becomes Nees von Esenbeck, Ehrenberg, and Johannes Müller. At apparent. an early date he exhibited astonishing ability with the Among his most striking discoveries during his studies microscope, which he did much to improve, and his of the forms and movements of the Bacteria may researches on cell-walls and the growth and contents of be mentioned the nature of Zoogloed, the formation and plant-cells soon attracted attention, especially as he made germination of true spores,—which he observed for the remarkable advances in the establishment of an improved first time, and which he himself discovered 1 in Bacillus cell-theory, discovered the cilia in, and analysed the move subtilis,--and their resistance to high temperatures, and ments of, zoospores, and pointed out that the protoplasm the bearing of this on the fallacious experiments supposed of the plant-cell and the sarcode of the zoologists were to support abiogenesis; as well as works on the bacteria one and the same physical vehicle of life. Although of air and water, the significance of the bright sulphurthese early researches were especially on the Algæ, in granules in sulphur bacteria, and of the iron-oxide deposwhich group he instituted marked reforms of the rigid ited in the walls of Crenothrix. His discoveries in these system due to Kützing, Cohn had already displayed that and in other departments all stand forth as mementoes of activity in various departments which made him so famous his acute observation and reasoning powers, and the as an all-round naturalist, his attention at various times thoughtful (in every sense of the word) consideration of being turned to such varied subjects as Aldorovanda, the work of others, and suggestive ideas attached to torsion in trees, the nature of waterspouts, the effects his principal papers, bear the same characteristics. If of lightning, physiology of seeds, the proteid crystals in overcome the always difficult task of bridging in the potato, which he discovered, the formation of tra imagination the interval between our present platform vertin, the rotatoria, luminous worms, &c. &c., the mere of knowledge and that on which bacteriologists stood notice of which would carry us too far.

in, say, 1870, we shall not undervalue the important It is, however, in the introduction of the strict biological contributions of Cohn to the overthrow the then for and philosophical analysis of the life-histories of the lower midable bugbear known as the doctrine of " Spontaneous and most minute forms of life that Cohn's greatest Generation," a dogma of despair calculated to impede achievements consist, for he applied to these organisms progress as much in its day as that of “Vitalismdid the principle that we can only know the phases of growth in other periods. Cohn had also clear perceptions of of microscopic plants by watching every stage of develop the important bearings of Mycology and Bacteriology ment under the microscope, just as we learn how different in infective diseases, as shown by his studies in are the youthful and adult appearances of an oak or a insect-killing fungi, microscopic analysis of water, &c. fern by direct observation. The success with which he He was a foreign member of the Royal Society and of attempted and carried out the application of cultural and the Linnean Society, and received the gold medal of the developmental methods on the Alge, Fungi, and Bacteria latter in 1895. He died in 1898. Lists of his papers can only be fully appreciated by those familiar with the will be found in the Catalogue of Scientific Papers of the minute size and elusive evolutions of these organisms, Royal Society, and in Ber, d. d. bot. Gesellsch., 1899, vol. and with the limited appliances at Cohn's command. xvii. p. (196). The latter also contains (p. (172)) a full Nevertheless his account of the life-histories of Proto memoir by F. Rosen.

(H. M. W.) coccus (1850), Stephanosphæra (1852), Volvox (1856 and 1875), II ydrodictyon (1861), and Spharoplea (1855 Cohoes, a city of Albany county, New York, U.S.A., 57) among the Algæ have never been put aside. The situated in 42° 46' N. lat. and 73° 42' W. long., in the first is a model of what a study in development should eastern part of the state. Two railways enter the citybe; the last shares with Thuret's studies on Fucus and the Delaware and Hudson and the New York Central and Pringsheim's on Vaucheria the merit of establishing the Hudson River. It was built for manufacturing purposes at existence of a sexual process in Algæ. Among the Fungi the Falls of the Mohawk, which furnish power. In 1890 Cohn contributed important researches on Pilobolus (1851), there was an invested capital of $11,275,137, employing Empusa (1855), Tarichium (1869), as well as valuable 8939 persons, with a product amounting to $10,836,260. work on the nature of parasitism of Algæ and Fungi. Of this amount one-half was represented by hosiery and

It is as the founder of bacteriology that Cohn's most knit goods, for which the place is famous. Population striking claims to recognition will be established. He (1880), 19,416; (1890), 22,509; (1900), 23,910. seems to have been always attracted particularly by curious problems of fermentation and coloration due to the most Coimbatore, a town and district of British India, minute forms of life, as evinced by his papers on Nsonas in the Madras Presidency. The town is situated on the prodigiosa (1850) and “Ueber blutähnliche Färbungen left bank of the Noyil river, 304 miles by rail from (1850), on infusoria (1851 and 1852), on organisms in Madras. In 1881 it had a population of 38,967, in 1891 drinking-water (1853), “Die Wunder des Blutes ” (1854), of 46,383, and in 1901 of 52,931, showing an increase of and had already published several works on insect epi 14 per cent. The municipal income in 1896–97 was demics (1869–70) and on plant diseases, when his first Rs.55,730. The town stands 1437 feet above sea-level, specially bacteriological memoir (Crenothrix) appeared in and is well laid out and healthy. It has a station on the the journal (Beiträge zur Biologie) which he then started Nilgiri branch of the Madras Railway. It has two aided (1870–71), and which has since become so renowned. colleges, three high schools with 1185 pupils, several Investigations on other branches of bacteriology soon followed, among which “Organismen der Pockenlymphe” 1 In August 1872 Cohn wrote: “So hat sich bei den Bakterien (1872), “ Untersuchungen über Bacterien,” I. (1872), II.

überhaupt keine eigentliche Fortpflanzung (Ei- oder Sporen- bildung)

bis jetzt nachweisen lassen " (Beitr. B. i. H. 2, p. 179). In 1876 (Beitr. (1875), IV. (1876), are most important, and laid the

B. ii. H. 2, p. 263) he described the spores and their formation in foundations of the new department of science which has B. subtilis,

missionary bodies and literary institutions, and four AUTHORITIES.-A. EICHHORN. Episcopatus Curiensis. St printing-presses. There is one cotton mill, with 20,384 Blasien, 1797.-W. V. JUVALT. Forschungen über die Feudalzeit

im Curischen Raetien. Zürich, 2 parts, 1871.-C. KIND. Die spindles, employing 1000 hands.

Reformation in den Bisthümern Chur und Como. Coire, 1858.The DISTRICT OF COIMBATORE has an area of 7860

CONRADIN VON MOOR. Geschichte von Curraetien, 2 vols. Coire, square miles.

The population in 1891 was 2,004,839, 1870-74.-P. C. von PLANTA. Das alte Raetien. Berlin, 1872. being 255 persons per square mile. In 1901 the Ibid. Die Curraetischen Herrschaften in der Feudalzeit. Bern, population was 2,202,312, showing an increase of 10

1881.-Ibid. Verfassungsgeschichte der Stadt Cur im Mittelalter.

Coire, 1879.Ibid. Geschichte von Graubünden. Bern, 1892. per cent. The land revenue and rates were Rs.33,82,127, the incident of assessment being R. 1–2–5 per acre ; Colchester, a municipal and parliamentary the number of police was 906. In 1897–98, out of borough (coextensive; since 1885 returning only one a total cultivated area of 2,266,851 acres, 390,262 member) and seaport of Essex, England, on the Colne and were irrigated, including 74,973 from Government the Great Eastern Railway. The ancient church of the Holy canals. The principal crops are millet, rice, other food Trinity has been restored, and St Runwald's removed. grain, pulse, oilseeds, cotton, and tobacco, with a little Recent erections are a new bridge over the Colne, assembly coffee. Forests cover nearly 11 million acres, yielding rooms, a corn exchange, a town-hall, a technical and valuable timber (teak, sandal-wood, &c.), and affording university extension college, a drill-hall

, a reading-room, grazing ground for cattle. There are eight factories for a library, a dozen almshouses, and a new cattle market. pressing cotton, and two for cleaning coffee, two oilcake The Essex and Colchester general hospital has been presses, three tanneries with an outturn valued at enlarged. Castle Park, of 9 acres, containing Colchester Rs.50,00,000, a sugar refinery, and 822 saltpetre refin- Castle, was opened in 1892. The harbour was taken eries. The south-west line of the Madras Railway runs over by the corporation in 1898. The oyster fisheries through the district. In 1896–97 the number of schools belonging to the corporation are held on a ninety-nine was 1242, attended by 35,477 pupils, being one pupil to years' lease by the Colne Fishery Company, incorporated every 57 of the total population. The registered death-rate under an Act of 1870. The registered shipping at the in 1897 was 20·1 per thousand.

end of 1900 consisted of 157 vessels of 4717 tons. In

1900, 537 vessels of 38,731 tons entered, and 505 of Coimbra, a city and episcopal see of Portugal, 34,338 tons cleared. These entrances and clearances do capital of district Coimbra, on the right bank of the not include those of vessels trading between Colchester Mondego, about 24 miles above its mouth. It has a and London or other ports on the estuary of the scientific and literary institute. The average attendance Thames. Area, 11,331 acres. Population (1881), 28,374; at the university is 1350 students annually. There are (1891), 34,559; (1901), 38,351. manufactures of earthenware, hats, and leather; and lamprey fishing is important. Population (1900), 18,424.

Colchester, a town of Chittenden county, VerThe district of Coimbra has an area of 1499 square miles, mont, U.S.A., on the Lake Champlain. The principal and a population of 333,505, giving a density of 211 village of the town is Winooski, on Onion river, a few inhabitants to the square mile. It has a fertile soil, and

miles above its mouth, and on the Central Vermont Railproduces millet and wine, and possesses large herds of

way, at an altitude of 326 feet. Population (1880), 4421; cattle. At Cape Mondego coal is mined.

(1890), 5143; (1900), 5352. Coinage. See NUMISMATICS.

Cold Harbor, a village of Hanover county, Virginia, U.S.A., 10 miles north-east of Richmond. It was

the scene of a succession of battles, June 1, 2, and 3, 1864, Coire, or CHUR (often now spelt “Cur”), the capital

between the Union army under Grant and the Confederate of the Swiss canton of the Grisons or Graubünden.

forces under Lee. The Union troops, who took the It is 1952 feet above the level of the sea.

The new

offensive in most of the fighting, lost heavily, the total Raetian Museum has many antiquities, books, &c., relat

number being reported at 12,738. ing to ancient Raetia, and includes also the geological collection of the monk Placidus à Spescha, who about 100 Cold Storage. See REFRIGERATING MACHINERY. years ago thoroughly explored his native country. Father

Cold water, capital of Branch county, Michigan, Theodosius, the founder of the hospital, died in 1865, and has a monument in front of the cathedral. Population,

U.S.A., situated in the south of the lower peninsula,

on the east branch of Coldwater river, and on the Lake 9259 in 1888, and 11,513 in 1900. In 1888 Coire contained 6518 Romanists and 2729 Protestants, while

Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad, at an altitude 7799 spoke German and 1158 Romonsch. The see of

of 982 feet. Population (1880), 4681; (1900), 6216. Coire dates probably from the second half of the 4th Cole, Sir Henry (1808–1882), the English century, and the first known bishop, Asimo, is mentioned public servant whose name will always be associated with in 455. In the troubled times of the 8th century the the early organization of “South Kensington," was born bishops were also great temporal lords, while in 831 Louis at Bath on 15th July 1808, and was the son of an officer the Pious granted the bishop "immunity” for his territories, in the army. At the age of fifteen he became clerk to so that henceforth he was dependent simply on the empire. Sir Francis Palgrave, then a subordinate officer in the In 1170 he became a prince of the holy Roman Empire, Record Office, and, helped by Charles Buller, to whom and later extended his power over many of the neighbour- he had been introduced by Thomas Love Peacock, and ing regions. In 1392 he became the chief of the “League who became chairman of a Royal Commission for inquiry of the House of God,” originally formed in 1367 against into the condition of the public records, worked his way up him by his chapter, the city of Coire, &c. In 1526, by the until he became an assistant keeper. He largely assisted "articles of Ilanz,” the bishop lost all his temporal posses in influencing public opinion in support of Sir Rowland sions and rights, having, so to speak, fulfilled his historical Hill's reforms at the Post Office. A connexion with the rôle of bringing together the elements of one of the three Society of Arts caused him to drift gradually out of the Raetian leagues that in 1803 formed the canton of the Record Office: he was a leading member of the CommisGrisons. The guild constitution of the city of Coire lasted sion that organized the great Exhibition of 1851, and from 1465 to 1839.

upon the conclusion of its labours was made secretary to


the School of Design, which by a series of transformations the Pentateuch, extending from 1862 to 1879. His conbecame in 1853 the Department of Science and Art. clusions were naturally disputed with a fervour of convicUnder its auspices the South Kensington Museum was tion equal to his own. While controversy raged in founded in 1855 upon land purchased out of the surplus of England, the South African bishops, whose suspicions the Exhibition, and Cole practically became its director,

Colenso had already incurred by the liberality of his views retiring in 1873. His proceedings were frequently respecting polygamy among native converts and a comcriticized, but the Museum owes everything to his energy. mentary upon Romans alleged to savour of heresy, met in Indefatigable, genial, and masterful, he drove everything conclave to condemn him, and pronounced his deposition before him, and by all sorts of schemes and devices built (December 1863). Colenso, who had refused to appear up a great institution, whose variety and inequality of before their tribunal otherwise than as sending a protest composition seemed imaged in the anomalous structure in by proxy, appealed to the Privy Council

, which pronounced which it was temporarily housed. He also, though to the that the Cape Town Metropolitan had no coercive jurisdicfinancial disappointment of many, conferred a great benefit tion and no authority to interfere with the Bishop of upon the metropolis by originating the scheme for the Natal. No decision, therefore, was given upon the merits erection of the Royal Albert Hall. He was active in of the case; but it is significant that although many founding the national training schools for cookery and eminent clergymen have since expressed views agreeing in music, the latter the germ of the Royal College of Music. essentials with Bishop Colenso's, no prosecution has been He edited the works of his benefactor Peacock; and was instituted against any of them. His adversaries, though in his younger days largely connected with the press, and unable to obtain his condemnation, succeeded in causing the author of many useful topographical handbooks him to be generally inhibited from preaching in England, published under the pseudonym of "Felix Summerly.” and set up a rival bishop in Natal, who, however, assumed He died on 18th April 1882.

(R. G.) different title. The contributions of the missionary

societies were withdrawn, but an attempt to deprive him Cole, Vicat (1833-1893), English painter, born of his episcopal income was frustrated by a decision of the at Portsmouth on 17th April 1833, was the son of the land Courts. Colenso, encouraged by a handsome testimonial scape painter, George Cole, and in his practice followed raised in England, to which many clergymen subscribed, his father's lead with marked success. He exhibited at returned to his diocese, and devoted the latter years of the British Institution at the age of nineteen, and was first his life to further labours as Biblical commentator and represented at the Royal Academy in 1853. His election

translator, and especially to the defence of the natives as an Associate of this institution took place in 1870, and against what he considered oppression and wrong. By he becaine an Academician ten years later. He died in this course he made more enemies among the colonists London on 6th April 1893. The wide popularity of his than he had ever made among the clergy. He died at work was due partly to the simple directness of his Durban on 20th June 1883. The character of the man technical method, and partly to his habitual choice of and of his works are summed up in ten words of Jowett : attractive material. Most of his subjects were found “He has made an epoch in criticism by his straightforin the counties of Surrey and Sussex, and along the wardness.”

(R. G.) banks of the Thames. One of his largest pictures, “The Pool of London,” was bought by the Chantrey Fund Coleraine, a maritime town and urban sanitary Trustees in 1888, and is now in the National Gallery of district, in the county of Londonderry, Ireland, on the British Art.

river Bann and the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway,

145 miles north of Dublin. It ceased to be a parliaSee ROBERT CHIGNELL. The Life and Paintings of Vicat Cole, R.A. London, 1899.

mentary borough in 1885. The harbour has been much

improved from grants by the Irish Society of London Colenso, John William (1814–1883), Bishop and from a loan under the River Bann Navigation Act, of Natal, was born at St Austell, Cornwall, on 24th 1879. In all 420 vessels of 46,526 tons entered in 1899, January 1814. His family were in embarrassed circum and 256 of 32,631 tons cleared. The number of stances, and he was indebted to relatives for the means of persons employed in the salmon fishery district in 1899 university education. Second Wrangler at Cambridge,

was 731.

Population (1881), 6694 ; (1891), 6815; and Fellow of St John's College, his mathematical dis (1901), 6929. tinction led him to be invited to Harrow in 1837, but the step proved an unfortunate one. The school was just then Coleridge, John Duke Coleridge, ist at the lowest ebb under an unpopular headmaster, and BARON (1820-1894), Lord Chief Justice of England, Colenso not only got few pupils, but lost most of his was the eldest son of Sir John Taylor Coleridge (see Ency. property by a fire which destroyed his house. He went Brit., 9th edition, vol. vi. p. 135). He was born at back to Cambridge, and in a short time paid off heavy Heath's Court, Ottery St Mary, on the 3rd of December debts by diligent tutoring, and the proceeds of his 1820. He was educated at Eton, an institution which, marvellously successful series of manuals of algebra and as managed in the 'thirties, sent most of its pupils arithmetic, which were adopted all over England. In into the world slenderly enough equipped for the battle 1846 he became rector of Forncett St Mary, Norfolk, and of life. It was otherwise in the case of Coleridge, in 1853 was appointed Bishop of Natal. Full of zeal, he the system then prevailing, with its worship of Latin devoted himself on his arrival to acquiring the native verses and the elegancies of classic scholarship in general, language, of which he compiled a grammar and dictionary, being just suited to bring out the rhetorical talents and into which he translated the New Testament and which did so much to make his fame; but he owed even other portions of Scripture. His ardour, however, was more to his innate love of letters than he did to any soon diverted into another channel by the puzzling formal teaching. He gained a scholarship at Balliol, and objections of natives, who convinced him that the verbal

entered that college at a very auspicious moment, for the inspiration and Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch scholars' table there has never been occupied by a more could not be maintained. Colenso brought his arithmetical

brilliant company,

The late Principal Shairp of St attainments to bear upon the question, and published his Andrews published in the year 1873 a poem called “The conclusions, positive and negative, in a series of treatises on Balliol Scholars from 1840–43,” which well described it.

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