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biennially by a plurality vote, and meets at Hartford. crossings of rail and waggon roads, but in 1899 there still remained There are 24 Senators and 255 members of the Lower

988 of these death-traps.

Other Means of Communication. The first successful trolley House, making 279 in all : 87 towns have 2 members

road was established in Connecticut in 1885. In 1899 there were of the House each, and 81 have 1 each. This difference 31 companies working 462.92 miles of trolley, not counting in membership is of historic origin, depending on the sidings, and these roads carried that year 59,084,702 passengers. establishment of the town, except that every town which

Their capital stock aggregated $12,715,948, and their bonded debt the decennial census shows to have 5000 inhabitants is

$10,608,800. They had 2465 employees. During 1899 the trolley entitled to 2 members. With the shifting of population,

roads injured 324 persons, and the steam roads 327. The trolley

has brought wide outlying rural districts into close touch with the many old towns with two members each are now smaller cities, and has connected centres of population, so as to make them than younger towns, allowed only one each. The result practically one community. The store, the church, the theatre, has been a demand from the larger towns for more repre

and the farm have all received a new impulse from the movement.

Besides the trolley, a “third rail” electric system is being developed sentation. On the other hand, it has been contended that in Connecticut. The New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railthe town is the political unit under the Connecticut scheme way, at a power-house at Berlin, produces electricity, which is of government, that one body is designed to be popular

carried on a central rail between the rails of the road bed of one of and the other representative, and that the two Houses of

its regular tracks. The power is taken up by a shoe that travels

along the third or middle rail, and heavy cars on the solid road bed the National Congress, agreed upon in the Constitutional

can make very fast time. The third rail operates between New Convention of 1787 under the “ Connecticut Compromise,” Britain and Berlin, 3 miles, and between Hartford and Bristol, illustrate the same scheme with the titles reversed. Several through New Britain, 17 miles. Electric lighting is very general, constitutional amendments have accordingly been proposed,

and in many instances water-power is utilized for this purpose. including one for the plurality election of State officers. To

Manufactures. The great demand for copper wire and for other

parts of electric outfit has given an immense impetus to the copper elect these a clear majority of the votes cast was, in 1901, and brass mills, which are the largest consumers of copper in the still required. Otherwise the General Assembly selects one world, and are situated chiefly in the Naugatuck Valley in Waterfrom the two highest candidates for each position. Woman

bury, Torrington, and Ansonia. The State holds a leading place

in the production of silk, woollen, and cotton goods, fire-armis suffrage is permitted in school matters, but very few

and ammunition, edge tools, hardware, needles, bicycles, motorwomen vote. Local option prevails as to liquor-selling, carriages, rubber goods, thread, sewing machines, clocks, hats, and in 1899 there were 79 licence and 89 no-licence towns. silverware, knit goods, &c. Connecticut maintains its reputation The executive officers of the State, chosen biennially, are

for inventions, and for the skill of its mechanics. In 1900 the

number of manufacturing establishments in the State (excluding governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary, treasurer, comp

977 having a product of less than $500 each, but including 4630 troller. There is also an attorney-general, elected once in classified as hand-trades) was 9128, with a total capital (includfour years. This office was established in 1898. State ing land, buildings, machinery, &c., but not capital stock) of supervision is very general ; 21 State boards and com- $314,696,736. There were 9981 salaried employees receiving missions having offices in the State House. In 1883 a

salaries amounting to $12,286,050 ; an average number of 176,694

wage-earners, receiving total wages of $82,767,725 ; and 9381 proState board of pardons was established; up to that time prietors and firm members. The cost of materials (including pardons had been granted by the General Assembly. mill supplies, freight, fuel, &c.) was $185,641,219. The added

values of the products in the different establishments amounted to Finance. — The funded debt in 1901 was $2,131,100, of which $352,824, 106. If from this gross value be deducted, in order to $495,000 was at 3.4 per cent. and $1,636,300 at 3 per cent. From avoid duplication, the value ($144,809,525) of materials purchased this should be deducted the cash in hand, usually from $500,000 in a partly manufactured form—where the finished product of one to $750,000. Except for the military commutation tax of $2 per industry is used later as the raw material for another—the total caput on male citizens between 21 and 45 years of ago, the revenuo net value of the products is found to be $208,014,581. The most of the State since 1890 has been collected by indirect taxation important industries and the value of their products were: textile and almost entirely from corporations. The receipts for the year manufactures, $49,265,752 ; brass manufactures (including rolled ending September 30, 1899, were $2,749,273, which, however, in- brass and copper), $18,526,868 ; foundry and machine shops procluded the income of various funds. The direct tax laid upon the ducts, $18,991,079 ; hardware, $16,301,198 ; plated and britannia towns was suspended in 1891. A rapid increase followed in State ware, $9,538,397. expenditures, from $1,757,512 in 1891 to $2,550,080 in 1897—an Banks. — There were, in 1899, 88 mutual savings banks, with deincrease of 50 per cent., while the income increased only about 30 posits of $174,135,195 belonging to 393,137 depositors. Of these per cent.

In 1898 and 1899, however, the income exceeded the depositors 341,362 had each less than $1000 on deposit, whose total receipts by ample margins. While there is no direct State tax, deposits amounted to $68,420,853. These banks do much to encitizens are taxed locally by the county, the town, the city, or courage thrift. They pay as a rule 4 per cent. interest on the the borough, and the school district. Many of the tax laws are deposits. In June 1900 there were 81 national banks in the antiquated, and the need of general revision has long been urged. State ; capital, $20,747,070 ; surplus and undivided profits, about

Ronds.—In 1895 a “good roads movement” began, under which $11,000,000; deposits, $12,700,000. There were also 8 State in the first six years the State expended about $700,000, con- banks ; capital, $2,240,000 ; surplus, &c., $864,000 ; deposits, tingent upon contributions of about $500,000 from town and $6,720,563; and thirteen trust companies ; capital, $1,317,800 ; county treasuries. When the work began the highway com- surplus, $880,000, deposits, $7,420,608. The total deposits of all mission reported 5558 miles of main roads and 8530 of side roads the banking interests were thus $230,982,366. in the State-total, 14,088 miles. About 250 miles were improved Insurance. The 8 stock fire insurance companies had in 1900 between 1895 and 1901.

$10,250,000 of capital, $13,895,791 of net surplus, and $41,956,826 Railways.—There are 1013-35 miles of steam railway. Of these of assets, and insured about $2,700,000,000 of property. Besides all but the New London Northern, from New London to Brattle- these were 17 mutual companies with $2,000,000 of assets boro, Vt. (56'1 miles in Connecticut); the Central New England, and $111,500,000 of risks. The fire losses paid by Connecticut from Hartford to the Hudson (67.25 miles in Connecticut); and companies in 1899 were $12,417,000. In life insurance, 6 the South Manchester, from South Manchester to Manchester companies with assets of $156,972,000, including $15,656,721 of (2.25 miles), are included in the system of the New York, New surplus, were in 1900 insuring 356,661 persons for a total of Ilaven, and Hartford Railroad Company, which controls 2047.19 $507,245,300. The assets of the fire and life companies of the miles, of which 887.75 are in Connecticut. It controls all the Stató together exceed $200,000,000. It was in Connecticut that rail routes between New York and Boston, and the entire Old accident insurance was first undertaken in the United States. Colony system in Massachusetts, and also practically all the The deposits of the banks and the assets of the life and fire insursteamboat lines on Long Island Sound. Between New Haven and ance companies aggregate nearly $475,000,000. New Rochelle, N.Y., where the line divides, the company has Education.Almost every town grew up around a church, and four tracks. The company has authorized capital of every town has also its school. Education has been an object of $100,000,000, of which in "1899 about $55,000,000 had been concern from the founding of the colony, and the State ranks among issued. It had then 8654 stockholders, of whom 2620, holding the first in this respect. Yale University, at New Haven, founded $16,036,500 of the stock, were residents of Connecticut. The in 1701, has a total of 2542 students and a faculty of 271. majority of its board of directors must be citizens of Connecticut. Trinity College at Hartford, founded in 1823, reported for 1900, It reported 28,211 employees in 1899. In that year the railways 137 students and 24 instructors. Wes] University at of the State carried 50,269,468 passengers and 15,891,612 tons of Middletown, founded in 1829, had 339 students and a faculty of freight. Efforts have been made for several years to abolish grade 26. Common school education is compulsory between the ages of


7 and 16. In 1899 there were 1546 public schools, 76 high schools, Thrown in this way with Flemings of every class, and 77 kindergartens, and 19 evening schools ; also 177 private schools, made a close observer of their mental habits, the young with 30,083 registered scholars. The State furnishes $200 to

man formed the idea of writing in the despised idiom of establish, and up to $100 a year to maintain, a free public library in any town that will contribute an equal sum.

In 1899,

the country, an idiom .which was then considered too 6 years after the passage of the law, 51 towns had established free vulgar to be spoken, and much less written in, by educated libraries under its provision, and there were 40 others, making Belgians. Although, close by, across the Scheldt, the 91 free public libraries in the State, with 566,706 volumes and Dutch possessed a rich and honoured literature, many a yearly circulation of 1,609,788 volumes. There were also 43 "travelling libraries,” which move from one town to another, the

centuries old, written in a language scarcely to be disgifts of individuals or associations.

(C. H. CL.)

tinguished from Flemish, a foolish prejudice denied reConnellsville, a borough of Fayette county, Penn- cognition to the language of the Flemish provinces of sylvania, U.S.A., situated in the south-western part of the Belgium. As a matter of fact, nothing had been written state, on Youghiogheny river and on branches of the

in it for many years, when the separation in 1831 served Pennsylvania and the Baltimore and Ohio Railways, at an

to make the chasm between the nations and the languages altitude of 915 feet. It is the centre of the well-known

one which could never be bridged over. It was therefore Connellsville coking coal region, in which most of the coking

with the foresight of a prophet that Conscience wrote, in coal used in iron-smelting in the United States is produced.

1830 itself, “I do not know how it is, but I confess I find Out of 47,142 coking ovens in the United States in 1899,

in the real Flemish something indescribably romantic,

If I ever 19,294 are in this district; while of the total amount of mysterious, profound, energetic, even savage. coke produced in the Union (19,610,798 tons), not less

gain the power to write, I shall throw myself head over than 10,389,335 tons were made in this district. Popula

ears into Flemish composition." His poems, however, tion (1880), 3609; (1890), 5629; (1900), 7160.

written while he was a soldier, were all in French. He

received no pension when he was discharged, and going Connersville, capital of Fayette county, Indiana,

back idle to his father's house, he determined to do the U.S.A., situated on Whitewater river, in the eastern part impossible, and write a Flemish book for sale.

A passage of the state, at an altitude of 828 feet. It is at the

in Guicciardini fired his fancy, and straightway he wrote intersection of the Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton, the

off that series of scenes in the war of Dutch Independence Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St Louis, and the

which lives in Belgian literature under the title of In't Fort Wayne, Cincinnati, and Louisville Railways. Popu

Wonderjaar 1566; this was published in Ghent in 1837. lation (1880), 3228; (1890), 4548; (1900), 6836.

His father thought it so vulgar of his son to write a book Conscience, Hendrik (1812–1883), the most in Flemish that he turned him out of doors, and the eminent of modern Flemish writers, was born at Antwerp celebrated novelist of the future started for Antwerp, with on the 3rd of December 1812. Although he invariably a fortune which was strictly confined to two francs and a signed his name Hendrik, his baptismal name was Henri

. bundle of clothes. An old schoolfellow found him in the He was the son of a Frenchman, Pierre Conscience, from street and took him to his home; and soon various people Besançon, who had been chef de timonerie in the navy of of position, amongst them the eminent painter, Wappers, Napoleon, and who was appointed under-harbourmaster interested themselves in the brilliant and unfortunate at Antwerp in 1811, when that city formed part of France. young man. Wappers even gave him a suit of clothes, Hendrik's mother was a Fleming, Cornelia Balieu. When, and presented him to the King, who expressed a wish, in 1815, the French abandoned Antwerp after the Con- which was not immediately carried out in consequence of gress of Vienna, they left Pierre Conscience behind them. some red tape, that the Wonderjaar should be added to the He was a very eccentric person, and he took up the library of every Belgian school. But it was under the business of buying and breaking-up worn-out vessels, of patronage of Leopold I. that Conscience published his which the port of Antwerp was full after the peace.

The second work, Fantasy, in the same year, 1837. A small child grew up in an old shop stocked with marine stores, appointment in the Provincial Archives relieved him from to which the father afterwards added a collection of un- the actual pressure of want, and in 1838 he made his first saleable books; among them were old romances which great success with the historical romance called The Lion inflamed the fancy of the child. His mother died in 1820, of Flanders, which still holds its place as one of his and the boy and his younger brother had no other com- masterpieces. To this followed How to become a Painter, panion than their grim and somewhat sinister father. In 1843; What a Mother can Suffer, 1813; Siska van 1826 Pierre Conscience married again, this time a widow Roosemael, 1844; Lambrecht Hensmans, 1847; Jacob much younger than himself, Anna Catherina Bogaerts. van Artevelde, 1819; and The Conscript, 1850. During Hendrik had long before this developed an insatiable these years he lived a variegated existence, for some passion for reading, and revelled all day long among the thirteen months actually as an under-gardener in a country ancient, torn, and dusty tomes which passed through the house, but finally as Secretary to the Academy of Fine garret of “The Green Corner” on their way to destruction. Arts in Antwerp. It was long before the sale of his Soon after his second marriage Pierre took a violent books, greatly praised but seldom bought, made him in dislike to the town, sold the shop, and retired to that any degree independent. His ideas, however, began to be Kempen or Campine which Hendrik Conscience so often generally accepted. At a Flemish Congress which met at describes in his books—the desolate flat land that stretches Ghent so early as 1841, the writings of Conscience were between Antwerp and Venloo. Here Pierre bought a mentioned as the seed which was most likely to yield a little farm, with a great garden round it, and here, while crop of national literature. Accordingly the patriotic their father was buying ships in distant havens, the boys | party undertook to encourage their circulation, and each would spend weeks, and even months, with no companion fresh contribution from the pen of Conscience was welbut their stepmother. At the age of seventeen Hendrik comed as an honour to Belgium. In 1845 Conscience was left the paternal house in Kempen to become a tutor in made a Knight of the Order of Leopold. To write in

a Antwerp, and to prosecute his studies, which were soon Flemish had now ceased to be regarded as a proof of broken in upon by the revolution of 1830. He volun- vulgarity; on the contrary, the tongue of the common teered as a private in the new Belgian army, and served in people became almost fashionable. The poet K. L. barracks at Venloo, and afterwards at Dendermonde, until Ledeganck (1805–1849), who celebrated the 1837, when he retired with the grade of sergeant-major. | Sister-Cities” of Ghent, Bruges, and Antwerp, was the

“ Three

first to follow in the steps of Conscience. Another was in 1417 invested with the March of Brandenburg. The national writer who, though much older than the novelist, population of Constance was 21,363 in 1901. became his eager disciple, was J. F. Willems (1793–1846), S. J. CAPPER, The Shores and Cities of the Bodensee. London, and Flemish literature began to live. In 1845 Conscience 1881.-G. GSELL-FELS. Der Bodensce. Munich, 1893 (Bruckpublished a Ilistory of Belgium, but he was well advised

mann's illustrierter Reiseführer).-E. ISSEL. Die Reformation in

Konstanz. Freiburg i/B., 1898.-F. X. KRAUS. Die Kunstdenkto return to those exquisite pictures of Flemish home-life

mäler des Kreises Konstanz. Freiburg i/B., 1887.-J. LAIBLE. which must always form the most valuable portion of his Geschichte der Stadt Konstanz. Konstanz, 1896. repertory. He was now at the height of his genius, and Blind Rosa, 1850; Rikketikketak, 1851 ; The Decayed

Constance, Lake of, or the "SWABIAN SEA," Gentleman, 1851; and The l[iser, 1853, rank among the

on the north-east frontier of Switzerland. According to the most important of the long list of his novels. These had

latest measurements, its area is 207 square miles (of which an instant effect upon contemporary fiction, and Conscicnce 811 square miles belonged to Switzerland, viz., 594 square had many imitators. Nevertheless, not one of the latter

miles to Canton Thurgau, and 211 square miles to Canton has approached Conscience in popularity, or has deserved St Gall), its height above the sea-level 1309 feet, its to approach him. In 1855 the carliest translations of his greatest length 10 miles, its greatest depth 1014 feet, and tales began to appear in English, French, German, and its greatest width 71 miles. Italian, and his fame became universal. In 1867 the post of Keeper of the Royal Belgian Museums was created, and

Constant, Benjamin (1845–1902), French this important sinecure was given to Conscience. He con

painter. See SCHOOLS OF PAINTING (France). tinued to produce novels with great regularity, and his Constanţa (or KUSTENDJI), a town and seaport separate publications amounted at last to nearly cighty in of Rumania on the Black Sea, 140 miles by rail from number. He was now the most eminent of the citizens of Bucharest. The bridge at Cernavoda across the river Antwerp), and his seventieth birthday was celebrated by Danube was opened by the king in 1896. A line of fast public festivities. After a long illness he died, in his passenger steamers, owned by the Rumanian Government, house in Antwerp, on the 10th of September 1883; he was

in connexion with the Orient express and Ostend express, awarded a public funeral. The portraits of Conscience conveys passengers and mails to Constantinople. The present to us a countenance rather French than Flemish in town has greatly developed of late years, owing to its type, with long smooth hair, contemplative dark improved communications by land and sea, and is now under heavy brows, a pointed nose, and a humorous much used as a summer bathing resort. The streets are broad mouth ; in late life he wore the ornament of a long clean and well kept. Constanța is on the site of the white beard. Whether the historical romances of Con- ancient Tomi, where Ovid lived and died in exile. There science will retain the enormous popularity which they

is a statue erected to his memory in the chief square of have enjoyed is much less than certain, but far more likely

the town. Population (1895), 10,607 ; (1900), 12,725, to live are the novels in which he undertook to be the about one-half of whom are of the Orthodox faith, and genre-painter of the life of his own day. In spite of too the remainder pretty equally divided between Roman rhetorical a use of soliloquizing, and of a key of sentiment Catholics, Moslems, Armenians, and Jews. often pitched too high for modern taste, the stories of Constantina, a town and railway station of Spain, Conscience are animated by a real spirit of genius, mildly in the north of the province of Seville. Population in 1897, lustrous, perhaps, rather than startlingly brilliant. What- 9983. The neighbourhood is chiefly agricultural, with some ever glories may be in store for the literature of Flanders,

mines, lead and iron, in the sierra not far off. The local inConscience is always sure of a distinguished place as its dustries are those connected with cork, wood, alcohol, and tanforerunner and its earliest classic.

(E. c.)

neries, and the market days every week are very animated. Consett, a town and railway station in the north- It is one of the most important towns of the province, though western parliamentary division of Durham, England, 12 its public buildings offer nothing worthy of notice. miles north-west of Durham city and 14 south-west of

Constantine, capital of the department of the Newcastle. Besides the parish church there are Baptist,

same name in the cast of Algeria, picturesquely perched, Wesleyan, and other chapels; also a town-hall. There are 2130 feet above the sea, on a rock rising perpendicularly extensive collieries in the district, and large ironworks.

nearly 1000 feet from the bed of the Rummel, which surArea of urban district, 1024 acres. Population (1891),

rounds it on the north and the east, while on the west the 8460; (1901), 9694.

city is connected by an isthmus with the mainland. It is 54 Conshohocken, a borough of Montgomery miles by rail south by west of Philippeville, its seaport, and county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., situated in 10° 01' N. has railway connexion also with Algiers, Bona, Tunis, and lat. and 75° 18' W. long, on the north bank of Biskra. Important strategically, Constantine by its beauty Schuylkill river, 13 miles north-west of Philadelphia, in of situation annually attracts crowds of visitors. There the south-east part of the state. It is entered by the are no important buildings of recent erection. Railways Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia and Reading Railways. have taken away from the city its monopoly of the traffic Population (1880), 4561; (1890), 5470; (1900), 5762. in wheat, though its share in that trade still amounts to Constance, a city in the grand duchy of Baden,

from 10 to 12 million francs (£100,000-£180,000) a year. on the south bank of the Rhine at its exit from the Lake

Its industry also is considerable, its peltry business of Constance, and 30 miles from Schaffhausen by rail. It

employing 1000 persons and supplying the wants of 2 stands at a height of 1316 feet above the level of the sea.

inillions. It also manufactures woollen stuffs. There is The Vincent collection of painted glass in the chapter-house

a project to surround the city with capacious reservoirs, has now been sold. The Dominican convent has been

such as would transform the face of the country. The converted into a hotel ; in its tower John Hus was

population in 1891 was 46,580, and in 1900 it was confined for three months, before he was burnt on 6th July 51,997, of whom 18,387 were French. The indigenous 1415 on a field in the suburb of Brühl. In the market

element, nunbering 28,000, grows faster than the colonial. place are two historical houses—one wherein Barbarossa Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish signed the peace of Constance with the Lombard cities in Empire, situated on the strait between the Black Sea 1183, and the other in which Frederick of Hohenzollern and the Sea of Varmora. The last quarter of the 19th


century wrought little change in the outward aspect of the one natural and the other artificial. Early in 1901 the city, but throughout that period, during the reign of Sultan Sultan, in order to extend the park towards Ortakeui, Abdul Hamid II., many of the conditions of life in the bought a large adjacent estate, consisting of a mansion Turkish capital underwent considerable alteration. This and extensive grounds, which are now enclosed within the arises from the fact that Sultan Abdul Hamid's mode of mural fence of Yildiz. Within this carefully guarded life and method of government were wholly different from enclosure are

buildings, which include an those of his predecessors. Constantly preoccupied with observatory, baths, a museum of arms, a porcelain factory, apprehension for his personal security, he transferred his a furniture manufactory, armouries, stabling for 150 abode, shortly after coming to the throne, from the palace of horses, and a harness factory, besides a number of Dolma Baghtché, on the bank of the Golden Horn, where châlets and other fanciful edifices. The most conspicuous he did not feel safe, to Yildiz Kiosk, a pleasure resort of amongst these latter is the Merassim Kiosk, built specially his predecessors on a hill behind Beshiktash, overlooking for the occupation of the German Emperor on his first Pera, Stamboul, the lower Bosphorus, and the Sea of visit in 1889, and enlarged for his later visit in 1898. Marmora. The park is surrounded by a great wall, in Some of the smaller châlets are used as prisons for political some parts 50 feet high, and contains two small lakes, the prisoners, or as houses of detention for persons undergoing

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inquisitorial treatment. Within the main Saclasure the strong. These are lodged

in spacious barracks built on the


First Army Corps, composed of 12 battalions, each 600 the , with his four principal wives, inhabits, and which he himself outer side of the park wall, with a mosque adjacent thereto designed. About it are grouped smaller kiosks in which for the special use of the troops. The Sultan's guard conthe other ladies of the harem reside. The doors of this sists of (1) the “Tufenkdjis,” or bodyguard, of whom

) inner barrier are all locked at sunset, and therein, protected there are 94, Albanians and Circassians; (2) the “Silahby his bodyguard, the Sultan pasges his nights in assured sors,” drilled soldiers, numbering about 300, Albanians security. In March 1901 the Offices of the Privy Purse, and Bosniaks; (3) the “Hademés” (garde ile lure), emfrom the windows of which—commanding a view of the ployed only on State occasions, and comprising the road between the palace gateway and the Hamidieh musicians of the Palace, about 500 in number ; (4) the Mosque—approved visitors witnessed the Selamlik pro- “Tchaush,” of whom there are between 50 and 60, and cession on Fridays, were demolished by Imperial order, who are messengers as well as guards; (5) the Bekdjis called forth by the Sultan's ever-increasing fear of assassin- or watchmen, numbering 200, who keep watch by relays ation. The palace domain is guarded by two batteries all over the park by day and night. of artillery, and by the whole of the 2nd division of the The most important of the material changes since 1880 is the construction of the quays on each side of the Golden line, extending north-west of Pera, a large number of Horn. Begun in 1891 by a French company with a detached houses with gardens have been built, forming a capital of nearly a million sterling, the quay was com- new and extensive faubourg, which on one side reaches out pleted in 1899 on the Galata side to its full length in the direction of Eyub and the Sweet Waters of Europe, of 756 metres, with a breadth of 20 metres ; and the and on the other along the heights overlooking the lower portion on the Stamboul side, of which the total length Bosphorus and the Marmora. Excepting the streets travis 378 metres, was finished and opened in 1900. The ersed by the tramways, a few of those in which the appearance of the port is much improved by the demolition departments of State are situated, and some of the subof the dilapidated structures which previously bordered urban roads, the other highways and byways remain either shore, and which are replaced by substantial unimproved, wearing the old ragged pavement, destitute buildings. Tramways have also conduced to the embel- of footways, and flanked by buildings, mostly wooden, of lishment of the city, for—besides causing improvement in mean design and more or less decayed. the streets they traverse—they have promoted much new The ravages of the great fire of 1870, which consumed building in salubrious localities, commanding fine prospects, 5000 buildings in Pera, have been almost, though not yet which were previously out of reach. On both sides of the completely, made good. In the renovated quarters stone

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buildings mostly replace the wooden structures which the The appearance of the Bosphorus has greatly faded in conflagration swept away. All the dwelling houses are recent years, owing to the large number of yalis and stone-built, and of late the fashion has set in of building konaks which, through the dispersal of many old Turkish large and lofty blocks divided into suites of apartments. families, have been left empty and become dilapidated.

. This tendency to crect costly and substantial buildings The new generation eschews the Bosphorus,—where the has been promoted by the increased facilities for insuring price of land is still nominally high, although there is no against fire. Year by year new insurance agencies have demand for it,—and has bought ground largely along been established, and by 1900 no less than forty-three the course of the Anatolian Railway, between the terminus companies (about half of them British) were represented at Haidar Pasha and the station of Pendik on the Marin Constantinople. Some new public buildings in con- mora. This region, which is mild, picturesque, and well spicuous positions fix the eye in viewing the city from the wooded and watered, with a very productive soil, is now

Such are the Armoury at Matchka, on the heights of overspread with newly-built houses of the better sort in Nishan-Tash, above Dolma Baghtché; the Imperial Otto- more or less spacious gardens, all occupied by the Turks man Bank, in Galata ; the offices of the Public Debt, in who built them. Since 1855, when Constantinople was Stamboul; and the School of Medicine, between Scutari much shaken and somewhat damaged by the earthquake and Haidar Pasha.

which destroyed Brusa, the Turkish capital had not ex


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