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Aims.

Cooper, Thomas Sidney (1803-1902), is divided to the members in proportion to their purchases. Thus English painter, was born at Canterbury on 2.th September they in effect obtain their necessaries at cost price. Not far from

£7,000,000 is thus returned in the year, averaging nearly 2s. 8d. in 1803. În very early childhood he showed in many ways

the £ of purchases. In many successful societies an even higher the strength of his artistic inclinations, but as the circum- dividend on purchases is paid, but the average prices of goods sold stances of his family did not admit of his receiving any are often fixed above those current in the neighbourhood, so that systematic training, he began before he was twelve the members, in addition to saving the retailer's profit, use their

years old to work in the shop of a coach painter. A little later Society as a sort of savings bank, where they put away a halfpenny

or so for every shilling they spend. In addition to retailing, a he obtained employment as a scene painter; and he store often manufactures bread, clothes, boots, or flour, or farms alternated between these two occupations for about eight land, usually for its own members only, but occasionally for sale to years. But the desire to become an artist continued to other societies also. Their productions in this way reach about influence him, and all his spare moments were given up to building cottages to sell or let to their members; and they lend

£4,000,000 a year. They also invest large and increasing sums in drawing and painting from nature. At the age of twenty largely to their inembers to enable them to buy cottages

. he went to London, drew for a while in the British Outwardly these stores may look like mere shops, but they Museum, and was admitted as a student of the Royal not to a proprietor's profit but to cheap and good com

First, they are managed with a view Academy. He then returned to Canterbury, where he was

modities. Secondly, they have done an immense work able to earn a living as a drawing-master and by the sale for thrift and the material prosperity of the working classes, of sketches and drawings. In 1827 he settled in Brussels ; and as teachers of business and self-government. But, surther, but four years later he returned to London to live, and by they have a distinct social and economic aim, namely, to correct showing his first picture at the Royal Academy (1833) the present inequalities of wealth, and substitute for the combegan an unprecedentedly prolonged career as an exhibitor. interest and distributing on principles of equity and reason, Cooper's name is mainly associated with pictures of cattle mutually agreed on, the wealth produced. With this view they or sheep, and the most notable of the many hundred he acknowledge the duties of fair pay and good conditions for has produced are: “A Summer's Noon” (1836), A

their own employees, and of not buying goods made under bad

conditions. The best societies further set aside a small proportion Drover's Halt on the Fells” (1838), “A Group in the

of their profits for educational purposes, including concerts, social Meadows” (1845), “The Half-past One o'Clock Charge at gatherings, classes, lectures, reading-rooms and libraries. They Waterloo " (1847), “The Shepherd's Sabbath" (1866), often make grants to causes with

often make grants to causes with which they sympathize; and their “The Monarch of the Meadows" (1873), “Separated but mem

members are often prominent in local government affairs, co

operative candidates being occasionally run for school-boards and not Divorced” (1874), “Isaac's Substitute” (1880),

town councils. Though the societies are non-political, they are "Pushing off for Țilbury Fort” (1884), and “On à Farm usually centres of

usually centres of progressive” ideas. There are of course many in East Kent” (1889). He was elected an Associate of defects, and of their million and two-thirds members a large, and the Royal Academy in 1845, and a Royal Academician many fear an increasing, proportion, attracted by the prosperity of

the societies, think chiefly of what they themselves gain ; but the in 1867. He presented to his native place, in 1882, the

government of the movement has, hitherto at least, been largely Sidney Cooper Art Gallery, built on the site of the house in

in the hands of men of ideas who believe that stores are but a step which he was born. He wrote his reminiscences, under the to co-operative production and on to the “co-operative common

wealth, title of My Life, in 1890; and died on 7th February 1902.

It is indeed only when we come to federations of co-operative Co-operative Societies. The progress of societies, and above all to production, with its large number of em

ployees, that the industrial and educational side of the movement co-operation, during the last twenty years of the is most seen. The Co-operative Union, Limited, for instance, is a 19th century, was very remarkable, both in the United propagandist federation of all the chief co-operative societies in Kingdom and abroad. Not only have the societies, in

Great Britain, and some in Ireland, which does a great amount of

educational work. Its income is over £8000 a year; it looks after spite of numerous failures, greatly increased in number,

the legal and parliamentary interests of the societies, carries on membership, capital, and trade, but they have come into much educational work by means of literature, lectures, classes, close relations, both commercial and for propaganda, with scholarships, summer meetings at other co-operative societies in their own country and organizes numerous local conferences for discussion, and once a year abroad; and finally an important International Co-operative tions, in some chief centre of population. The Co-operative Whole

a great national Co-operative Congress and Exhibition of producAlliance has been formed for promoting mutual helpfulness sale Society, Limited, is a trading federation of nearly 1100 stores, and international trading relations.

which include over 1,300,000 individuals. Founded in 1863 on å The following figures show the growth of co-operation—that is to

small scale, in 1901 its capital was £3,314,887 and its employees say, of working-class co-operation—in the United Kingdom :

about 11,000. Its sales in 1901 were estimated to reach £17,000,000.

Besides its merchant trade, it manufactures to the value of
Societies.
Capital.

£2,500,000, owning factories, warehouses, and land in
1876
1113 493,189 £5,742,297 1 £18,647,8171

Production.

many districts. It owns steamships and is a large 1899 1858 1,675,998 28, 267,398 75,422,895

importer, and is also the bank of the Co-operative Societies, and Practically all these societies are registered with limited liability the chief outlet for the always redundant capital of the stores. under the Industrial and Provident Societies Acts, their government The Scottish stores also have their Wholesale Society, not less imis democratic, based on one vote for man or woman ; and their portant relatively. For many purposes these two societies are in members (or shareholders) and committeemen are almost exclusively partnership. Their net profits are returned to the stores as a the more provident of the working classes or belong to the class dividend on purchases, and thence to the whole body of members. just above.

There are also smaller local federations of stores, mostly for cornBy far the greater part of these figures represent Workmen's milling and baking. Distributive Societies, or stores, flourishing chiefly in the North Strongly contrasting with this production by associations of and Midlands of England and in Scotland, and numbering 1446, with consumers, or consumers' production,” is the co-partnership or 1,613,461 members, £22,294,624 capital, and sales of £45,047,446 “Labour Co-partnership" branch of co-operation. in the year.

The largest is that of Leeds, with The simplest form of such co-operation is an association Co-partDistribu

49,000 members and £1,500,000 sales. The shares in of producers formed to carry on their own industry, Dership. tion.

these societies are withdrawable in cash and not Originally such associations were intended to consist transferable. Their method is the “Rochdale system,” now spread solely of the workers employed, but membership is now open to over the world, by which the twenty-eight poor weavers of Roch the distributive societies, which are their chief customers, and dale made co-operation, until then little but a dream and a series usually to all sympathizers. Shares are transferable, not withof failures, into a great practical success. A record is kept, by

drawable. Profits first pay the agreed "wages of capital,” and of means of metal checks or otherwise, of each member's purchases; and what remains the main part goes to the employees as a dividend at the end of each quarter, after payment of a fixed interest (never

on their wages and to the customers as a dividend on their more than 5 per cent., and in very many societies less) on shares, purchases. In well-established societies the dividends on wages and sometimes a proportion of profit to the employees, the surplus average about is. on the £ of wages. This is not usually paid

in cash, but credited to the employees as share capital, whereby 1 Figure not quite complete.

all may become members. Besides other producers' associations,

Members.

Business.

.

1883.

1900.

Trade.

Rivai

more or less co-operative, there were, at the end of 1900, 90 such and it would appear that those started by consumers must tend co-partnership associations at work in England. Some of them to it.

Besides the societies already mentioned, the Irish coare very small, while others have businesses of £40,000 a year operative dairies rank as co-partnership. The earliest and latest or more ; the majority show fair, sometimes large, profits. Each statistics of British and Irish co-operative productive societies, of is governed by a committee, or directors, who are elected by the whatever origin, accepting that principle are : members and appoint a manager. We constantly hear that co-operative production is a

Societies at work

15

265 failure. There have no doubt been many failures, especi

£160,751 £3,553,593 Capital

£106,436 £1,547,729 ally of big experiments attempted among men totally Profits

£9,031 £158,315 unprepared. But many of the failures counted were not Losses

£114

£7,418 truly co-operative. At the present day consumers' pro

Divider.d on Wages : Unknown

£20,545 duction is successful beyond all question, while the net

An association of co-operative societies and individuals, called growth of producers' associations in recent years has been the Labour Association, exists to maintain this principle of comarked both in number and importance. These two partnership in co-operative production and also promote its gradual forms of production best illustrate the two rival theories adoption in businesses of a capitalistic character. Some progress which divide British co-operation, and between whose improve upon mere profit-sharing by capitalizing the workman's

in this latter direction is being made, there being a tendency to partisans the conflict has at times been sharp. The consumers theory maintains that all profit on price is gradually modified in a co-operative direction. There are remark abstracted from the consumer and must be

able instances of such modification abroad, notably that of the returned to him ; while to him should also great iron-foundry and “Familistère” at Guise in France; the theories.

most noteworthy in England is that of the South Metropolitan Gas belong all capital and control, subject to such Company. After only a few years of the system 3000 workers own regulations as the State and the Trade Unions enforce. shares worth over £103,000 besides £33,000 on deposit; they also This theory is fully exemplified in the English Wholesale elect two of themselves directors of the Company. Unfortunately Society, and in one of the corn mills, which employ there is usually friendship and even alliance between Trade

this example is marred by a feud with the Trade Unions, whereas workmen, whether co-operators or not, for wages only and Unionism and co-partnership, and other, co-operative societies. admit no individual, but only co-operative societies, to membership. It is also exemplified by the great majority In Ireland stores have not hitherto flourished, though of the stores, though in their case the employce may a few exist. Irish co-operation is agricultural, and dates become a member in his capacity as a consumer. The from the foundation of one co-operative dairy in 1889. co-partnership theory, on the other hand, maintains that Thence has grown a movement already of great imthe workers actually employed in any industry, whether portance and rapidly advancing. In 1890 there was still distributive or productive, should be partners with those only one such society, in 1891 there were 17, but on who find the capital, and those who buy the produce, and 31st December 1900 there were 412, of which should share with them profit, responsibilities, and control. 171 were dairies, 106 agricultural societies, and Irish agri

culture. The consumers' party contend that societies of producers 76 banks. By August 1901 the societies make a profit out of the consumers, and thus are never numbered about 470, of which of course not all were truly co-operative, while as they multiply they must yet at work, and the members about 54,000. To form compete against each other. The co-partnership party

à dairy the small working farmers of a district register answer that labour at least helps to make the profit, and a society and take up shares of £l each, in proportion that competition, as yet almost insignificant between their to the number of their cows. Each brings his milk societies, can be avoided by federating them (a process to be separated, is paid for the butter-making material long ago begun) for buying and selling in common, and it contains, and receives back skim milk. Any profit is for other common purposes, while leaving each the control | divisible, nine-tenths to the suppliers of milk in proportion and responsibility of its own affairs. They further advocate to the value of their supplies, and one-tenth to the dairy the eventual federation of the productive wing of co-employees as dividend on wages. These dairies in 1900 operation with the distributive wing for settling prices produced butter worth more than £700,000. Their rapid and all matters in which their interests might conflict. In spread is due to their great influence in improving the this way they say the co-operative system may extend in- quality of butter, and hence raising the farmers' gains. definitely without sacrificing either individual responsibility The “agricultural” societies are chiefly engaged in buying and freedom, or a general unity and control, so far as these farm requisites pure and cheap, and retailing them among are necessary to secure the common interest. On the other their members; in this way they have saved the farmers hand they hold that the opposing system tends more and very large sums. Their trade is about £100,000. The comore to centralization and bureaucracy, and divorces the operative banks, many of them just beginning, are of the individual workman from all personal interest in his work Raiffeisen type described later (though a few have limited and from any control over its conditions. They contend, liability) and aim at providing the peasants with necessary moreover, that, in spite of the great advantages consumers' capital and expelling the usurer. They are increasing production has in its command of a market and of abund- rapidly. Among miscellaneous objects of co-operation ant capital, only a small part of industry can ever be are selling eggs, poultry, barley, and pigs, joint ownership carried on by associations of the persons who actually of machinery, joint grazing, potato-spraying, producing consume the produce.

flax, and so on, and these promise a great growth in On the working out of these two principles depends the future of federated into an agency for reaching the English market;

number and variety. The dairy societies, moreover, have co-operation. The example of Scotland probably throws light on the problem. There co-operative production, amounting in 1900 and the agricultural societies into an Irish Wholesale for to £1,815,042, is nearly all carried on by federations of consumers' purchasing to the best advantage. Besides the direct societies, including the Scottish Wholesale, applying more or less profits and economies of these societies, they have greatly successfully the co-partnership principle—i.c., their employees are admitted to share in profits, and may become members, whereby

benefited Ireland by teaching men of all classes, parties, they are further admitted to share capital and control. The and religions to act together for peaceful progress; they type of organization hence resulting is very much the same as have led to a wide diffusion of better agricultural knowwhere a society of producers admits consumers' societies to membership and sets aside a proportion of the profits to be returned ledge, and to the establishment by Government of the to them as dividend upon their purchases. "To this type, we have Agricultural Department. seen, English productive societies started by producers have come,

Turning abroad we find, in almost all civilized countries,

important and growing movements roughly similar to | Practically all the members see that the money is applied

those above described, but, on the whole, less as agreed, and while the loans are often made for long Foreign countries.

identified with the working classes, and less periods—a year or two, or several, so as to repay them

coloured by their social and economic ideals. selves out of the profit-power is reserved to call them in The most prominent fact since 1877 is the great growth at short notice if misapplied. No bills, mortgages, or of agricultural co-operation from small dimensions, till it other securities are taken, except a note of hand with amounts to a great force almost everywhere, and in some sometimes one or two sureties. There are two committees, countries to a revolution; notably in Denmark, where one to lend and do the work of the society, and the other almost every village is an example of varied co-operation, to supervise the first. While the directors of the Schultzedealing with butter, eggs, bacon, stock, bee-keeping, or Delitzsch societies get commission on the business done, fruit-growing, or with the supply of household or farm there is no remuneration for services in the Raiffeisen requisites, to the great enrichment of the country. Co- societies except that the accountant gets a small salary. operative dairies first appeared in Denmark in 1882; in There are no shares, or only shares of a very small value, and 1900 they numbered 1052, dealt with four-fifths of all the practically nothing is paid on them as interest or dividend. milk of the country, and produced butter worth £7,000,000.

These Raiffeisen banks boast that neither member nor creditor Co-operative bacon factories began in 1887, and in 1900

has ever lost a penny by them, and while this is denied, it seems dealt with six-tenths of all the pigs; and so on. Agricultural at least near the truth. Their credit is so good that they can co-operation is now the strongest branch of the movement obtain money at very low rates, and as their expenses are trifling in France, and its backbone are the agricultural syndicates they usually lend at about 5 per cent. Only men of good character they can re-lend to their members at very little more.

In Germany or associations. These, though they began only in 1883,

can obtain membership, and thus, besides spreading prosperity, numbered 1500 in 1895, and now probably number 2500, these societies have everywhere been great promoters of sobriety with 700,000 to 800,000 members. They are not techni and good conduct. They exist solely for the sake of the members

as borrowers, and make no profit, except a little for reserve, whereas cally co-operative societies, but rather trade unions, and

the Schultze-Delitzsch Bank works for profit, and puts first the they have certain political and professional aims; but

interest of the members as small capitalists and lenders. The they do an immense amount of co-operative work, especially Raiffeisen banks have a purely mutual character, free from any in associated buying, and they spread the spirit of associa element of capitalism ; it is even alleged that the members can tion everywhere, and promote many strictly co-operative ideal it is in the matter of self-help, seeing that the presence of

never divide out the reserve; if they fall short of the co-operativo societies. Everywhere the main features of this agri

some richer miembers is necessary, or at least very desirable. In cultural movement, alike in France, Germany, Italy, self-help the Schulze-Delitzsch system is specially strong. Raiffeisen Belgium, Holland, or in Canada, New Zealand, and the founded the first such bank in 1849, just before Schultze-Delitzsch United States, are similar to those we have seen in Ireland

founded his first; the second in 1854. The third began in 1862, and so on.

Not till 1880 did they begin really to spread. and Denmark; it is supplementary to individual culti

Though co-operative credit societies are split up into innumervation; hardly ever does it appear as associations for able groups, insisting on various minor modifications, and making cultivating in common, and, speaking generally, it has no various compromises between the two systems, these two types very ideal aims, but seeks chiefly to give the farmer a really include them all. They have spread from Germany into better profit: especially it brings within reach of the England, besides America and Asia. In Germany there were in

almost all European countries, even at last to Ireland and peasant many of the advantages of large farming. In

March 1901, out of a total of 19,557 co-operative societies, England there are a number of farms worked by stores, 12,140 credit associations, and these lent out in 1900 more than and several large associations for the supply of farm

£120,000,000. In Italy, Austria, and Hungary they are also requisites, but the typical agricultural co-operation, based be very well within the total amount lent by money co-operation on the small village societies and federations of such

on the Continent of Europe: £190,000,000 may be estimated for societies, has been almost unknown. An attempt is, 1900. Of this total only a small percentage represents loans by however, being made to promote such a movement on

banks of the Raiffeisen type, which, though very numerous, often the lines which have been successful in Ireland.

lend only a few hundred pounds each in the year. As part of agricultural co-operation we may reckon the While English and some other forms of co-operation development of an entirely new type of credit co-operation. have always repudiated State help, and probably rightly

The Schultze-Delitzsch credit societies are prim- so far as their own work is concerned, it is very Raiffeisen arily town institutions, and while they have mul- noticeable that in the modern development of

tiplied and grown great, and sometimes grown agriculture the action of the State and of local

capitalistic, many thousands of country folk have authorities has played a great part in performing or learnt to bless the little Raiffeisen loan banks. Such a assisting functions which neither voluntary association nor bank is an association of neighbours uniting to borrow individual enterprise could well perform alone; in proa sum of money, in order to lend it out as cheaply as viding technical education, expert advisers, exhibitions possible in small sums to such of themselves as need loans. and prizes ; in distributing information in all forms; in It also receives savings deposits, which often produce a finding out markets, controlling railway rates, subsidizing large part or even all the capital the society needs to lend. steamboats

, and even grading, branding, warehousing, and Usually a few of the members are persons of rather more freezing produce, and maintaining trade agents abroad. means than the others, and join to help their neighbours These things have of course not been done for co-operative by increasing the society's credit. These have no special societies alonc, but for agriculture in general; but coprivilege, but by common consent they usually take a operation has benefited, and much has been done expressly leading part. In the true Raiffeisen bank the liability of to encourage the formation of associations of cultivators, each member is unlimited, but limited liability has been and provincial and national federations of such associations; introduced in some of its modifications. The society con and government departments of agriculture are found fines its operations strictly to a small area, say a parish, acting through such bodies, and with their advice and where every one knows every one. Each borrower must assistance. Indeed, harm has sometimes been done by specify the purpose for which he wants a loan, say to buy subsidizing and forcing co-operative societies, whether for a cow or drain a field, or pay off a moneylender, and this political motives or merely from mistaken policy. Exis rigorously inquired into. Any member, however poor, perience shows that governments can do a very great deal, can obtain a loan for a profitable approved purpose, and at least for agricultural co-operation, but only on condition no one, however rich, can obtain one on any other terms. that they encourage and do not undermine self-help and

State action.

loan banks.

.

private initiative. Thus while we sometimes find voluntary | of 3 per cent., and an average density of 109 persons per association advocated as a step towards, and sometimes on square mile. This decrease is attributed partly to the the other hand as a substitute for and bulwark against decline of the coffee industry, and partly to the high state-socialism, we find in practice these two forces working mortality among immigrant coolies. The indigenous popueach in its own sphere and in a manner complementary lation increased by no less than 16 per cent., while the one to the other, while underlying and essential to both immigrant population decreased by 29 per cent. In 1897, is the force of individual action and self-help.

which was an exceptionally unhealthy year, the registered Amongst minor but still important developments may be death-rate was as high as 50:38 per thousand. Classified mentioned the steady growth of co-operative production in according to religion and race, the indigenous Coorgs France; the co-operative labour gangs, or rather societies

, which numbered 32,611 ; Hindus, 124,234 ; Mahommedans, undertake building and navvying work in Italy; the socialist 12,665 ; native Christians, 2931 ; Europeans, 249 ; members of parliament, in Belgium ; and the letting out of railway Eurasians, 212; Jains, 114; Parsis, 39. În 1901 the construction co-operative groups of workmen in New Zealand population was 180,461, showing an increase of 4 per and Victoria. It has been roughly estimated that altogether the cent. members of one or other branch of co-operation number 6,000,000,

The representing with their families a population of 25,000,000 people. total expenditure Rs.5,73,100.

gross revenue in 1897–98 was Rs.8,38,000, and the

The cultivated area is AUTHORITIES.—G. J. HOLYOAKE. History of Co-operation in 206,541 acres, of which 95,247 are under rice and 86,155 England. London, 1875–79. Idem. History of the Rochdale Pioneers. London, 1893.Idem. Self-Help a TĪundred Years Ago.

under coffee. The total area assessed for coffee is 106,611 London, 1891.Idem. Co-operative Movement To-day. London. acres, of which 31,732 acres are held by European 1891. BEATRICE POTTER. Co-operative Movement in Great planters. Some abandoned coffee land has been planted Britain. London, 1891.-H. D. Acland and B. Joxes. Working with tea, as an experiment. The cultivation of cinchona Men Co-operators. London, 1891.-BENJAMIN JONES Coreperative has proved unprofitable. The total exports are estimated Production. London, 1894.-H. D. LLOYD. Labor Co-partnership. London and New York, 1898.-D. F. SCHLOSS. Report on Con at Rs.22,49,000, including 2462 tons of coffee, valued at tracts given out by Public Authorities to Associations of Workmen. Rs.19,69,600. The imports are estimated at Rs. 29,02,000. London : Board of Trade, 1896.Idem. Report on Profit Sharing.

There is no railway. In 1896–97 the number of schools London : Board of Trade, 1894. See also yearly additions, &c., in the Labour Gazette.Idem. Methods of Industrial Remuneru

was 120, attended by 5115 pupils. The proportion of tion. 2nd edition, London, 1894. --LLOYD JONES. Life and Times boys at school was 30 per cent of those of school-going of Robert Owen. London, 1890.- N. P. GILMAN. Profit Sharing. age, compared with 2:3 per cent. for all India ; the proporLondon, 1892.-Idem. A Dividend to Labour. London, 1900.

tion of girls was 7 per cent., compared with 2:3 per cent. E. O. GREENING. The Co-operative Traveller Abroad. London, 1888. — CHIEF REGISTRAR OF FRIENDLY SOCIETIES.

for all India. There are no colleges, but 24 scholarships

Annual Reports on Industrial and Provident Societies. London.—BOARD are given to maintain Coorg students at colleges in Madras OF TRADE.

Second Annual Abstract of Foreign Labour Statistics. and Mysore. There are two secondary schools, at Mercara London, 1901.Idem. Seventh Annual Abstract of Labour and Virajendrapet, with 617 pupils, two printing-presses, Statistics of the United Kingilom, 1901.-Idem. Report on Workmen's Co-operative Societies in the United Kingdom, 1901.

one of which issues the Coorg Gazette, and seven dispensaries. Annual Reports of the Co-operative Union, Ltd. (Manchester), and

Copan.-Since the time of Stephens this ruined city many pamphlets published by the Union.- Annual Reports and Pamphlets of the Labour Association for promoting Co-operative of the Mayas in North Honduras has again been several Production, &c., London. — Co-operative Wholesale Societies' times visited by Mr A. P. Maudsley during the eighth and Annual, Manchester and Glasgow. – Year Books of Co-operative ninth decades of the 19th century. His chief finds have Productive Federation, Ltd., London, yearly. -Annual Reports been some elaborately sculptured monoliths, standing still of Irish Agricultural Organization Society, Dublin. Craig. History of Rulahine. London, 1893.Report of the Recess erect, or inclined like the Tower of Pisa, and a fine ornaCommittee (Ireland). Dublin and London, 1896. — Reports of mental doorway of a temple. He has also made the imthe Department of Agriculture. Wellington, New Zealand, 1899, portant discovery that all the truncated pyramidal mounds

INTERNATIONAL CO) - OPERATIVE ALLIANCE. Reports of were at one time crowned with temples, and are thus First and other International Co-operative Congresses. London, 1896, &c.— Idem. Statistics of Co-operative Societies in Various shown to be of the same character as those at Uxmal

, Countries. London, 1898.—II. W. Wolff. People's Banks, 2nd Chichen - Itza, and other places in Yucatan, i.e., teocalli, edition. London, 1896. — ANEURIN WILLIAMS. Relation of Co “God's Houses,” like the pyramids of Cholula, Teotihuacan, operative Movement to National anul International Commerce. Co

and Papantla in Mexico. Drawings, castings, and ruboperative Union, Manchester, 1896. — DE ROCQUIGNY. Co-opération ile Procluction dans l'Agriculture. Paris, 1896. —

bings were taken of several of the monuments, and are BERNADOT. Le Familistère de Guise. Guise, 1893.-TROMBERT. published in the Biologia Centrali - Americana. ProGuide Pratique de la Participation. Paris, 1892. — MERLIN. fessor Eduard Seler of Berlin also explored the place in Les Associations Ouvrières ct Patronales, &c. Paris, 1899.-- 1897, that is, less than three years after Maudsley's last Jaerboek van den Nederlandschen Coöperatieven Bond. The

visit, and found that in that short interval many of the Hague, 1901. — MABILLEAU and others. La Prévoyance Sociale en Italie, Paris, 1898.Sulle Associazioni Co-operative in Italia.

remains had again become so thickly moss-grown that it was Rome, Government Report, 1890. — Statistica delle Società difficult to distinguish their outlines, while the forest clearings Co-operative. Rome, Government Reports, 1895 and 1900.

made by former explorers to reach the sites of the ancient Niccoli. Co-operative Rurali. Milan, 1899.-CRÜGER. Jahrbuch buildings were once more overgrown with dense bush. des Allgemeinen Verbandes, &c. (German Statistics). yearly. —CARL WRAPETZ. Jahresbericht, &c. (Austrian Statistics).

Copenhagen (Danish, Kjöbenhavn, “the merVienna, yearly.

(A. W1*.)

chants' haven "), the capital of Denmark, situated in Coorg (Kodagu=steep mountains), a province of 55° 41' 13" N. lat. and 12° 34'44" E. long. Since India, administered by a Commissioner, subordinate to the 1875 the population has doubled itself, and in 1901, Governor-General through the Resident of Mysore, who is inclusive of the suburbs, amounted to 491,340.Not officially also Chief Commissioner of Coorg. It lies in the only has the city grown in extent also during this south of the peninsula, on the plateau of the Western Ghats, period, but considerable public improvements have been sloping inland towards Mysore. It is now an attractive effected, the only alteration in the opposite direction field of coffee cultivation, though the greater part is still being the destruction of the palace of Christiansborg under forest. The administrative headquarters are at by fire in 1881. Fortunately most of the art treaMercara (population, 7034).

sures which the palace contained were saved, but the Its area is 1583 square miles. In 1881 the population edifice still remains a roofless ruin. The new public was 178,302; in 1891 it was 173,055, showing a decrease buildings are mostly found on the strip of land on which

&c.

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