« EelmineJätka »
coverer is often added as 1895 C (Perrino).
In the following table the first column contains a current number definitely designated as 1899 I., 1899 II., 1899 III., &c., Paris mean time, and the number of the comet in its year, as I.
for reference; the second, the date A.D. (new style after 1580), in the numerals I., II., III., &c., indicating the order in which
&c. ; the third, the argument of perihelion or, 1
-2, where a= the various comets of the year pass their perihelion points longitude of perihelion ; the fourth, longitude of the ascending (comet 1895 C=comet 1895 IV.). Periodic comets are node of the comet's orbit, 2; the fifth, the inclination of the orbit; also often called by the name of their discoverers, the sixth, the perihelion distance of the comet in terms of the as Winnecke's comeť (=1892 IV., or 1886 VI.); or, axis ; the eighth, the periodic time in years; the ninth, the
earth's mean distance=1.000 ; the seventh, the comet's semi-major again, the name of the first discoverer is sometimes eccentricity; and the tenth, the name by which the comet is comreplaced by the name of an astronomer who has made monly known. The data in this form record every appearance of extended calculations upon the comet's orbit. Comet known periodic comets, whose periods are less than one hundred 1819 IV. is no longer Pons's comet, but Encke's, for this 'Publ. Ast
. Soc. Pac. vol. viii. p. 141 ; the data for Nos. 112-122 years The data for Nos. 1-111 are from Winlock's Tables in
have been furnished by C. D. Perrine.
whose Periods are less than One Hundred Years,
1378, Nov. 8.8 2 1456, June 8.2
1531, Aug. 25.8
1682, Sept. 148
18-16 II., Feb. 11:0
38 18-16 III., Feb. 25-1
1852 III., Sept. 23•7
48 1852 IV., Oct. 12-8
1858 II., May 2:0
65.6 182:1 161.5 350:1 1828 182:3 218:3 182.8 182.8 221.8 182.8 110.6 182.8 182:8 200.1 2787 1831 223.1 223:1 13:8 12:9 339.6 1293 183.4 200.2 174.5 1835 223:3 223.3
14.0 174.6 206.8 162:1
25.7 2002 18:35 183.5 18:3-5 171.0 2002
48.7 163:3 51.2 86.9 53:8 742 132:0 2573
55.7 331:1 2686 33-1.7 3313 2513 253:0
83.5 3346 113 2
77.2 334:1 331.5 251.5 331.5 331.5 2183 33106
55.2 3316 331.7 209.5
63.8 3313 215.9 2-15.9 102.7
77.6 2604 309.8 3344 209.5 118.4 334.4 245.9 245.9 346.2 334:4 101.8 1485 269:1 113.5 175:1 209.7 334.5 331.5 3345 2314 209.7
162.8 0.588 17.87
2.9 1.115 3.070 162:3 0.583 18:17
1:9 0.862 3:10 162:1 0.585 18:09
8.0 0399 2.931 1:6 0.674 3.163 17.1 0.986 3.58 45:1 1:159 3.260 13.6 0:335 2.208 54:1 1:01 5.78 13:7 0.331 2:213 13:6 0:3-10 2.213 13:6 0.907 3:567 74:0 0.777 17.5 41.5 1.213 17.63 13.6 0.335 2.214 10.7 0.774 3:160
9.0 0.893 2.8.19 133 0316 2.224 13:1
0:315 2.223 13.6 0-903 3.561 13:3
0:316 2-224 13:1 0.313 2.222 13.2 0.879 3.537 13:1 0:314 2.223 1622 0.587 17.99 13:4 0:311 2:222 133 0:315 2.223 11:1 1.693
6.73 0.721 Grisclow.
Biela (B). S
1.771 3.296 5.984 0.463 Tempel (I.).
12.8 1:344 3.004 5.207 0:553 Tempel (II.).
9.8 1.771 3.295 5.982 0.463 Tempel (I.).
71.56 0.955 Pons-Brooks,
5.816 0.726 Winnecke.
0-718 Finlay. 93 1887 V., Oct. 8.5
65.3 84.5 44.6 1.199 17.41 72-65 0.931 Olbers. 91 1888 II., June 28.0 184.0 33406 12.9 0:343 2.220 3.308 0.845 Encke. 95 1888 IV., Aug. 19.9 2012 209:6 11:3 1.738 3.834 7.566 0:549 Faye. 96 1889 V., Sept. 30-3 343.6 18.0
1.950 3.684 7.072 0.471 Brooks.
5.4 1.087 3.129 5.534
1892 III., June 13.2 14.2 3317 20:8 2.139 3.626 6.904 0.410 Holmes. 101
1892 IV., June 30.9 172:1 1041 14:5 0.887 3.235 5.818 0.726 Winnecke. 105 1892 V., Dec. 11.1 1703 206.7
31.2 1.428 3:384 6.226 0:578 Barnard. 106
1893 III., July 12:2 315.5 525 3:0 0.989 3.526 6.622 0.720 Finlay. 107 1894 I., Feb. 9.5
46:3 84.4 5.5 1:148 3.804 7.42 0.698 | Denning. 108
1894 III., April 23.2 185.6 1212 12.7 1:351 3.008 5.218 0:551 Tempel (II.). 109 1894 IV., Oct. 12:2 296.6 48.7 3.0 1:392 3.252 5.863 0.572 De Vico-Swift. 110 1895 I., Feb. 4•7
184.0 334.7 12.9 0341 2.218 3.303 0.846 Encke.
1.482 3.500 6.549 0.585 Giacobini.
173.4 100.9 17.0 0.921 3.210 5.719 0.715 Winnecke.
During the decade 1890-1900 our knowledge of cometic | last return observation agreed with computation exactly orbits was greatly increased by a systematic effort to pro- within the limits of accuracy set by five-place logarithms. vide computers for the orbits of comets whose elements The non-periodic comets appearing since 1700 are nearly require revision. Reports on this matter are printed all in the hands of computers; only nineteen comets by Dr Kreutz, at intervals, in the V. J. s. of the of the 18th and twenty-eight of the 19th century Astronomische Gesellschaft. All the computations relating were unassigned at the date of Dr Kreutz's report in to periodic comets are in thoroughly competent hands. 1898. The orbit of Wolf's comet, for example, is so well The most important periodic comets are given in the foldetermined by its calculator (Pastor Thraen) that at its lowing table :
Period in Name.
unexpected comets were discovered (four on photographic years. Encke,
3:303 Regularly returning since 1786, plates, the others after search with visual telescopes) last observed in 1901. Its
besides a number of expected (periodic) comets. During brightness in 1891 was about the same as in 1858. Sudden the years
1782 to 1841 eighty-seven comets of both changes of brilliancy were observed at some of its returns (1865 classes were observed, or 1.45 per year, while from 1842
and 1898 for example). Computers—Backlund, Ivanow. to 1897 there were 241 comets, or 4.30 per year. The Tempel (II) · 5.218 Last observed 1899. Com
difference in the average numbers probably represents
puter-Schulhoff. Barnard 5.400 Last observed 1884.
nothing more than the increased attention paid to cometary Brorsen
5.456 Last observed 1879. See the discovery in late years. For example, ten comets were
remarks under Denning's discovered during 1898, three of them being known
comet below. Tempel - L. Swift . 5.534 Last observed 1891. Com
periodic comets. In the year 1840 a gold medal was puter-Bossert.
founded by Christian VIII., king of Denmark, to be Winnecke
5.818 Lastobserved 1898. Computers given to discoverers of telescopic comets, but after his
Von Haerdtl and Hillebrand. death the award was discontinued. The comet medal De Vico - E. Swift
Last observed. 1894. It is the (bronze) of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific was
comet 1844 I. (De Vico).
Computer—Chandler. founded by Hon. Joseph A. Donohoe in the year 1890, Brooks. 5:595 Last observed 1886.
and is presented to the discoverer of every unexpected Tempel (I.) :
5.98 Observed in 1867, 1873, and comet on the report of a committee of the society. A
1879; subject to large per- list of the awards constitutes, therefore, a history of turbations by Jupiter 1879–85, and not since seen. Computer -Gautier.
recent cometary discoveries. Barnard
6.226 Last observed 1892. Com-
List of Unexpected Comets discovered since 1st January Spitaler 6:402 Last observed 1890. Com
19, 1890 W. R. Brooks Genera, N.Y.
Jerome Coggia Marseilles, France
W. F. Denning Bristol, England
Palermo, Italy it divided into two parts, which were widely separated at its re
Nov. 16, 1890
Vienna, Austria turn of 1852. It has not since been observed.
E. E. Barnard Lick Observatory, Cal. Finlay. 6.622 Last observed 1893 (second re
October 3, 1891 E. E. Barnard
March 6, 1892 Lewis Swift turn). Computer-Schulhoff.
Rochester, N.Y. D'Arrest 6.691 Observed in 1851, 1857, 1870,
W. F. Denning Bristol, England 1877, 1890, 1897. Com
August 28, 1892 W. R. Brooks Geneva, N.Y. puter—Leveau.
October 12, 1892 E. E. Barnard Lick Observatory, Cal.? Wolf 6.821
Edwin Holmes London, England served 1898. Computer
W. R. Brooks Geneva, N.Y.
April 16, 1893 J. M. Schaeberle Lick Observatory, Cal.? Giacobini 6.86 Last observed 1896. Its orbit
October 16, 1893 W. R. Brooks Geneva, N.Y.
W: F. Denning Bristol, England comet Faye. Computer
April 2, 1894
20, 1894 E. D. Swift Lowe Observatory, Cal. Holmes 6.904 Last observed 1899 within its
August 20, 1895 Lewis Swift calculated place by 28 s. in
Nov. 17, 1895 C. D. Perrine R. A., 5' in Dec. Its calculated period required a correction of
21, 1895 W. R. Brooks
Feb. 0•3 of a day only. This comet was, in 1892, subject to changes
15, 1896 C. D. Perrine Lick Observatory, Cal.
April of brightness suggesting internal changes. The question arises
13, 1896 Lewis Swift
Lowe why so bright a comet was not earlier discovered. Its orbit is August 31, 1896
W. E. Sperra
Randolph, Ohio more nearly circular than that of any other comet, and lies
Nov. wholly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, in the region of
C. D. Perrine Lick Observatory, Cal. asteroids therefore. Its spectrum shows only a trace of one bright
8, 1896 C. D. Perrine line. Computer—Zwiers.
October 16, 1897 C. D. Perrine Swift 7.059 Last observed 1895. It is not
20, 1898 C. D. Perrine
June unlikely to be a return of
E. F. Coddington
14, 1898 C. D. Perrine
C. D. Perrine Lick Observatory, Cal. was at first supposed to be a return of Lexell's comet, but the re
October 20, 1898 W. R. Brooks Geneva, N.Y." searches of Dr C. L. Poor make the identity unlikely.
Nov. 14, 1898 F. L. Chase
New Haven, Conn.5 Denning (II) 7:42 Last observed 1894. Its orbit
March 3, 1899 Lewis Swift Lowe Observatory,Cal. lies within 0.16 of Jupiter's
Sept. 29, 1899 E. Giacobini Nice, France orbit, and near that point crosses the orbit of Brorsen's comet. The two comets were near the point of intersection in 1881 (though A few of the remarkable comets of the years 1888–1900 Jupiter was not then near) which may account for the disappear
are here briefly described. Comet 1888 I. exhibited ance of Brorsen's comet since its return in 1879. Faye 7.566 Last observed 1896.
peculiar variations in its head like those which distinSwift
8.534 Last observed 1889. Com- guished the comets 1882 II. and 1884 I. Two (or puter—Coniel.
according to one observer three) nuclei were enclosed in Denning (I.) 8.867 Last observed 1881.
a nebulous sheath, as in 1882 II. On 21st May, two Tuttle
13.76 Last observed 1899. Com-
months after perihelion passage, the head suddenly beTempel. 33:18 Last observed 1866.
came about two stellar magnitudes brighter, and two jets Stephan 40-09 Last observed 1867.
were ejected from it, both much brighter than the main Westphal
Last observed 1852. Pons-Brooks. 71.48 Observed in 1812 and 1884.
1 This is the first comet discovered by photography. Olbers
72.63 Observed in 1815 and 1887. 2 This comet was discovered on the photographs of the total solar De Vico
eclipse taken by the Lick Observatory eclipse expedition to Chile. Halley. 76.37 Regularly returning. The next
3 Discovered by photography. appearance is 1910.
4 The orbit of this comet resembles that of Schaeberle's comet of
1881. In the course of the ten years 1890–99 thirty-seven 5 Discovered by photography.
Italy, 90 miles by rail west by south from Syracuse, Baltic Cities, 1319 and 1388 ; Biscay and Castile, 1351 ; Burgundy,
tail. The causes of such changes must be sought for of Diana," and limestone quarries. The people make within the comet as, in all likelihood, they were not the pottery. 'Population, 19,333. direct result of solar action. Several other comets have
Commentry, a town of France, in the arrondisseshown like variations. Comet 1889 I. is remarkable for
ment of Montluçon, department of Allier, 42 miles souththe long period (971 days) during which it was under
west of Moulins by rail. It gives its name to a coal-field, observation. It was observed at four oppositions to the
the output of which in 1899 amounted to 778,417 tons sun, the last observation being 1st May 1891. At this
(metric); over 4000 persons are employed in connexion time its distance from the earth was 7:40; from the sun,
with the mines. There are very important foundries and 8.22, which is not very different from the distance of
forges. Population (1881), 9394; (1896), 9197; (1901), Saturn=9.54. The bright comet of 1811 was not
11,165. observed beyond 4:53 from the sun, and the great comet of 1882 was lost at 5.16. Comet 1892 I. was photo
Commercial Treaties.-A commercial treaty graphed at various observatories, and the photographs
is a contract between States relative to trade.
It is a show that its tail was of a very complex character and
bilateral act whereby definite arrangements are entered subject to great variations. W. H. Pickering (Annals
into by each contracting party towards the other—not H. C. 0. vol. xxxii.) concludes that the variations were
mere concessions. As regards technical distinctions, an periodic, and that the whole comet rotated in a period of 'agreement,” an exchange of notes,” or a “convention” about four days on an axis through the head, coin-properly applies to one specific subject ; whereas a “treaty ciding with the general direction of the tail. The motion usually comprises several matters, whether commercial or of condensations in the tail led him to the conclusion that political. the total repulsive force of the sun was 39:51 times the In ancient times foreign intercourse, trade, and navigation were force of gravity. Professor Campbell, at the Lick Obser in many instances regulated by international arrangements. The
text is extant of treaties of commerce and navigation concluded vatory, notes a diminution in the wave-length of the green
between Carthage and Rome in 509 and 348 B.C. Aristotle band of the spectrum after perihelion passage. The mentions that nations were connected by commercial treaties; changes in Holmes's periodic comet of 1892 have already and other classical writers advert to these engagements. Under been referred to. The periodic comet 1889 V. (Brooks)
the Roman Empire the matters thus dealt with became regulated was discovered on 6th July. It passed perihelion on 30th
by law, or by usages sometimes styled laws. When the territories
of the empire were contracted, and the imperial authority was September. On 1st August Professor Barnard, at the Lick
weakened, some kind of international agreements again became Observatory, discovered two companion comets near by, necessary. At Constantinople in the 10th century treaties cited and later two more. It has been suggested that the com by Gibbon protected “the person, effects, and privileges of the panion comets were separated from the main body by the
Russian merchant”; and, in Western Europe, intercourse, trade,
and navigation were carried on, at first tacitly by usage derived attraction of Jupiter about May 1886, when the comet and
from Roman times, or under verbal permission given to merchants planet were in proximity. The periodic comet (Tempel- | by the ruler to whose court they resorted. Afterwards, security Swift) came within 0.13 of Jupiter in 1880 (earth's dis in these transactions was afforded by means of formal docu. tance from the sun=1), and it is worthy of remark that
ments, such as royal letters, charters, laws, and other instruments
possessing the force of Government measures. Instances affecting at its return in 1891 it was reported by some observers to
English commercial relations are the letter of Charlemagne in have a companion comet. Comet 1892 V. was the first 796, the Brabant Charter of 1305, and the Russian Ukase of one (except the eclipse comet of 1882) to be discovered by 1569. Mediæval treaties of truce or peace often contained a clause photography (by Professor Barnard at the Lick Obser permitting in general terms the renewal of personal and commercial
communication as it subsisted before the war. This custom is still vatory). The first comets photographed were those of followed. But these medieval arrangements were precarious : 1881 (H. Draper); 1881 (Janssen); 1882 (Gill). All they were often of temporary duration, and were usually only comets sufficiently bright are now studied to great advan effective during the lifetime of the contracting sovereigns. tage by photography. The next bright comet that is Passing over trade agreements affecting the Eastern Empire, the
modern commercial treaty system came into existence in the 12th favourably situated will yield important discoveries, which
century. Genoa, Pisa, and Venice were then well organized comare foreshadowed by the results of Professor Hussey of munities, and were in keen rivalry. Whenever their position in a the Lick Observatory on the bright comet 1893 II. (see foreign country was strong, a trading centre was established, and Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific,
few or no specific engagements were made on their part. But in vol. vii., 1895, pp. 161-185). Professor Hussey's photo
serious competition or disliculty another course was adopted : a
formal agreement was concluded for the better security of their graphs show marked changes in the nucleus, coma, and commerce and navigation. The arrangements of 1110 between tail.
The comet sent off a series of condensations or Venice and Sicily; the Genoese conventions of 1149 with Valencia, nebulous masses whose motions were determined to be of 1161 with Morocco, and of 1181 with the Balearic Islands; between 40 and 60 miles per second. The photographs
the Pisan conventions of 1173 with Sultan Saladin, and of 1184
with the Balearic Islands, were the earliest Western commercial obtained by Professor Barnard of the Lick Observatory of treaties. Such definite arrangements, although still of a personal the comet 1893 IV. also show extraordinary variations in character, were soon perceived to be preferable to general provisions the quantity of matter ejected by the head to form the in a treaty of truce or peace. They afforded also greater security tail, and in the direction of its motion (see Knowledge,
than privileges enjoyed under usage; or under grants of various
kinds, whether local or royal. The policy thus inaugurated was February and May 1894).
(E. S. H.)
adopted gradually throughout Europe. The first treaties relative
to the trade of the Netherlands were between Brabant and Holland Comilla, or Kumilla, a town of British India, head
in 1203, Holland and Utrecht in 1204, and Brabant and Cologne quarters of Tippera district in Bengal, situated on the
in 1251. Early northern commercial treaties are those between river Gumti, with a station on the Assam-Bengal Railway, Riga and Smolensk 1229, and between Lübeck and Sweden 1269. 96 miles from the coast terminus at Chittagong. Popula
The first commercial relations between the Hanse Towns and tion (1881), 13,372; (1891), 14,680. The town has many
foreign countries were arrangements made by guilds of merchants,
not by public authorities as a governing body. For a long period large tanks; an English church, built in 1875; a high
the treaty system did not entirely supersede conditions of interschool; the Elliott artisan school; four printing-presses, course between nations dependent on permission. one of which issues a vernacular newspaper; and a public
The earliest English Commercial Treaty is that with Norway in library.
1217. It provides “ut mercatores et homines qui sunt de potestate
vestra liberè et sine impedimento terram nostram adire possint, et Comiso, a town of the province of Syracuse, Sicily,
homines et mercatores nostri similiter vestram.” These stipulations are in due treaty form. The next early English treaties are
, , ; the line to Licata. It has a fine spring, the fabled "bath
1417 and 1496 ; France, 1471, 1497, and 1510 ; Florence, 1490. and it terminated the long-continued tariff warfare. But The commercial treaty policy in England was carried out system the wars of the French Revolution swept away these atically under Henry IV. and Henry VII. It was continued under James I. to extend to Scotland English trading privileges. The
reforms, and brought about a renewal of hostile tariffs. results attained in the 17th century were--regularity in treaty
Prohibitions and differential duties were renewed, and arrangements; their durable instead of personal nature; the prevailed on the Continent until the sixth decade of the conversion of permissive into perfect rights ; questions as to con 19th century. In 1860 a Government existed in France traband and neutral trade stated in definite terms. Treaties were at first limited to exclusive and distinct engagements between
sufficiently strong and liberal to revert to the policy of the contracting States; each treaty differing more or less in its
1786. The bases of the Anglo-French treaty of 1860, terms from other similar compacts. Afterwards by extending to beyond its most favoured nation provisions, were in France a third nation privileges granted to particular countries, the most a general transition from prohibition or high customs favoured nation article began to be framed. Cromwell continued
duties to a moderate tariff; in the United Kingdom the commercial treaty policy in order to obtain a formal recognition of the Commonwealth from foreign Powers. His treaty of 1654
abandonment of all protective imposts, and reduction of with Sweden contains the first reciprocal English most favoured duties maintained for fiscal purposes to the lowest rates nation clause. Article IV. provides that the people, subjects, and compatible with these exigencies. Other European inhabitants of either confederate “shall have and possess in the
countries were obliged to obtain for their trade the countries, lands, dominions, and kingdoms of the other as full and ample privileges, and as many exemptions, immunities, and liber
benefit of the conventional tariff thus established in ties, as any foreigner doth or shall possess in the dominions and France, as an alternative to the high rates inscribed in kingdoms of the said confederate.” The Government of the the general tariff. A series of commercial treaties was Restoration replaced and enlarged the Protectorate arrangements accordingly concluded by different European States by fresh agreements . The general policy of the Commonwealth was maintained, with further provisions on behalf of Colonial
between 1861 and 1866, which effected further reducTrade. In the new treaty of 1661 with Sweden, the privileges
tions of customs duties in the several countries which secured were those which " any foreigner whatsoever doth or shall came within this treaty system, In 1871 the Republican enjoy in the said dominions and kingdoms on both sides.”
Government sought to terminate the treaties of the In contemporary treaties France obtained from Spain Empire. The British negotiators nevertheless obtained (1659) that French subjects should enjoy the same liber the relinquishment of the attempt to levy protective ties as had been granted to the English ; and England duties under the guise of compensation for imposts on obtained from Denmark (1661) that the English should raw materials; the duration of the treaty of 1860 was not pay more or greater customs than the people of the prolonged; and stipulations better worded than those United Provinces and other foreigners, the Swedes only before in force were agreed to for shipping and most excepted. The colonial and navigation policy of the 17th favoured nation treatment. In 1882, however, France century, and the proceedings of Louis XIV., provoked terminated her existing European tariff treaties. Belgium animosities and retaliatory tariffs. During the war of and some other countries concluded fresh treaties, less the Spanish Succession the Methuen Treaty of 1703 was liberal than those of the system of 1860, yet much better concluded. Portugal removed prohibitions against the than anterior arrangements.
Great Britain did not importation of British woollens; Great Britain engaged formally accept these higher duties; the treaty of that Portuguese wines should pay one-third less duty than February 28, 1882, with France, which secures most the rate levied on French wines. At the Peace of Utrecht favoured nation treatment in other matters, provides that in 1713 political and commercial treaties were concluded. customs duties shall be “henceforth regulated by the England agreed to remove prohibitions on the importation internal legislation of each of the two States.” In 1892 of French goods, and to grant most favoured nation treat France also fell out of international tariff arrangements ; ment in relation to goods and merchandise of the like and adopted the system of double columns of customs nature from any other country in Europe ; the French duties—one, of lower rates, to be applied to the goods of general tariff of September 18, 1664, was to be again all nations receiving most favoured treatment; and the put in force for English trade. The English provision other, of higher rates, for countries not on this footing. was at variance with the Methuen Treaty. A violent Germany then took up the treaty tariff policy; and controversy arose as to the relative importance in 1713 of between 1891-94 concluded commercial treaties of twelve Anglo-Portuguese or Anglo-French trade. In the end years' duration with Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Italy, the the House of Commons, by a majority of 9, rejected the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland, to favour and Bill to give effect to the commercial treaty of 1713; and develop her trade with those countries. An important trade with France remained on an unsatisfactory footing series of commercial arrangements was concluded between until 1786. The other commercial treaties of Utrecht 1884-1900 respecting the territories and spheres of were very complete in their provisions, equal to those of interest of European powers in western, central, and the present time; and contained most favoured nation eastern Africa. In these regions exclusive privileges are articles—England secured in 1715 reduction of duties on not claimed; most favoured nation treatment is recogwoollens imported into the Austrian Netherlands; and nized, and there is a disposition to extend national treattrading privileges in Spanish America. Moderate import ment to all Europeans and their trade. duties for woollens were obtained in Russia by the Com The Turkish Capitulations are grants made by succesmercial treaty of 1766. In the meanwhile the Bourbon sive Sultans to Christian nations, conferring rights family compact of August 15, 1761, assured national and privileges in favour of their subjects resident or treatment for the subjects of France, Spain, and the Two trading in the Ottoman dominions. In the first instance Sicilies, and for their trade in the European territories of capitulations were granted specially to each Christian the other two States; and most favoured nation treatment State, beginning with the Genoese in 1453, which entered as regards any special terms granted to any foreign into pacific relations with Turkey. Afterwards new capcountry. The first commercial treaties concluded by the itulations were obtained which summed up in one document United States with European countries contained most earlier concessions, and added to them in general terms favoured nation clauses : this policy has been continued whatever had been conceded to one or more other States ; by the United States, but the wording of the clause has a stipulation which became a most favoured nation article. often varied.
The English final capitulations are of this nature; they In 1786 France began to effect tariff eform by means are dated 1675, and have bee confirmed by treaties of of commercial treaties. The first was with Great Britain, subsequent date “now and for ever.”