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the ramparts of the city formerly stood, and are in part | mentioned was 49,337, of whom 37,248 received instrucintended to replace older less convenient structures, such tion in the communal schools. as the new Royal Library, the new Polytechnic School, the Copenhagen is by far the most important commercial new Mineralogical Museum, and the new Town Hall, an town in Denmark, and has fully shared the steady and extensive and imposing edifice ornamented with a tower, considerable increase in the trade of the country during of which the spire, when finished, will be the tallest in the the last thirty years. According to an estimate furnished North of Europe—about 330 feet. The Glyptothek was by the director of the Statistical Bureau of Denmark, the built by the State and the municipality, to accommodate a annual value of the exports by sea may be taken at 168 considerable collection of modern objects of art, the gift million crowns, or £9,500,000; that of the imports at of a wealthy citizen, M. Jacobsen, who has spent very large 295 million crowns, or £16,400,000. The trading capasums upon objects of national interest. The new Museum bilities have been much increased by the construction of of Industrial Art is an outcome of the movement for the new Free Port, at the northern extremity of the town, applying art to the commoner objects of industry. The well supplied with warehouses and other conveniences. old Royal Picture Gallery and the Collection of Engravings, It is connected with the main railway station by means of which formerly occupied a portion of the upper storey of a new circular railway, while a short branch connects it the palace of Christiansborg, are now located in the new with the ordinary custom-house quay. Advantage has State Museum of Art, which is situated in a corner of been taken of the facilities afforded by the free port to the Östre Anlæg, a fine public garden formed out of a establish a more perfect steam communication with Sweden portion of the old ramparts. A similar garden, but particularly in order to accommodate through traffic. smaller, is the so-called Örstedspark. Besides these new Within a short distance of the free port is the station of Museum buildings, another is in contemplation, destined the new Eastern Railway, which runs along the shore of the to receive the Museums of Northern Antiquities, the Sound, connecting Copenhagen with Elsinore by a direct Ethnographic Museum, and some others, which are now line. At the end of 1899, 284 sailing vessels above four very inconveniently housed in the so-called Prindseus tons, with an aggregate tonnage of 18,145 tons, belonged Palais ; but this new National Museum is to be built to Copenhagen, while the steamers numbered 292, with a near the latter palace, and in part to replace it. Two collective tonnage of 219,055 tons. In 1899, 9200 clearprivate collections must also be mentioned, which, though ances inwards were effected by sailing vessels, 9177 by the property of private persons, are accessible to the public. steamers. Of the former, 4391 were Danish vessels, 4181 One of them is the New Glyptothek, a collection of antique Swedish, only 14 English. Of the steamers, 7057 were sculptures belonging to M. Jacobsen, and preserved at his Danish, 338 were English. Besides these, a limited number private residence. It contains a number of important speci- of passing vessels touched the port. The inward-bound mens, and is one of the largest, if not the largest private cargoes amounted to 1,580,002 tons, of which 955,557 collection of its kind out of Italy. The other is styled were carried in Danish bottoms. The cargoes which Dansk Folke-museum, and illustrates the domestic life of arrived from foreign ports amounted to 1,366,637 tons, of the Danish nation, particularly the peasantry, since 1600, which 750,257 tons were in Danish bottoms. The total by means of specimens of furniture, utensils, costumes, &c. of the outward-bound cargoes was 720,671 tons, of which The Frederik or Marble Church, the erection of which was 573,233 were carried in Danish bottoms; of this total, begun in 1749 but discontinued in 1770, remained a 391,052 were destined for foreign ports, of which 248,945 ruin until 1874, when it was purchased by a wealthy were in Danish bottoms.

The total of the cargoes exbanker, M. Tietgen, at whose expense the work was recom- changed between Copenhagen and other Danish ports was menced. The edifice was not carried up to the height 542,984 tons, of which but a very small proportion was originally intended, but the magnificent dome, which carried by foreign vessels. The total of exports and reminds one of the finest examples in Italy, is conspicuous imports by sea was 2,300,670 tons, of which 1,895,559 far and wide. The diameter is only a few feet less than tons were carried by steamers. Copenhagen is not an that of St Peter's in Rome. As the church now stands it industrial town. The manufactures carried on are mostly is one of the principal works of the architect, F. Meldahl. only such as exist in every large town, and the export of

Not only is Copenhagen the political capital, but it is also manufactured goods is inconsiderable. The only very large the centre of the higher culture of the nation. It is the seat establishment is one for the construction of iron steamers, of the university, which has 80 professors and lecturers, engines, &c., but some factories have been erected within with an average number of about 1900 students, and is the area of the free port for the purpose of working up fully equipped with the requisite scientific apparatus, such imported raw materials duty free.

(C. A. G.) as a library, observatory, botanical garden, museums for natural history, and other collections, laboratories, &c. Coppée, Francis Edouard Joachim The Royal Library is one of the largest institutions of its known as François) (1812-—), French poet and kind. The learned societies comprise the Royal Society of novelist, was born in Paris, 12th January 1842. His father Sciences, the Society of Northern Antiquaries, and numerous held a small post in the Civil Service, and he owed much others. Technical instruction is provided by the Poly- to the care of an admirable mother.

After passing technic School, which is a State institution; the School of through the Lycée Saint-Louis, he became a clerk in the the Technical Society, which, though a private foundation, Ministry of War, and soon sprang into public favour as a enjoys public subvention ; and also by the High School of poet of the young “Parnassian school. His first verses Agriculture, Veterinary Art, and Forestry, with 30 professors date from 1864. They were republished with others in 1866 and lecturers. The schools which prepare for the university, in a collected form (Le Reliquaire), followed (1867) by the &c., are nearly all private, but are all under the control of successful Intimités and Poèmes Modernes (1867–69). the State. Elementary instruction is mostly provided by In the latter year his first play, Le Passant, was received the communal schools, of which there are thirty within with marked approval at the Odéon Theatre, and later the area of the municipality. Twenty of these are free; Fais ce que dois and Les Bijoux de la Délivrance, short ten, in which a somewhat fuller education is given, exact metrical dramas inspired by the war, were warmly fees. The expense incurred by the municipality for applauded. After filling a post in the Library of the schools, over and above the amount of the school fees, was Senate, M. Coppée was chosen in 1878 as archivist of the in 1897, £110,000. The number of children in the area | Comédie-Française, an office which he held till 1884. In

S. III. – 30

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that year his election to the Academy caused him to re tons. It is now about ten times as great. The statistics tire altogether from his public appointments. Meanwhile for 1899, prepared by H. R. Merton and Co., are as he continued to publish volumes of poetry at frequent follows, in English tons of fine copper :intervals, including Les Humbles (1872), Le Cahier

United States.

262,206 Rouge (1874), Olivier (1875), L'Exilée (1876), Contes en

Spain and Portugal

53,720 Vers, &c. (1881), Poèmes et Récits (1886), Arrière-Saison Japan

27,560 (1887), and others. Of late years he has printed but Chile

25,000 little poetry, unless aroused by some occasion of public


23,460 Australia

20,750 interest, such as the visit of the Tsar to Paris (1896). Mexico

19,335 Besides the plays mentioned above, two others written in Producers of under 10,000 tons each

44,835 collaboration with M. d'Artois, and some light pieces of little importance, M. Coppée has produced Madame de


476,866 Maintenon (1881), Severo Torelli (1883), Les Jacobites As the stock on hand rarely exceeds three months'demand, (1885), and other serious dramas in verse, including and is often little more than a month's supply, it is evident Pour la Couronne (1895). The performance of a short that consumption has kept close pace with production. episode of the Commune, Le Pater, was prohibited by the This extraordinary increase corresponds closely with that Government (1885). M. Coppée's first story in prose, of pig iron, of which the world's production was about Une Idylle pendant le Siège, appeared in 1875. It was 3,600,000 tons in 1850, and 35,921,617 tons in 1898. followed by various volumes of short tales, by Toute une The world, therefore, has needed these two metals in almost Jeunesse, -an attempt to reproduce the feelings, if equal proportions for the development of modern mechanical not the actual wants, of the writer's youth, — by industry. Great Britain is still the largest copper conLes Vrais Riches (1892), by Le Coupable (1896), &c.

The statistics of consumption for 1898 assign to A series of reprinted short articles on miscellaneous

Great Britain 139,704 tons, or 32.1% of the world's production subjects, styled Mon Franc Parler, appeared from United States 120,348 27.7% 1893 to 1896; and in 1898 was published La Bonne Germany 70,000 16.1% Souffrance, the outcome of V. Coppée's reconversion to


42,652 9.7% the Roman Catholic Church, which has gained very wide The large demand for copper to be used in sheathing popularity. The immediate cause of his return to the ships ceased on the introduction of iron in shipbuilding faith was a severe illness which twice brought him to the because of the difficulty of coating iron with an impervious verge of the grave. Hitherto he had taken little open layer of copper ; but the consumption in the manufacture interest in public affairs, but he now joined the most of electric apparatus and for electric conductors has far violent section of Nationalist politicians, while retaining more than compensated. contempt for the whole apparatus of democracy. He took The scale on which modern mines are worked and a leading part against the prisoner in the Dreyfus case, modern smelters planned has reached proportions formerly and was one of the originators of the notorious Ligue de unknown. For example, the Rio Tinto Company in Spain la Patrie Française. M. Coppée, who became an officer and the Anaconda in Butte, Montana, each handles between of the Legion of Honour in 1888, has a home at Mandres, one and a half and two million tons of ore a year; and these near Boissy St Léger. He has published a collected companies, with the Calumet and Hecla, and the Boston edition of his poetry and another of his plays, and remains and Montana Companies, make more than one-third of the one of the most popular of French writers. Alike in world's total. This has brought about a corresponding verse and prose, he concerns himself with the plainest increase in the scale of the machinery used :-(1) mechanical expressions of human emotion, with elemental patriotism, calciners have in great measure taken the place of hand and the joy of young love, and the pitifulness of the poor, furnaces ; (2) both reverberatory and cupola furnaces, as bringing to bear on each a singular gift of sympathy and well as their auxiliary apparatus, have been enlarged; and insight. The lyric and idyllic poetry, by which he will mechanical appliances have been adapted to both for the chiefly be remembered, is animated by musical charm, and purpose of saving hand labour; (3) the pneumatic method in some instances, such as La Bénédiction and La Grève in Bessemer converters of concentrating ore to metallic des Forgerons, displays a vivid, though not a sustained, copper has been applied very extensively ; (4) some propower

of expression. There is force, too, in the gloomy gress has been made towards smelting ores by the heat of tale Le Coupable. But he exhibits all the defects of his combustion of their own elements, through what is known qualities. In prose especially, his sentiment often

as pyritic smelting ; and some new smelting methods have degenerates into sentimentality, and he continually ap- been introduced, notably the direct process of Messrs proaches, and sometimes oversteps, the verge of the trivial.

Nicholls and James ; (5) the electrolytic refining of copper Nevertheless, by neglecting that canon of contemporary art has come into general use. which would reduce the deepest tragedies of life to mere Calcination and calcining furnaces.—As most copper subjects for dissection, he has won those common suffrages ores contain sulphur, which can be driven off at low which he fully deserves, and which, where literature is temperatures as sulphurous acid gas, calcination is a concerned, he probably does not undervalue.

preliminary to smelting. To aid in extracting the

sulphur mechanical agitation is almost universally resorted Copper.—The sources of copper, its applications and to. Three types of mechanical calciners are used, all its metallurgy, have undergone great changes. Forty years developments of English inventions. In the White-Howell ago Chile was the largest producer

, reaching her maximum revolving cylinder furnace with lifters—a modification of in 1869 with 54,867 tons; but in 1899 her production had the Oxland—the ore is fed and discharged in a continuous fallen off to 25,000 tons. Great Britain, though she had stream. The Brückner cylinder resembles the Elliot and made half the world's copper in 1830, held second place in Russell black ash furnace; its cylinder tapers slightly 1860, making from native ores 15,968 tons; in 1898 her towards each end and is generally 18 feet long by 8 production was only 640 tons. The United States made feet 6 inches in its greatest diameter. Its charge of from only 572 tons in 1850, and 12,600 tons in 1870; but she 8 to 12 tons of ore or concentrates is slowly agitated to-day makes more than 60 per cent. of the world's total. at a rate of three revolutions a minute, and in from 24 to Le Play estimated the world's production in 1850 at 52,400 / 36 hours it is reduced from say 40 or 35 per cent. to 7 per



cent. of sulphur. The ore is under better control than is size smelt 200 tons of charge a day. But even when the
possible with the continuous feed and discharge, and when old type of reverberatory is preferred, as at the Argo works,
sufficiently roasted can be passed red-hot to the reverberatory Colorado, where rich gold- and silver-bearing copper matte
furnace. These advantages compensate for the wear and is made, the growth of the furnace in size has been steady.
tear and the cost of moving the heavy dead-weight. The Richard Pearce's reverberatories in 1878 had an area of
M‘Dougall furnace is turret-shaped, and consists of a series hearth of 15 feet by 9 feet 8 inches, and smelted 12 tons
of circular hearths, on which the ore is agitated by rakes of cold charge daily, with a consumption of 1 ton of coal
attached to revolving arms and made to fall fro earth to to 2:4 tons of ore. His present furnaces are 35 feet by
hearth. It has been modified by Herreshoff, who uses a 16 feet, and smelt 50 tons daily of hot ore, with the con-
large hollow revolving central shaft cooled by a current of sumption of 1 ton of coal to 3.7 tons of ore.
air. The shaft is provided with sockets, into which mov The home of cupola smelting was Germany, where it
able arms with their rakes are readily dropped. The Peter has never ceased to make steady progress. In Mansfeld
Spence type of calcining furnace has been followed in a brick cupola furnaces are without a rival in size, equipment,
large number of inventions. In some the rakes are at- and performance. They are round stacks, designed on the
tached to rigid frames, with a reciprocating motion, in model of iron blast furnaces, 29 feet high, fed mechanically,
others to cross-bars moved by revolving chains. Some of and provided with stoves to heat the blast by the furnace
these furnaces are straight, others circular. Some have gases. The low percentage of sulphur in the roasted ore
only one hearth, others three. This and the previous type is little more than enough to produce a matte of 40
of furnace, owing to their large capacity, are at present in to 45 per cent., and therefore the escaping gases are
greatest favour. The M‘Dougall-Herreshoff

, working on better fitted than those of most copper cupola furnaces for ores of over 30 per cent. of sulphur, requires no fuel ; but burning in a stove. But as the slag carries on an average in furnaces of the Spence-O'Hara type fuel must be used, 46 per cent. of silica, it is only through the utmost skill

excess of air enters through the slotted sides that it can be made to run as low on an average as 0:3 per and the hinged doors which open and shut frequently to cent. in


oxide. As the matte contains on an average permit of the passage of the rakes. The consumption 0-2 per cent. of silver, it is still treated by the Ziervogel of fuel, however, does not exceed 1 of coal to 10 of ore. wet method of extraction, the management dreading the The quantity of ore which these large furnaces, with a loss which might occur in the Bessemer process of conhearth area as great as 2000 feet and over, will roast varies centration, applied as preliminary to electrolytic separation. from 40 to 60 tons a day. Shaft calcining furnaces like the Blast furnaces of large size, built of brick, have of late years Gerstenhoffer, Hasenclaver, and others designed for burning treated the richest and more silicious ores of Rio Tinto, and pyrites fines have not found favour in modern copper works. at present the Rio Tinto Company is introducing converters Kilns and stalls roast so small a quantity that they would at the mine. This method of extraction contrasts favourcover too much ground and involve too much handling. ably in time with the leaching process, which is so slow

The fusion of ores in reverbeiatory and cupola furnaces. that over 10,000,000 tons of ore are always under treatment -After the ore has been partially calcined, it is smelted on the immense leaching floors of the company's works in to extract its earthy matter and to concentrate the copper Spain. In the United States the cupola has undergone with part of its iron and sulphur into a matte.

In rever

a radical modification in being built of water - jacketed beratory furnaces it is smelted by fuel in a fireplace, sections. The first water-jacketed cupola which came into separate from the ore, and in cupolas the fuel, generally general use was a circular inverted cone, with a slight taper, coke, is in direct contact with the ore. When Swansea of 36 inches' diameter at the tuyeres, and composed of an was the centre of the copper-smelting industry in Europe, outerandan inner metalshell, between which watercirculated. many varieties of ores from different mines were smelted As greater size has been demanded, oval and rectangular in the same furnaces, and the Welsh reverberatory furnaces

as large as 180 inches by 56 inches at the were used. To-day more than eight-tenths of the copper tuyeres—have been built in sections of cast or sheet iron ores of the world are reduced to impure copper bars or to or steel. A single section can be removed and replaced fine copper at the mines; and where the character of the without entirely emptying the stack, as a shell of congealed ore permits, the cupola furnace is found more economical slag always coats the inner surface of the jacket. The largest in both fuel and labour than the reverberatory.

furnaces are those of the Boston and Montana Company The Welsh method, with its seven or eight operations, at Great Falls, Montana, which have put through 500 tons finds adherents only in Wales and Chile. In America the of charge daily, pouring their melted slag and matte into usual method is to roast ores or concentrates so that the large wells of 10 feet in diameter. A combined brick- and matte yielded by either the reverberatory or cupola furnace water-cooled furnace was first used by the Oxford Copper will run from 45 to 50 per cent. in copper, and then Company, and has been adopted by the Iron Mountain to transfer to the Bessemer converter, which blows it up to Company at Kerwick, Cal., for matte concentration. 99 per cent. In Butte, Montana, reverberatories have in it the cooling is effected by water pipes, interposed horithe past been preferred to cupola furnaces, as the charge zontally between the layers of bricks. The Mt. Lyell has consisted mainly of fine roasted concentrates ; but even smelting works in Tasmania, which are of special interest, there the cupola is gaining ground. To smelt Butte ores will be referred to later. there are about 75 reverberatories, but the number will be Concentrating matte to copper in the Bessemer converter. reduced by the replacement of small by large furnaces, -As soon as the pneumatic method of decarburizing pig heated by gas instead of solid fuel. At the Boston and iron was accepted as practicable, experiments were made Montana works tilting reverberatories, modelled after open with a view to Bessemerizing copper ores and mattes. One hearth steel furnaces, were first erected ; but they were of the earliest and most exhaustive series of experiments found to possess objectionable features. Now both these was made on Rio Tinto ores at the John Brown works by and the egg-shaped reverberatories are being abandoned Mr John Holloway, with the ambitious aim of both for furnaces as long as 43 feet 6 inches from bridge to smelting the ore and concentrating the matte in the same bridge and of a width of 15 feet 9 inches, heated by gas, furnace, by the heat evolved through the oxidation of with regenerative checker work at each end, and fed with their sulphur and iron. Experiments along the same ore or concentrates, red-hot from the calciners, through a lines were made by Francis Bawden at Rio Tinto and line of hoppers suspended above the roof. Furnaces of this Claude Vautin in Australia. The difficulty of effecting



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this double object in one operation was so great that in sulphur, iron, and silica, successfully without any fuel, when subsequent experiments the aim was merely to concentrate once the initial charge had been fused with coke. The the matte to metallic copper in converters of the Bessemer furnaces used were of ordinary design and built of brick. type. The concentration was effected without any em- Lump ore alone was fed, and the resulting matte showed barrassment till metallic copper commenced to separate a concentration of only 3 into 1. When, however, a hot and chill in the bottom tuyeres. To meet this obstacle blast is used on highly sulphuretted copper ores, a conM. Manhès proposed elevated side tuyeres, which could be centration of 8 of ore into 1 of matte is obtained, with a conkept clear by punching through gates in a wind box. His sumption of less than one-third the fuel which would be coninvention was adopted by the Vivians, at the Aiguelles sumed in smelting the charge had the ore been previously works in France, and at Leghorn in Italy. But the calcined. A great impetus to pyritic smelting was given greatest expansion of this method has been in the United by the investigations of Mr W. L. Austin, of Denver, States, where now more than 400,000,000 fb of copper Colorado, and both at Leadville and Silverton raw ores, are annually made in Bessemer converters. Vessels of are successfully smelted with as low a fuel consumption as 'several designs are used -some modelled exactly after 3 of coke to 100 of charge. But the largest establishment steel converters, others barrel-shaped, but all with side in which advantage is taken of the self-contained fuel is at tuyeres elevated about 10 inches above the level of the the smelting works of the Mt. Lyell Company, Tasmania. bottom lining. Practice, however, in treating copper

There the blast is raised from 600° to 700° F. in stoves matte differs essentially from the treatment of pig iron, heated by extraneous fuel, and the raw ore smelted with inasmuch as from 20 to 30 per cent. of iron must be only 3 per cent. of coke. The ore is a compact iron eliminated as slag and an equivalent quantity of silica pyrites containing, of copper 2.5 per cent., of silver 3.83. must be supplied. The only practical mode of doing this, oz., of gold 0:139 oz. It is smelted raw with hot blast in as yet devised, is by lining the converter with a silicious cupola furnaces, the largest being 210 in. by 40 in. The mixture. This is so rapidly consumed that the converters resulting matte runs 25 per cent. This is reconcentrated must be cooled and partially re-lined after 3 to 6 charges, raw in hot-blast cupolas to 55 per cent., and blown. dependent on the iron contents of the matte. When directly into copper in converters. Thus these ores, as available, a silicious rock containing copper or the heavily charged with sulphur as those of the Rio Tinto, precious metals is of course preferred to barren lining. are speedily reduced by three operations and without The material for lining, ard the frequent replacement roasting, with a saving of 97:6 per cent of the copper,, thereof, constitute the principal expense of the method. 93.2 per cent. of the silver, and 93:6 per cent. of the gold. The other items of cost are labour, the quantity of which

The Nicholls and James process. Messrs Nicholls. depends on the mechanical appliances provided for hand and James have applied, very ingeniously, well-known. ling the converter shells and inserting the lining; and the reactions to the refining of copper, raised to the grade blast, which in barrel-shaped converters is low and in of white metal. This process is practised by the Cape vertical converters is high, and which varies therefore Copper and Elliot Metal Company. A portion of the from 3 to 15 lb to the


inch. The quantity of air white metal is calcined to such a degree of oxidation consumed in a converter which will blow up about 35 tons that when fused with the unroasted portion, the reaction of matte per day is about 3000 cubic feet per minute. between the oxygen in the roasted matte and the sulphur The operation of raising a charge of 50 per cent. matte in the raw material liberates the metallic copper. The to copper usually consists of two blows. The first blow metal is so pure that it can be refined by a continuous occupies about 25 minutes, and oxidizes all but a small operation in the same furnace. quantity of the iron and some of the sulphur, raising the Electrolytic refining and separation of gold and silver.. product to white metal. The slag is then poured and — The principles have long been known on which is based. skimmed, the blast turned on and converter re-tilted. the electrolytic separation of copper from the certain During the second blow the sulphur is rapidly oxidized, elements which generally accompany it, whether these, and the charge reduced to metal of 99 per cent. in from like silver and gold, are valuable, or, like arsenic, antimony, 30 to 40 minutes. Little or no slag results from the bismuth, silenium, and tellurum, are merely impurities. second blow. That from the first blow contains between But it was not until the dynamo was improved as a 1 per cent, and 2 per cent. of copper, and is usually poured machine for generating large quantities of electricity at a from ladles operated by an electric crane into a reverbera- very low cost that the electrolysis of copper could be tory, or into the settling well of the cupola. The matte practised on a commercial scale. To-day, by reason of also, in all economically planned works, is conveyed, still other uses to which electricity is applied, electrically molten, by electric cranes from the furnace to the con- deposited copper of high conductivity is in ever-increasing verters. When lead or zinc is not present in notable demand, and commands a higher price than copper

refined quantity, the loss of the precious metals by volatilization by fusion. This increase in value permits of copper with is slight, but more than 5 per cent. of these metals in the not over £2 or $10 worth of the precious metals being matte is prohibitive. Under favourable conditions in the profitably subjected to electrolytic treatment. Thus many larger works of the United States the cost of converting a 50 million ounces of silver and a great deal of gold are per cent. matte to metallic copper is generally understood recovered which formerly were lost. The mining district to be only about foto of a cent per lb of refined copper. of Butte, Mont., alone produces annually about 10,000,000

Pyritic smelting.—The heat generated by the oxidation of ounces of silver and 40,000 ounces of gold, all of iron and sulphur has always been used to maintain com- which is recovered by electrolytic separation. The bustion in the kilns or stalls designed for roasting pyrites. methods of electrolytic refining used in Europe and Since Holloway's and other early experiments, no serious America necessarily differ only in detail. (See ELECTROattempts have been made to utilize the heat escaping from CHEMISTRY.) Most of them employ the multiple system, a converting vessel in smelting ore and matte either in the in which the soluble anodes of cast copper and cathodes same apparatus or in a separate furnace. But considerable of thin copper strippings are hung in lead-lined vats. progress has been made in smelting highly sulphuretted A few works have adopted the series system, in which ores by the heat of their own oxidizable constituents. At the anodes are sheets of rolled copper, one side of Tilt Cove, Newfoundland, the Cape Copper Company which is being dissolved while the refined copper is smelted copper ore, with just the proper proportion of being deposited on the reverse from the adjacent sheet..

These are usually suspended in slate vats, owing to the mattes in stalls, would have occupied not less than four higher voltage used. In the multiple system the anodes months. A large furnace and a Bessemer converter, the are generally cast plates of from 1 inch to 11 inches in pair capable of making a million pounds of copper a thickness, while in the series system they must be rolled month from a low-grade sulphuretted ore, will not occupy sheets, usually I inch thick. The multiple system anodes a space of more than 25 feet by 100 feet; and whereas, in are sometimes cast directly from the blister furnace or making metallic copper out of a low-grade sulphuretted ore, the converter, but they are smoother, more compact, and one day's labour used to be expended on every ton of ore make less scrap if roughly refined. At the Anaconda treated, to-day one day's labour will carry at least four tons works the Bessemer copper is poured into a revolving of ore through the different mechanical and metallurgical cylindrical refinery, where it is poled, and thence poured processes necessary to reduce them to metal. (J. Ds.) into large ladles mechanically handled, which hold the measured weight of an anode. At other works similar Canada, about 475 miles long, taking its rise in a lake in

Coppermine, a river of Mackenzie district, trolleys. At the Baltimore works Walker's travelling approximately 110° 20' W. long. and 65° 50' N. lat., and tables present the moulds in rotation to the pouring Gulf in the Arctic Ocean.

flowing south and then north - westward to Coronation ladle. The old method of slow hand-ladling has been in 1771, and was explored from Point Lake to the sea

It was discovered by Hearne discarded in the United States works, and the refining by Captain (afterwards Sir John) Franklin in 1821. furnace, whether for making anodes or casting the cath- by Captain (afterwards Sir John) Franklin in 1821. odes, has been enlarged to a capacity of from 80,000 lb Coptic Church. — Racially the Copts are deto 120,000 lb to a charge. The electrolyte is invari- scendants of the ancient Egyptians, the name Egypt ably an acidulated solution of cupric sulphate. The meaning “land of the Gypt,” as the Copts are

History. current density seldom if ever exceeds 18 ampères to the to this day called in Arabic. By the Coptic square foot, and it can be economically raised to that church, therefore, is meant the native church of Egypt or point only when a high temperature and rapid circulation church of Alexandria. Its founder was St Mark, after of the electrolyte is maintained. In some rare instances whom was called the cathedral, which survived the Arab where water power is in excess of requirements, the conquest. From St Mark the succession has been mainelectrolyte is heated by raising the resistance and by tained to the present time, but not unbroken. Up to the forcing the current through small conductors. With an 5th century the church of Alexandria played a part in 18-ampère current, anodes of 1 inch thickness are dis- the Christian world scarcely second to that of Rome : solved in 15 days, and therefore a plant of given size the names of Origen, Athanasius, and Cyril bear witness to-day, using a current of high density, turns out at least to her greatness. But in the time of Dioscorus, 25th three times more copper than formerly, when a current patriarch, the church, always fond of speculation, was rent density of 6 ampères per square foot was deemed the high- asunder by the controversy concerning the single or twoest safe maximum limit. The accumulation of dangerous fold nature of our Lord, as stated by Eutyches. The quantities of impurities in the electrolyte is corrected in Eutychian doctrine, approved by the council of Ephesus, most works by withdrawing at intervals a given pro was condemned by that of Chalcedon in 451. But portion of the whole, recovering its valuable contents and to this decision, though given by 636 bishops, the Copts replacing it by pure electrolyte. The metals which it is refused assent—a refusal which profoundly affected both the aim of most works to recover from copper anodes are the religious and the political history of their country. copper, gold, and silver. The former is deposited on the From that moment they were treated as heretics. The cathode, while the precious metals separate and collect as emperor appointed a new bishop of Alexandria, whose slime, with their valuable or valueless ingredients, in the adherents the Copts styled Melkites or Imperialists, while bottom of the vat, or as a coating on the anodes. Copper the Copts were called Monophysites and Jacobites. The is invariably used as the conductor, and almost every court party and the native party each maintained its own line works adopts different methods of attaching the electrodes of patriarchs,and each treated the other with bitter hostility. to the permanent conductors.

For nearly two centuries strife and persecution continued. The only published statement of the cost of refining copper The well-meant ecthesis of Heraclius was a failure and was on a large scale is that given in the report of the Anaconda followed by repression, till in 640 the Copts found their Company, which turns out from its works in Anaconda about opportunity in the Saracen invasion. The fall of the 80,000,000 fb of copper annually. The total cost, including Byzantine empire meant the fall of the Byzantine church, taxes but not interest on plant, was in 1897–98, cent per and after some resistance the Copts accepted a change of pound. This is in excess of the cost on the Atlantic sea masters, which

gave them religious freedom. The orthodox board and in Europe, where fuel and labour are both cheaper. or Melkite party, consisting mostly of Byzantine Greeks, Only electrolytic copper, together with that from Lake was swept away, and the double succession of patriarchs Superior, has sufficient purity and conductivity to be used practically ceased. True, even in 1901 there was an for electrical purposes. It enters the market as cathodes, orthodox patriarch of Alexandria living in Cairo, but he which are the rough plates, as withdrawn from the tanks, or had only a few Greeks for followers, and scarcely a nominal cast into ingots, wire bars, and cakes. The conductivity of succession has been maintained. But the Coptic succession the cathodes is higher than thatof the copper cast from them. has been continuous and real. Copper can be electrolytically deposited on irregular moulds, "The most holy Pope and patriarch of the great city or as tubes on revolving mandrils. To ensure density, of Alexandria and of all the land of Egypt, of Jerusalem where this is done, agate burnishers travel over the surface the holy city, of Nubia, Abyssinia, and Pentaof the tube during deposition, as in the Elmore process.


polis, and all the preaching of St Mark," as he is Modern methods in copper smelting have therefore still called, had originally jurisdiction over all the places effected enormous economy in time, space, and labour. named. Jurisdiction over Abyssinia remains, but from To-day with pyritic smelting a sulphuretted copper ore, Nubia and Pentapolis Christianity has disappeared. The fed into a cupola in the morning, can be passed directly to ancient rule is that no bishop is eligible for the patriarchate. the converter, blown up to metal, and shipped as 99 per The requirement of a period of desert life has so far precent. bars by evening—an operation which formerly, with vailed that no one but a monk from one of the desert heap roasting of the ore and repeated roasting of the monasteries is now qualified. This rule, harmless perhaps

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