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Area in

in 1881.

Mile.

ous change in the popular, and even the professional, way caibo as far as the Rio de Oro, whence it crosses the corof regarding sea-power and its conditions. He did not dillera and follows successively the rivers Oira, Arauca, invent the term “ 'sea-power,”—it is, as is shown elsewhere Meta, Orinoco, and Atabapo. Then it passes to the Piedra (SEA-POWER), of very ancient origin,-nor did he employ del Cocuy and follows the course of the Guainia to the it until Captain Mahan had made it a household word frontier of Brazil. The boundary dispute with Peru and with all. But he thoroughly grasped its conditions, and in Ecuador was, by treaty of 1894, submitted to the arbitrahis great work on Naval Warfare (first published in 1891) tion of Spain. The question of the frontier towards Costa he enunciated its principles with great cogency and with Rica was in 1899 submitted to the president of the keen historic insight. The central idea of his teaching French Republic, who gave his award on 15th September was that naval supremacy is the condition precedent of 1900. The boundary between the two republics is formed all vigorous military offensive across the seas, and, con by the spur of the cordilleras starting from Cape Mona versely, that no vigorous military offensive can be under on the Atlantic and enclosing on the north the valley of taken across the seas until the naval force of the enemy the Rio Tarire, and by the watershed between the Atlantic has been accounted for—either destroyed or defeated and and Pacific up to the parallel of 9° N. lat. It then follows compelled to withdraw to the shelter of its own ports, or at the watershed between the Chiriqui Viejo and the affluents least driven from the seas by the menace of a force it dare of the Dolce Gulf, ending at Burica Point on the Pacific. not encounter in the open. This broad and indefeasible The islands east and south of Cape Mona are Colombian, principle he enunciated and defended in essay after essay, to the west and north-west Costa Rican ; but seven islands in lecture after lecture, until what at first was rejected as at a greater distance, lying between the Mosquito coast and a paradox came in the end to be accepted as a common the isthmus of Panama, are Colombian. On the Pacific place. He worked quite independently of Captain Mahan, coast Colombia possesses Burica and the islands to the and his chief conclusions were published before Captain cast; Costa Rica, those to the west. Mahan's works appeared. In the last edition of Naval

Area and Population.—According to a census taken in 1871 the Warfare he showed how, in the Cuban War, Captain

total population was 2,951,323, consisting of 1,434,129 males and Mahan had been driven by force of circumstances to adopt 1,517,194 females. An official estimate published in 1881, and in practice the sound doctrine of the Command of the Sea, considered to be approximately correct for the present date, gave which in some of his works he had seemed in some

the following details as regards area and population :measure to impugn. There was no jealousy and no rivalry

Population between these two great writers on the philosophy of naval

Population
Departments.
Square Miles.

per Square warfare. They worked on independent lines—Colomb perhasis with deeper and more consistent thought, but Mahan Antioquia (1881)

22,316 470,000 21 assuredly with a broader historical outlook, and with finer Bolivar

21,315 280,000 13

Boyacá powers of lucid and orderly exposition.

33,351 702,000 21 Cauca

257,162

621,000 2:4 Colomb died quite suddenly and in the full swing of his Cundinamarca (1884)

79,810 569,000 7 literary activity on October 13, 1899, at Steeple Court, Magdalena

24,440 90,000 3.7 Botley, Hants. His latest published work was a biography

Panama

31,571 285,000 9

Santander of his friend Sir Astley Cooper Key, and his last article

16,409 555,000 35 Tolima (1884)

18,069 was a critical examination of the tactics adopted at

306,000 17 Trafalgar, which showed his acumen and insight at their

Total .

501,773 3,878,000 77 best. He left much valuable literary material in an unfinished state at his death. He was often thought too This estimate includes some 220,000 uncivilized Indians, and the speculative, and even too visionary, by his contemporaries population of the different territories attached to departments. A of a profession which is eminently practical, and little given

later statement, published in 1893, estimates the total population at

4,060,000, but without precise data showing where the increase to speculation even on the theory of its own occupation. occurred. The principal towns are Bogota (the capital), with He was indeed essentially a pioneer, and his larger range 110,000 inhabitants; Medellin, with 50,000; Panama, 30,000 ; of thought often supplied the Navy with well-considered Cartagena, 20,000; Bucaramanga, 20,000. methods, of which practical men discerned neither the

No statistics of the movement of population are compiled. An

oflicial calculation in 1893 estimatel the death-rate at 21 per 1000, rationale nor the origin. But no naval officer of his time

20

per cent. of the deaths being those of children under one year, left a deeper or more lasting impression on the thought and 30 per cent. of the total deaths those of children under five and action of the great service he adorned.

years of age. Of the total population 68.8 per cent. are engaged (J. R. T.) in agriculturo; 10-6 per cent. are labourers ; 8.6, mechanics; 8-1,

commercial ; 2:0, miners. Colombes, a town in the arrondissement of St Spanish is spoken throughout Colombia, except among some of Denis, department of Seine, France, 7 miles north-north the tribes of Indians in the clistricts adljoining the Meta, Orinoco, west of Paris, near the left bank of the Seine, and on the

and the aflluents of these two rivers. The highlands are generally railway from Paris to Havre. It has a 16th-century church

healthy, the lowlands and plains infected to some extent with

malarial fover. The annual mean temperaturo at Bogota, 8300 feet with 12th-century tower, numerous villa residences and above sea-level, is said to be 6:3° Fahr. boarding schools, and manufactures of gelatine and starch. Constitution and Government. The constitution of 1863 was A castle formerly stood here, in which died Henrietta

superseded in 1886 by that now in force, which adopted a centralized

organization and named the state the Republic of Colonbia. The Maria, queen of Charles I. of England and daughter of

legislative power is entrusted to the Senate and the House of Henry IV. of France. Port traffic (1899), 55,350 tons. Representatives, together constituting the Congress, which meets Population (1901), 23,061. The adjacent town of Bois at the capital every two years, on the 20th of July. The Senate COLOMBES had a population (1896) of 10,404.

consists of twenty-seven members, three from each department,

who are elected for six years by the departmental assemblies (legisColombia, a country of South America extending

latures). The House of Representatives consists of sixty-eight

members—one member for every 50,000 inhabitants; they are from 12° 20' N. lat. to the still undefined boundaries of elected for four years directly by citizens able to read and write, or Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. The boundary towards who have an income of $500 a year, or real estate worth $1500. Venezuela, according to the arbitration of the Spanislı

The executive authority is vested in the President of the Republic, Government in 1891, runs from the Bay of Calaboso west

who is assisted by ministers chosen by him, and a Council of State

consisting of seven members. He is elected by electoral colleges wards to the mountains of Oca, then southwards along the for six years, and when for any reason he ceases to act, the vicewatershed between the Magdalena river and Lake Mara president takes his place.

cocoa and sugar are also grown—the former in sufficient quantities for export. Ivory nuts and dye-woods are collected for shipment abroad, and various medicinal products. Of india-rubber, 404 tons were exported in 1898. The rubber trees are principally found in the low-lying forest regions bordering the Orinoco river, and southwards towards the affluents of the river Amazon.

Pastoral industry extends over the whole country, but is practised on a large scale only on the great plains of the interior adjoining the rivers flowing into the Orinoco, where the number of cattle is estimated to be not far short of 3,500,000. Dried beef, tasajo, is prepared, and animals are driven to populous centres for sale ; but the outlet is much restricted. In 1899 the scarcity of cattle in Cuba caused a demand, and a large number of live animals were exported from the port of Cartagena. Sheep, goats, and swine are raised for the home market.

The mining industry has hitherto been chiefly directed towards the search for gold and emeralds, and, to a lesser extent, silver. The production of gold and silver in three years is given as follows, in troy ounces :

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Local Government. Each of the nine departments is divided into provinces, and these into municipal districts, of which there are 991. The departments are under governors appointed by the President, and each has an elective assembly, meeting every two years. The municipal districts are under alcaldes, and each has an elective municipal council. The governors and alcaldes are agents both of the central and local authorities.

Justice.—Justice is administered by a supreme court composed of seven members, the president of the court being elected by the members for a term of four years. In each of the judicial districts there are superior tribunals, lower courts, and magistrates. The law, both civil and criminal, is written and codified. The foundation of the Colombian legal system is Spanish law, modified in certain directions to suit local conditions. Many complaints are made of the administration of justice throughout the republic, and there can be no question that legal procedure is extremely dilatory.

Religion. —The religion is the Roman Catholic. The ecclesiastical establishment consists of an archbishop, ten bishops, eight vicars-general, and 2170 priests of all classes, besides monks, who do not belong to the regular priesthood. The number of monks in 1894 in thirteen monasteries was 469, and the number of nuns in ten communities was 731. In 1894 the number of churches was 714, and chapels 312, in the whole republic. Education.

Education, especially in the primary branches, has been much neglected, although attention has from time to time been directed to the subject. Primary education is under the control of the municipal authorities, grants in aid of the schools being given by the central Government. It is free, but not compulsory. The number of primary schools in 1898 was stated to be 2036, and the number of pupils on the rolls about 110,320. For secondary education there are thirty-four public colleges ; fifteen normal schools, with 600 pupils ; four technical colleges, with 800 students; two academies of music, with 300 pupils; one school of fine arts, with 160 pupils; a Salesian institute, with 200 pupils; and a national night institute for artizans, with 150 pupils. There is a national university, and four departmental universities. The national Government devotes a sum of nearly 800,000 pesos annually to educational purposes. There is a national library containing 40,000 volumes, and a museum of antiquities and natural curiosities, both situated in the capital of the republic. Seminaries for priests are maintained by their own revenues and are free from civil control.

Defence.—The peace footing of the army was fixed at 2158 men in the budget for the biennial period 1899–1900. The military strength, however, consists principally of a national militia comprising about 130,000 men, with 3203 officers, who can be called to serve if required. The small arm in use is the Männlicher rifle. The police force consists of 1000 men.

Finance. The actual revenue recorded in 1895 was 16,273,259 pesos; in 1896, 20,444,489 pesos; in 1897, 19,519,431 pesos; in 1898, 17,941,569 pesos. For the biennium 1897–98 the revenue was 57,461,000, and the expenditure 41,429,180 pesos, leaving a deficit of 3,968,180 pesos. The principal sources of revenue are the duties on imports and exports, these yielding 10,750,889 pesos in 1895, 13,697,823 pesos in 1896, and 13,256,353 pesos in 1897. The failing off in 1897 was stated to be in consequence of the reduction of the duties on salt, and the suppression of the export duty on coffee. Other sources of income in 1897 were—the saladero tax, 1,767,607 pesos; the sale of stamped paper, 733,762 pesos; and the post office and telegraphs. The war department absorbs more than one-half of the annual expenditure ; but details of actual expenditure are not accessible. The budgets of revenue and expenditure are voted for periods of two years. For 1899-1900 the revenue was estimated at 34,305,000 pesos, and the expenditure at 34,000,000 pesos.

The service of the foreign debt was suspended in 1880. The amount of this obligation was then £1,913, 500, bearing interest at the rate of 45 per cent. per annum. In 1896, when the debt and arrears amounted to £3,514,442, an agreement was made to issue bonds for £2,700,000 in exchange for old bonds, arrangements being made for a reduction in the rates of interest and amortization. Of the authorized issue the sum of £2,500,000 had been emitted in 1899, but the payment of interest by Colombia ceased in 1899. The internal indebtedness consists of a consolidated debt of 6,000,000 pesos; a floating debt of 5,000,000 pesos ; and the paper money in circulation, increased by recent issues to 40,000,000 pesos. The total internal obligations are, therefore, 51,000,000 pesos in round numbers.

Production.—Economic development has been retarded by the difficulties of transport, and by the frequent recurrence of revolutionary. disturbances. The production of wheat and other bread stuffs is insufficient for local demand. The principal industry is coffee planting. The export of coffee in 1895 amounted to 21,504 tons ; 1896, 28,521 tons ; in 1897, 17,564 tons ; in 1898, 38,480 tons. Colombian coffee shipped at the Venezuelan port of Maracaibo does not figure in the return of Colombian exports. Tobacco is exported in large quantities, amounting for 1898 to 6120 tons ;

In July 1899 a sudden fever for speculation in emeralds set in and lasted for some weeks. During this period stones to the value of 4,000,000 pesos were stated to have changed hands, often at prices above the values in Europe. Iron ore of good quality is abundant. The salt mines are worked as a Government monopoly, and the supply is large.

Manufacturing industry is only in its infancy. The Pradera ironworks to the north-east of Bogota have a capacity for a daily output of 30 tons of pig-iron, and this establishment also produces wrought iron, rails, sugar-mills, and castings. Manganese is found in the vicinity of these works. Breweries and distilleries have been established in the principal cities. Soap) and candle factories, boot- and shoe-making, tanneries, and other small local industries are found scattered over the republic to supply the local needs of the population.

Commerce. — The imports consist mainly of tissues, groceries, wines and spirits, hardware, and other articles of common or consumption, while the principal exports are coffee, gold and silver, tobacco, live-stock, hides and skins, bananas, and some medicinal products. The values of the imports and exports, expressed in sterling (gold peso=4 sh.), for six years were as follow:

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In 1898 the imports at Panama and Colon amounted to the value of £722,468; and the exports to £212, 220. The exports in 1898 from. the ports of Panama, Colon, Barranquilla, Cartagena, and Santa Marta comprised coffee to the value of £1,384,184 ; gold dust, £595,343 ; silver and silver ore, £182,018; tobacco, £309,609; hides and skins, £175,684 ; live-stock, £192,507 ; bananas, £116,720 ; rubber, £84,822. Of the exports in 1898, the value of £1,061,175 went to the United States, 2963,270 to Great Britain, £674,350 to France, £613,980 to Germany, and £200,130 to Venezuela. According to British statistics, the imports into the United Kingdom from Colombia in 1899 amounted to £574,021 ; and the exports of home produce from the United Kingdom to Colombia, to £668,986 of which £356,693 was for cottons. According to American statistics, the imports into the United States from Colombia in 1899 amounted to £1,067,900, of which £506,320 was for coffee ; and the exports of home produce from the United States to Colombia, to £622,830.

The principal commercial centre for the direct trade of Colombia is Barranquilla, slightly more than one-half of the total passing by way of that place through the port of Sabanilla ; about one-quarter of the balance goes to Cartagena, and the remainder is chiefly divided between Buenaventura, Riohacha, and Santa Marta. The transit trade by way of Panama to and from Europe and the east and west coasts of North America averages annually about 130,000 tons for the outward freights, and about 120,000 tons for those to Europe and the Atlantic ports. The import and export trade is largely in the hands of British, German, Spanish, Italian, and French merchants.

Shipping and Communications.—Thirty-three regular steamers visit Colombian ports monthly; of these, 15 are British, 9 American, 4 Gern 3 French, 1 Spanish, and i Italian. The number of ships entering Colombian ports in 1897 was 1897, with a total

tonnage of 858,457 tons; the number cleared in the same year was nominated to exercise the executive power for the 1850, with a tonnage of 800,710 tons. In 1898, 266 vessels of,

unexpired portion of the term. In 1883 the dispute altogether, 441,673 tons entered, and 263 of 442,777 tons cleared

in connexion with the boundary between Colombia at Barranquilla and Sabanilla—more than half the tonnage being British. The shipping belonging to Colombian ports had, in 1898,

and Venezuela was submitted by the two Governments a total tonnage of 2227 tons.

to the arbitration of Alphonso XII., king of Spain, and Means of transport for both passengers and freight are confined a commission of five members was appointed to into a large extent to conveyance by mule or donkey. The so-called roads are little more than bridle tracks. The total length of the

vestigate the merits of the respective claims. The decision railways open to public service in 1899 was only 419 miles; but

in this dispute was finally given by the Queen Regent of about 80 additional miles are in course of construction. These Spain on 16th March 1891. In April 1884 Señor Rafael railways are in isolated sections, running as a rule from the sea Nuñez was again proclaimed President of the republic in board to inland towns at different points of the coast. The Panama-Colon line has a length of 48 miles; the Cartagena

his absence abroad. Pending his return the administration Calamar line, 65 miles. The Magdalena river forms an important

was left in the hands of General Campo Serrano and artery of trade. It is navigable for 780 miles ; steamers ascend to General Eliseo Payan. The Liberal party had been La Dorada, 590 miles from Barranquilla ; tributaries supply 215 instrumental in the re-election of Nuñez, and looked miles more of navigable river, and on these waters 42 steamers,

for a policy in conformity with their views and political with a total tonnage of 7330 tons, ply regularly. At present the journey from the coast to Bogota requires at least twelve days of

convictions. President Nuñez had no sooner returned to continuous travel by rail, steamer, and mule. There are some

Colombia than the Liberals discovered that his political 8600 miles of telegraph lines, with 448 stations open to the public ; opinions had changed and had become strongly and a telephone system has been established in the principal towns.

Conservative. Discontent at this condition of affairs The republic is connected with the outside world by the cable of the Central and South American Cable Company.

soon spread. Nuñez from motives of ill-health did not The postal service is well organized ; in the two years 1896–97 openly assume the Presidential office, but from his house the letters and post-cards conveyed numbered 2,794,069 ; printed near Cartagena he practically directed the government papers, 1,233,313; other packets, 161,217,-total pieces, 4,188,599. Panama Canal.—The construction of a ship canal, 46 miles in

of the republic. The Liberals now began to foment a length, across the Isthmus of Panama was in 1881 undertaken by

series of revolutionary movements, and these led in 1885 a company which went into liquidation in 1889.

A new company,

to a civil war extending over the departments of Boyaca, formed in 1894, carried on the work, and their concession was ex Cundinamarca, Magdalena, and Panama. General Reyes tended to the year 1910, by which time it was estimated the canal

and General Velez were the two principal leaders of the and locks might be completed, at a cost of £20,480,000. The total sum raised for the purpose of constructing the canal was 772,545,412

revolt. In order to protect the passage

the traffic across francs by the old company, and 65,000,000 francs by the new com the Isthmus of Panama during these disturbed times depany.

But when the American Government took up the question tachments of United States marines were landed at Panama of constructing an Isthmian Canal, the position of the Panama

and Colon, in accordance with the terms of the concession Company was necessarily involved. See the articles Canals and LESSEPS.

under which the railway had been constructed. After a Credit and Currency.The law, passed in 1894, for the redemp

number of defeats the leaders of the revolt surrendered in tion of the inconvertible paper currency has not been carried into August 1885, and on 5th September following peace effect. The amount in circulation is stated to be 51,000,000 pesos,

was officially proclaimed. Nuñez, who had meanwhile the value constantly fluctuating, to the injury of trade. In Panama

assumed the Presidential duties, now brought about the silver dollar of 25 grammes, 835 fine, is the coinage in common use, but Peruvian silver is also current. The principal banking

a movement in favour of a fresh Act of Constitution for institutions are the Banco Nacional, the Banco de Colombia, and Colombia, and a new law to that effect was finally approved the Banco de Bogota, besides a number of private banks. The

and promulgated on 4th Aụgust 1886. Under the terms Banco Nacional is exclusively a State bank, and through it the paper

of this act the federal system of government for Colombia money is put in circulation. The metric system of weights and measures is the legal system, but is not customarily in use, except

was abolished, the states becoming departments, the at the Custom House and other Government offices. For ordinary governors of these political divisions being appointed by purposes the Spanish pound, of 1.102 lb avoirdupois ; the arroba, of

the President of the republic. Each department has a local 25 fb ; and the carga, of 250 lb, are invariably employed. Corn

legislative assembly elected by the people. The National is measured by the fanega. In lineal measurement the vara (80 centimetres) is used. The litre is the standard for liquid measure.

Congress is constituted of the Senate and the House of

Representatives. The Senate is composed of twenty-seven Recent IIistory.The term of office for which President members elected for six years, one-third retiring every two Aquiles Parra had been elected in 1876 came to a con years, three of whom are nominated by each of the nine clusion in 1878, and in April of that year General Trujillo departments. The House of Representatives comprises was inaugurated as President of the republic for the two members elected for four years by universal suffrage, each succeeding years. His administration was marked by a department forming a constituency and returning one strong effort to place the financial position of the Govern member for every 50,000 inhabitants. The Congress conment on a more satisfactory footing, and the internal in venes every two years. The Presidential term of office debtedness was substantially reduced during his rule. In under the new Act was fixed at six years in place of the two April 1880 Señor Rafael Nuñez acceded to the Presidency. years formerly prevailing.

years formerly prevailing. The judiciary was irremovable, During his term of office revolutionary disturbances and trial by jury was allowed for criminal offences. Capital occurred in the provinces of Cauca and Antioquia, but punishment was re-established, and the press was made rewere suppressed with no great difficulty. Provision was sponsible for matter published. The unlicensed trade in made in 1880 for a settlement of the boundary dispute arms and ammunition thitherto existing was prohibited. with Costa Rica, and in July of that year the federal Previous to 1886 the crime of murder was only punishable Congress authorized the formation of a naval squadron. by 10 years' imprisonment, a sentence which in practice was A movement was now set afoot in favour of a confederation reduced to two-thirds of that term ; slander and libel were of the three republics of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela formerly offences which the law had no power to restrain, on the basis of the original conditions existing after the and no responsibility attached to seditious publications. expulsion of Spanish authority, and a resolution was passed After the promulgation of this new Act of Constitution by the Chamber of Deputies to that effect. The opposi- President Nuñez was proclaimed as President of the republic tion shown by Venezuela and Ecuador to this project for the term ending in 1892. He was unable, however, in prevented any definite result from being achieved. In consequence of ill-health, to reside at Bogota and discharge April 1882 Señor Laldua became President, but, his the presidential duties, and, consequently, in August 1888 death occurring a year later, General Otalora was Señor Carlos Holguin was designated to act for him.

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In 1892 President Nuñez was again elected to the Presi tion treaty with Peru, signed 6th August 1898 ; (16) a treaty of dency for a term of six years, his continued ill-health, how peace, friendship, and defensive alliance with Venezuela, signed

21st November 1896, and on the same date a treaty regulating ever, forcing him to place the active performance of his

the frontier commerce. duties in the hands of the Vice-President, Señor Miguel AUTHORITIES.—BORDA, J.J. Compendio de Historia de Colombia. Caro. In 1895 the Liberals made another attempt to seize Bogota, 1890.–CAMACHO ROLDAN, SALVADOR. Escritos Varios. the Government of the country, but the movement was Bogota, 1892. Notas de Viaje. Bogota, 1890.-ETIENNE, C. P.

Nouvelle-Grenade : aperçu général sur la Colombie. Genève, suppressed without any very great difficulty. In this same

1887.—LEMOS, ANGEL. Compendio de geografia de la Republica de year Nuñez died, and Vice-President Caro became the

Colombia. Medellin, 1894. —NUÑEZ, RICARDO, and JALHAY, actual President, an office he had practically filled during HENRY. La République de Colombie. Bruxelles, 1898.–Paz, M., the three previous years. In 1898 Señor M. A. Sancle and PEREZ, F. Atlas geografico é historico de la Republica de

Colombia. Paris, 1889.-PALAU, LISIMACO. La Republica de mente, a strong Conservative, and supported by the

Colombia. 1893.–PERIERA, R. S. Les Etats Unis de Colombie. Church party, was elected to the Presidency for the period Paris, 1883.–PEREZ, FELIPE. Geografia general fisica y politica de ending in 1904. In October 1899 the Liberals organized los Estados Unidos de Colombia. Bogota, 1883.-RÉCLUS, ARMAND, another revolutionary outbreak for the purpose of trying Panama et Darien. Paris, 1881.–RÉCLUS, ELISEO. Geografia

de Colombia. Bogota, 1893. RESTREPO, ERNESTO.

Ensayo to wrest the power from Conservatives, but this attempt

etnografico y arqueologico de la Provincia de los Quimbayas. had no better success than the movements of 1885 and

Bogota, 1892.—RESTREPO, ERNESTO. Estudios sobre los Aborigenes 1895. In January 1900, however, Vice-President Marro de Colombia. Bogota, 1892.-RESTEPO, VICENTE. Estudio sobre quin seized upon the Government, imprisoned President las Msinas de Oro Plata de Colombia. Bogota, 1888.-Scruggs,

W. L. The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics. London, Sanclemente (who died in prison in March 1902), and an

1899.-

VERGARA VELASCO, F. J. Nueva Geografia de Colombia. other period of disturbance began. The rebels were defeated

Bogota, 1892.Handbook of Colombia; Bureau of the American in May in a desperate battle at Cartagena ; and continuous

Republics. Washington, 1892. British Foreign Office Diplofighting went on about Panama, where British marines matic and Consular Reports. London.United States Consular had to be landed to protect foreign interests. As the

Reports. Washington.-Constitution of the Republic of Colombia.

Translated by Bernard Moses. Philadelphia, 1893. Report year 1900 advanced, the conflict went on with varying

of Council of Corporation of Foreign Bondholders for 1898–99. success, but the Government troops were generally London, 1899.

(w. W. R.; C. E. A.) victorious, and in August Vice-President Marroquin was

Colombo, the capital and principal seaport of Ceylon, recognized as the acting head of the executive, with a

in the west coast. It has greatly changed since 1875. Cabinet under General Calderon. In 1901 the rebellion

The formation of a commodious harbour (though the continued, and severe fighting took place about Colon.

works are still in progress), and of 300 miles of railway, Further complications arose in August, when trouble

has made the port a very important one, mail steamers occurred between Colombia and Venezuela. On the one hand, there were grounds for believing that the Clericals

calling regularly, as well as men-of-war and mercantile and Conservatives in both countries were acting together;

marine of all nations, while the island's export traffic is

concentrated in it. The demolition of the landward side and, on the other, it was expected that President Castro

of the old Dutch fort enabled new roads and buildings of Venezuela would not be sorry to unite his own country

to be constructed; much land was reclaimed; and the men, and to divert their attention from internal affairs,

banks, many commercial and steamer offices now occupy by a war against Colombia. The Colombian revolutionary

fine buildings. A new suburb has been built over with leaders had made use of the Venezuelan frontier as a base

handsome bungalows beyond the Public Museum (a very of operations, and the result was an invasion of Venezuelan

fine structure) and Victoria Park. The water supply is territory by Colombian Government troops, an incident

drawn from a hill region 30 miles off. A scientific scheme which at once caused a diplomatic quarrel. The United States Government in September offered its good offices, but

of drainage is contemplated. Most of the town is lighted President Castro refused them, and the state of affairs be

by gas, and certain quarters with electric light, and electric

tramways have been laid over 7 miles of city roads. The came gradually more menacing. Meanwhile both Panama and Colon were seriously threatened by the rebel forces, who packing, blending, and shipping of tea (rather than of in November succeeded in capturing Colon by surprise. coffee) is now the great industry, along with the prepara

tion and packing of cocoanut oil, cocoa (chocolate) plumbago, The situation was complicated by the fact that the railway traffic on the Isthmus was in danger of interruption, and on

spices, &c.

607 steamers called to coal in 1900. Populathe capture of Colon it became necessary for the American, 1 population in the harbour of from 5000 to 15,000.

tion (1891), 128,870; (1901), 154,279. There is a floating British, and French naval authorities to land men for the protection of the railway and of foreign interests.

Colon, formerly known as Aspinwall, a city and The chief foreign treaties entered into by Colombia in the last

port on the northern coast of Panama, in the republic of quarter of the 19th century were :-(1) A treaty with Great Britain,

Colombia, South America, on the north-east side of the Bay signed on 27th October 1888, for the extradition of criminals; (2) of Limon, 41 miles north-west of Panama by rail. Having a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation with Italy, been burned down during the revolution of 1885, it was signed 27th October 1892; (3) two protocols with Italy, signed respectively 24th May and 25th August 1886, in connexion with

rebuilt on improved plans, but owing mainly to carelessthe affair of the Italian subject Cerruti ; (4) a consular convention

ness in the administration and the untidy habits of the with Holland, signed 20th July 1881 ; (5) a treaty of peace and inhabitants, chiefly West Indians from Jamaica, it is still friendship with Spain, signed 30th January 1881 ; (6) a con rather unhealthy. The streets, though wide and originally vention with Spain for the reciprocal protection of intellectual property ; (7) a concordat with the Vatican, signed 31st December

well paved, are badly kept, but are lighted by electricity. 1887; (8) an agreement with the Vatican, signed 20th August

The harbour is only an open bay, and therefore dangerous 1892, in connexion with ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; (9) an agree

at certain seasons. There are four piers, affording accomment with the republic of San Salvador, signed 24th December modation for eight ocean steamers at one time, in addition 1880, in regard to the despatch of a delegate to an international congress ; (10) a treaty of peace, friendship, and commerce with

to a number of sailing craft. The northern portion of the Germany, signed 23rd July 1892 ; (11) a treaty with the republic of

city, owned by the Panama Railway Company, is supplied Costa Rica, signed in 1880, for the delimitation of the boundary ; with water from the Chagres river, but the remainder (12) the postal convention, signed at Washington, 4th July 1891 ; depends mainly on rain water. There are a number of (13) a convention with Great Britain, signed 31st July 1896, in connexion with the claim of Messrs Punchard, Ñ‘Taggart,

important commercial houses, an aërated water factory, and Lowther, & Co. ; (14) a treaty of friendship, commerce, and

a distillery. The average tonnage of vessels entering is navigation with Peru, signed 6th August 1898; (15) an extradi over 500,000 annually. Colon possesses a bronze statue

of Columbus, presented by the Empress Eugénie in 1870. persons to the square mile was 5•2 in 1900, as compared with 3.9 The population is about 10,000.

in 1890. The population in 1900 was made up as follows :-

295,332 (547 per cent.) males and 244,368 (45.3 per cent.) females, Colon, an important railway town of Matanzas

448,545 native-born and 91,155 foreign-born, 529,046 white and province, Cuba, and the centre of a rich sugar-planting 10,654 coloured (including 8570 negroes, 599 Chinese, 48 Japanese,

and 1437 Indians). Out of 185,708 males 21 years of age and over, country. Population (1899), 7175.

7689 were illiterate (unable to write), including 3804 foreign-born, Colonne, Édouard (properly Judas) (1838– 448 negroes, 138 Chinese, 10 Japanese, and 246 Indians. The

death-rate of the entire state in 1900, on the basis of the deaths -), French conductor, was born at Bordeaux on 23rd

reported to the U.S. census enumerators, was about 137. In July 1838. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1856, 1900 there were 165 incorporated cities, towns, and villages in and obtained there the first prizes in harmony and violin Colorado, of which 27 had a population of more than 2000, and of playing in 1858 and 1863. He became a member of the these 7 had a population of over 5000, namely, Denver, with orchestra at the Grand Opera in 1858, and at the founda

133,859 ; Pueblo, with 28,157 ; Colorado Springs, with 21,085 ;

Leadville, with 12,455 ; Cripple Creek, with 10, 147; Boulder, with tion of Pasdeloup's Concerts Populaires was one of the 6150 ; and Trinidad, with 5345 inhabitants. The growth of first violins. The success of these concerts induced Colonne Denver has been as follows: (1870), 4759 ; (1880), 35,629; (1890), to start some on his own account. With the aid of Messrs 106,713; (1900), 133,859. Duquesnel and Hartmann, he founded Le Concert National.

Mineral Resources. — The pioneers in the settlement of the State

were attracted by its mineral resources. Gold and silver are The first concert took place at the Odéon Theatre on 2nd found in 57 counties ; iron, copper, lead, and zinc in 37; and March 1873. The following year the Concert National aluminium in 5. The first discovery of gold was made on January changed its title to that of Association Artistique, and 7, 1859 ; since then the coin value of the gold and silver produced, migrated to the Théâtre du Châtelet. M. Colonne has

including the output of 1899, has been $665,039,636. The coin done a great deal to popularize the works of Hector Berlioz,

value of the gold product for 1899 was $26,265,487, and that of

silver $29,679,706, making a total of $55,945,193. The total probesides bringing forward compositions of the younger duct for 1898

was $53,484,649. The chief gold-producing counties French school of music. He was “ chef d'orchestre” at are Gilpin, Boulder, San Miguel, El Paso, Teller, Clear Creek,

and Lake. the Paris Grand Opera from 1891 to 1893, and conducted

The Cripple Creek district produced in 1900 about the first performance there of Wagner's Die Walküre.

$1,250,000 of gold per month, and since 1891 had yielded $13,450,000.

The largest silver production was in 1892, when the coin value of M. Colonne has travelled with his orchestra, and he visited the product was $31,478,972. Iron ores are found in great abundLondon in the autumn of 1896, when he gave four concerts ance, and all materials necessary for making steel of excellent at the Queen's Hall.

quality. The total value of the steel and iron products for 1899

was $7,681,719, in which year 134,936,223 pounds of steel rails Colorado, a western State of the American Union, and 215,610,332 pounds of pig iron were manufactured. Colorado situated between 41° and 37° N. lat. and 102° and 109°

stood ninth in 1898 in the list of coal-producing States. The W. long., bounded on the N. by Wyoming and Nebraska,

aggregate area of coal beds is estimated at 18,100 square miles, and

the accessible coal at 33,897,800,000 tons. In 1899 the total on the E. by Nebraska and Kansas, on the S. by Okla

tonnage mined was 4,806,879, and 455,783 tons of coke were prohoma and New Mexico, and on the W. by Utah. Its duced, the number of men employed being 7321. There are 35 largest and most important development has occurred since oil wells in Fremont county, which are sunk to a depth of about 1875. During this period the growth of its mining, railway,

1500 feet. The oil ordinarily rises to within 400 feet of the surface,

although there have been a number of flowing wells. The product manufacturing, and agricultural interests has been much

increased from 76,295 barrels in 1887 to 842,000 in 1892 ; in 1900 greater than during all its previous history, while its it was about 500,000. It is refined, for the most part, at Florence, educational institutions have nearly all of them been estab where there are two modern refineries. The value of lead produced lished since it was admitted to the Union, and its popu

in 1898 was $4,394,917 ; of copper, $1,831,500. The number of

men employed in mining of all kinds was 30,231. Building stone lation has increased several-fold. Many of its towns have

of many varieties and of excellent quality is produced, valued at sprung into existence during this time, and its larger towns $2,000,000 annually. Mineral springs are found in all parts of have changed from straggling and poorly constructed villages the State. They vary in temperature from 10° to 150° F., and many into important residential and manufacturing cities. Its

possess medicinal value. The chief springs are at Manitou, Glen

wood, Idaho Springs, Poncho Springs, Buena Vista, and Cañon area is 103,925 square miles, or over 66,000,000 acres.

City. The western half of the State was part of the Mexican Agriculture and Stock-Raising.-Early experiments in farming Cession of 1848. The south-east corner was part of the indicated that regular crops could be secured only by means of Texas Cession of 1850, and the north-western part of the

irrigation, and in 1872 irrigation ditches were exempted from Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

taxation. Extensive systems of canals were developed. In 1877. It was organized as a Terri

English capitalists constructed a canal over 150 miles in length. tory in 1861, and admitted as a State on 1st August 1876. This was followed by a canal that cost $2,500,000. Since then At the first State election 30,000 votes were polled, the extensive canals have been built in the Arkansas and Grand entire Republican ticket being elected, with John L. Valleys, the San Luis Park, and other parts of the State. In Routt (Republican) as Governor. The second Governor

1889 there were over 6000 miles of main irrigating ditches. In

1900 the mileage had increased to more than 15,000, and the was F. W. Pitkin, who held office for four years, and was valuation of all irrigation enterprises was $6,000,000. The amount elected on the Republican ticket. He was followed by of land under irrigation in 1883 was 416,591 acres, and in 1899, James B. Grant, a Democrat, who was succeeded by B. H.

1,975,400 acres. The average annual cost of water per acre is 79

cents. The soil is fertile in the north central section and in the Eaton, a Republican. Alva Adams, a Democrat, was elected

river bottoms and large valleys, producing cereals, fruits, and in 1887, and J. R. Cooper, a Republican, in 1890,

vegetables of a superior quality. As early as 1866 the Surveyorbeing followed by John L. Routt. David H. Waite, a General estimated that of the population of 35,000 one-half were Populist, was chosen in 1893, Albert W. M'Intire, a engaged in agriculture. In 1870 the agricultural production was

estimated at $3,500,000, or within half a million of the bullion Republican, in 1895; Alva Adams was again chosen in

product. The total value of all farm, range, ranch, and orchard 1897, on a fusion ticket of Democrats and Populists, and

products in 1882 was $8,947,500, and in 1899, $45,774,251. The on the same ticket Chas. S. Thomas was elected in 1899, assessed valuation of all agricultural lands in 1900 was $19,566,124, and James B. Orman in 1901. The question of the free and of grazing lands $9,901,701. The natural fruits are rare and

almost worthless. coinage of silver played an important part in the last

In 1873 fruit trees began to be planted in

various parts, and in 1882 the amount of land in orchards was 2500 three clections. Woman's suffrage prevails, having been

acres, and the estimated value of the fruit crop $250,000 ; in 1898 adopted in the election of 1893 by a majority of about the number of acres of fruit land was 118,752, and the value of the 5000 votes.

fruit crop $5,225,000 ; and there was still much open for settlement

and improvement. Apples, peaches, plums, apricots, pears, cherries, Population. In 1876 the population was estimated at 135,000 ; and melons of exceptionally fine flavour are raised in increasingly the census of 1880 showed an increase to 194,327, that of 1890 to large quantities. The most productive sections are along the 412,198, and that of 1900 to 539,700. The average number of Arkansas Valley, and in the western and south-western portions of

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