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when the monasteries were the great schools of learning trisagion and with crosses. Communion must be received and devotion, now puts a premium on ignorance, and is fasting. Confession is required, but of late has somewhat disastrous to the church. The patriarch is chosen by an fallen into disuse. Laymen receive in both kinds. The assembly of bishops and elders. The candidate is brought wafer being broken into the chalice, crumbs or "pearls ” in chains from the desert, and, if only in monk's orders is are taken out in a spoon and so administered, as in the passed through the higher grades except that of bishop. Greek rite. Reservation is uncanonical. Renaudot states The patriarch's seat was transferred some time after the that it was permitted in cases of great extremity, when Arab conquest from Alexandria to the fortress town of the host remained upon the altar with lamps burning and Babylon (Old Cairo), and in modern times it was shifted a priest watching, but it is not now practised, and there is to Cairo proper.

The other orders and offices in the no evidence of any such vessel as a pyx in Coptic ritual. church are metropolitan, bishop, chief priest, priest, arch- Small benedictional crosses belong to each altar, and prodeacon, deacon, reader, and monk. The number of cessional crosses are common. The crucifix is unknown, bishoprics in ancient times was very large—Athanasius for while paintings and frescoes abound, graven images are says nearly 100. At present there remain ten in Egypt, absolutely forbidden. The liturgy is still read in the extinct one at Khartum, and three in Abyssinia.

Coptic language, but the gospel and lessons are also read in The numerous remaining churches in Egypt but faintly the vernacular Arabic. Seven sacraments are recognizedrepresent the vast number standing in ancient times. baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, orders, matrimony,

Rufinus says that he found 10,000 monks in and unction of the sick. The chief fasts are those of Buildings.

the one region of Arsinoe. Later, in 616, the Advent, of Nineveh, of Heraclius, Lent, and Pentecost. Persians are described as destroying 600 monasteries near Pilgrimage to Jerusalem is a duty and sometimes a penance. Alexandria. Abû Sâlih (12th century) gives a list of Vestments are a difficult subject, obscured by writers churches surviving in his day, and their number is like Renaudot and Denzinger, who found their statements astonishing. The earliest were cut out of rocks and caverns. on written evidence without having visited

Vestments, In the days of Constantine and Justinian basilicas of Egypt. The majority of the Coptic vestments great splendour were built, such as the church of St Mark have peculiarities in form and name, not corresponding at Alexandria and the Red Monastery in Upper Egypt. closely with vestments of western ritual. But the pallium This type of architecture permanently influenced Coptic is the symbol of patriarchal office. Cope and chasuble builders, but there prevailed also a type, probably native formerly existed, and for both there is pictorial as well as in origin, though possessing Byzantine features, such as documentary evidence; but the chasuble has disappeared, the domed roofing. There is no church now standing and the supervestment of the celebrant is now the cope or which bears any trace of the fine glass mosaics which once burnus. The dalmatic remains in use and is often enriched adorned the basilicas, nor is there any example of a well with embroidered figures and texts. The shamlah and defined cruciform ground-plan. But the use of the dome tailasân are peculiar vestments, something like an amice. by Coptic architects is almost universal, and nearly every The patrashil corresponds to the Greek epitrachelion, and church has at least three domes overshadowing the three the kamás, or armlets, to epimanikia. The girdle is a altars. The domes are sometimes lighted by small win liturgical vestment and is worn over the dalmatic. Mitre dows, but the walls are windowless, and the churches con- and pastoral staff are used by bishops, although the mitre sequently gloomy. Among the most interesting churches is not of western shape and resembles rather a crown, as are those of Old Cairo, those in the Wadi Vatrûn, and it is in fact called in Arabic. the Red and White Monasteries.

The whole of the Coptic ritual deserves much fuller Every church has three altars at the eastern end in study than it has received. Since the 7th century the three contiguous chapels. The central division is called church has been so isolated as to be little influenced by

the haikal or sanctuary, which is always divided changes affecting other communions. Consequently it Church

from the choir by a fixed partition or screen fittings.

remains in many respects the most ancient monument with a small arched doorway closed by double of primitive rites and ceremonies in Christendom. But doors. This resembles the Greek iconostasis. lIaikal centuries of subjection to Moslem rule have much screen and choir screen are often sumptuously carved and weakened and degraded it. The priesthood are very illinlaid. A marble basin for the mandatum in the nave, paid and mostly very ignorant. . Among the younger and an epiphany tank at the west are common features. Copts, however, there is now a strong reforming party The altar is usually built of brick or stone, hollow within, who are anxious to remove the reproach of the clergy and having an opening to the interior. A wooden altar- by education, remembering the time when the church slab covered with crosses, &c., lies in a rectangular de- of Alexandria was as famous for learning as for zeal. pression on the surface, and it is used in case of need They desire also to resist the serious encroachments of as a portable altar. Chalice and paten, ewer and basin, Roman Catholic, American Presbyterian, and other foreign crewet and chrismatory, are found as in the western missions upon their ancient faith. Their great need is an churches. The aster consists of two crossed half-hoops of enlightened patriarch of strong character, with funds to silver and is used to place over the wafer. The flabellum found a theological college. is used, though now rarely made of precious metal. Some

AUTHORITIES. — WANSLEB. Histoire de l'Eglise d'Alexandrie. examples of silver-cased textus now remaining are very fine. Paris, 1677.Idem. Voyage in Egypt. Paris, 1698.-RENAUDOT, Every church possesses thuribles—the use of incense being Historia Patriarcharum Alexandrinorum. Paris, 1713.-ABÛ universal and frequent—and diadems for the marriage ser

DAKN. History, trans. by Sir E. Sadleir. London, 1693.-S. C.
MALAN.

London, vice. The use of church bells is forbidden by the Moslems,

Original Documents of the Coptic Church.

1874.—DENZINGER. Ritus Orientalium. Wirceburg, 1863. except in the desert, and church music consists merely of Curzon. Monasteries of the Levant.-NEALE. Eastern Church. cymbals and triangles which accompany the chaunting. London, 1847.—BUTLER. Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt. The sacramental wine is usually made from raisins, but

Oxford, 1881.-EVETTS and BUTLER. Churches and Monasteries the juice must be fermented. Churches even in Cairo

of Egypt, by Abû Sâlih. Oxford, 1895.-AMÉLINEAU. Mémoires

pour servir à l'histoire de l'Égypte Chrétienne. Paris, 1888–95 ; and Rites have a press for crushing the raisins. The other works.

(A. J. B.) cucharistic bread is baked in an oven built near the sanctuary.

The wafer is a small loaf about Copyhold.-Since the publication of the article in 3 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick, stamped with the the ninth edition of the Ency. Brit, the law relating to the

and ceremonies.

Act of 1894.

„statutory enfranchisement of copyhold, first established | is a rent charge. Power is conferred on the lord to by the Copyhold Act, 1841, has been consolidated by the purchase the tenant's interest where a change in the Copyhold Act, 1894. Owing to the incidents attaching to condition of the land by enfranchisement would prejudice land “holden by copy of court roll according to the his mansion house, park, or gardens; while on the other custom of the manor .” in the shape of fines and heriots, hand, in the interest of the public or the other tenants, the inability to grant a lease for a term exceeding a year, the board is authorized to continue conditions of user for and to the peculiar rules as to descent, waste, dower, their benefit. curtesy, alienation, and other matters, varying often So far the provisions relating to compulsory enfranchisefrom manor to manor and widely differing from the ment have been dealt with ; but even in the case of a uniform law applicable to land in general, enfranchise- voluntary agreement the lord and tenant are only enment, or the conversion of land held by copyhold tenure titled to accept enfranchisement with the consent of the into freehold, is often desired. This could and may still Board of Agriculture. The consideration in addition to a be effected at common law, but only by agreement on the gross sum or a rent charge may consist of a conveyance part of both the lord and the tenant. Moreover, it was of land, or of a right to mines or minerals, or of a right to subject to other disadvantages. The cost fell on the waste in lands belonging to the manor, or partly in one tenant, and the land when enfranchised was subject to the way and partly in another. The effect of enfranchiseencumbrances attaching to the manor, and so an investiga- ment, whether it be voluntary or compulsory, is that the tion into the lord's title was necessary. In 1841 an Act land becomes of freehold tenure subject to the same laws was passed to provide a statutory method of enfranchise- relating to descent, dower, and curtesy as are applicable to ment, removing some of the barriers existing at common freeholds, and so freed from Borough English, Gavelkind

law; but the machinery created was only avail- (save in Kent), and other customary modes of descent, able where both lord and tenant were in agree- and from any custom relating to dower, or free-bench, or

ment. The Copyhold Act, 1852, went further, tenancy by curtesy. Nevertheless, the lord is entitled to and for the first time introduced the principle of compul- escheat in the event of failure of heirs, just as if the land sory enfranchisement on the part of either party. By the had not been enfranchised. The land is held under the Copyhold Act, 1894, which now governs statutory en same title as that under which it was held at the date franchisement, the former Copyhold Acts, 1841–87, were at which the enfranchisement takes effect; but it is not repealed, and the law was consolidated and improved. subject to any estate right, charge, or interest affecting Enfranchisement is now effected under this Act, though in the manor. Every mortgage of the copyhold estate in certain cases it is also to be obtained under special Acts

, the land enfranchised becomes a mortgage of the freehold, such as the Land Clauses Consolidation Act, 1848; and subject though to the priority of the rent charge paid in the old common-law method with all its disadvantages is compensation under the Act. All rights and interests of

The Copyhold Act, 1894, deals both with any person in the land and all leases remain binding in compulsory and with voluntary enfranchisement. In the same manner. On the other hand the tenant's rights either case the sanction of the Board of Agriculture must of common still continue attached to the freehold ; and, be obtained ; and powers are bestowed on it to decide without express consent in writing of the lord or tenant questions arising on enfranchisement, with an appeal to respectively, the right of either in mines or minerals shall the High Court. The actual enfranchisement, where it is not be affected by the change. Some other changes are compelled by one of the parties, is effected by an award also made by the Act. No creation of new copyholds by made by the board ; in the case of a voluntary enfran- granting land out of the waste is permissible, save with chisement it is completed by deed. Under the Act it is the consent of the Board of Agriculture; and it would open to both lord and tenant to compel enfranchisement, seem as if the Act had rendered the customary court a though the expenses are to be borne by the party requir- very shadowy institution by enacting that a valid admiting it. The compensation to the lord, in the absence of tance of a new copyholder may be made without holding an agreement, is ascertained under the direction of the a court. board on a valuation made by a valuer or valuers ap Under the earlier Acts, machinery to free the land from pointed by the lord and tenant; and may be paid either the burden of the old rents, fines, and heriots was set up, in a gross sum or by way of an annual rent charge issuing commuting them into a rent charge or a fine. Commuout of the land enfranchised, and equivalent to interest at tation, however, is never compulsory, and differs from the rate of 4 per cent. on the amount fixed upon as enfranchisement in that, whereas by enfranchisement the compensation. This rent charge is redeemable on six land in question is converted into freehold, by commutamonths' notice at twenty-five times its annual amount. tion it still continued parcel of the manor, though subject The tenant, even if he is the compelling party, may elect to a rent charge or a fine, as might have been agreed. either method; but the lord has not the same option, and The ordinary laws of descent, dower

, and curtesy were, where the enfranchisement is at his instance, unless there however, substituted for the customs in relation to these is either an agreement to the contrary or a notice on the matters incidental to the land in question before commupart of the tenant to exercise his option, the compensation / tation, and the timber became the tenant's. (JNO. S.)

still open.

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COPYRIGHT. YINCE 1877 the system of international copyright | The most marked and certain progress has been in the

has been remodelled by the Bern Convention; the application of the law of copyright to the periodical United States has conferred a species of international press (in 1877 it was not clear whether a newspaper was copyright on foreign authors; and considerable changes for all purposes within the Copyright Act), in order to have been made in the English law of copyright.

protect within reasonable limits the labour and expenditure So far as the English law of copyright in books is concerned of newspapers that obtain for the public the earliest news the chief developments have been by decisions of the Courts and arrange it for publication. The old common - law explaining the exact limits to which protection extends. theory that a perpetual copyright existed over literary

[graphic]

work, as laid down by Lord Mansfield, no doubt has been questions, however, remain for consideration, especially in abandoned. But the Copyright Act, 1812, has been artistic copyright. liberally construed as to what is a literary work and what Plays and Music.—The only decision of importance is original matter. It is now settled law that a newspaper affecting the drama has been the “Little Lord Fauntleroy” is a book within the meaning of the Act, and can claim case, in which the person who dramatized the novel of all rights that a book has under the Copyright Act. Thus, another without his consent, an operation up to that time at the present time, leading articles, special articles, and believed to be unassailable in law, was attacked successeven news items are protected. Current prices of stocks fully, by preventing him from using printed or written and shares, translations, the compilation of a directory, copies of the play, either to deposit with the Lord summaries of legal proceedings, and other similar literary Chamberlain or as prompt-books. In every case where work, so far as the literary form, the labour, and money much of the original dialogue of the novel is taken, this are concerned, are equally protected. In short, the test stops the production of the dramatization. In music, may now be broadly stated to be, whether labour of the statutes of 1882 and 1888 have prevented the use of the brain and expenditure of money have been given for the provisions inflicting penalties for the performance of copyproduction ; whilst the old requirement of original matter right songs for purposes of extortion, by allowing the is not strictly maintained, or, at any rate, is broadly inter- Court to inflict a penalty of one farthing and make the preted. Thus, the St James's Gazette was restrained from plaintiff pay the costs, if justice requires it. Authors inaking extracts from a descriptive article by Rudyard Kip-reserving the right of public performance are required to ling in the Times, and the Pall Mall Gazette protected its print a notice to that effect on all copies of the music. An cable reports of Australian cricket-matches. The latest important decision on musical copyright is the recent case leading case, however, on the subject is Walter v. Lane in which it has been held that the reproduction of copy(decided in the House of Lords, 6th August 1900). The right tunes on perforated slips for an Æolian mechanical question raised was, whether or not copyright applied organ is not an infringement of the copyright in the under the Act of 1812 in respect of verbatim reports of tune. speeches. Four of the law lords, viz., the Lord Chancellor, Artistic Copyright.The most striking decisions have Lord Davey, Lord James of Hereford, and Lord Brampton, been those in the “Living Picture” cases (in which it was upheld the claim to copyright in such cases, whilst Lord decided that tableaux vivants are not infringements of the Robertson was the sole dissentient. The point of law was copyright of the pictures from which they are taken), and examined by each judge with great care ; but the gist of a series of cases relating to photographs, which were not their decision is to be found in the opening sentences of much in the contemplation of the framers of the Artistic the judgment of the Lord Chancellor (Lord Halsbury), Copyright Act of 1862. It has been decided that the who said : “My lords, I should very much regret if I "author" of a photograph is the person who groups and were compelled to come to the conclusion that the state of effectively superintends the picture, and not his employer, the law permitted one man to make profit out of and to nor the sun, which has some claims to the title. The appropriate to himself the labour, skill, and capital of private sitter has restrained the photographer from exanother. And it is not denied that in this case the de-hibiting or selling the photographs for which he has been fendant seeks to appropriate to himself the labour, skill, paid, but in several cases the celebrity who has sat to a and capital of another. In the view I take of this case, photographer at his request and without payment, has not I think the law is strong enough to restrain what to my been allowed to distribute his photograph to newspapers mind would be a grievous injustice.”

for reproduction without the consent of the photographer. Apart from newspapers, protection has been extended (See ARTISTIC COPYRIGHT below.) to publications having no literary character; Messrs Colonial Copyright.—The International Copyright Act, Maple's furniture catalogue, and the Stock Exchange 1886, contains provisions designed to extend the benefit of prices on the “tape” have been awarded the same pro- the British Copyright Acts to works first produced in the tection as directories. On the other hand, it has been colonies, while allowing each colony to legislate separately decided that there is no copyright in a title, though if a for works first produced within its own limit. The latter new title is so like one with an established reputation that permission has been adopted by several of the colonies. it will mislead the public, it may be restrained, not on The desire of Canadian printers to allow or require copygrounds of copyright, but as a use of a title akin to right works to be reprinted or printed in Canada has given common-law fraud. The Sphere and Spear, titles of mis- rise to a very difficult controversy. The colonies at present leading similarity, assumed by two weekly periodicals that are all included in the system of international copyright appeared almost simultaneously in London in 1900—the established by the Bern Convention hereafter explained. latter, however, being but short-lived—could not success

International Copyright. Until 1886 international fully attack each other, because neither had an established copyright in Great Britain rested on a series of Orders in reputation when the title of the other was first adopted. Council

, made under the authority of the International The Courts have declined to protect works which are Copyright Act, 1844, conferring on the authors of a parmere copies of railway time-tables, or the “tips” of a

ticular foreign country the same rights in Great Britain as sporting prophet, or mechanical devices with no in- British authors, on condition of their registering their work dependent literary matter, such as patterns for cutting in Great Britain within a year of first publication abroad. ladies' sleeves.

A condition of the granting of each order was that the A committee of the House of Lords has considered pro- Sovereign should be satisfied that reciprocal protection posals and heard evidence concerning various Bills for

was given in the country in question to British authors. the amendment of the law of copyright, both literary and The Bern Convention.— As the result of conferences at artistic. The general tendency of all the proposals is to Bern in 1885 and 1887, this system was simplified and increase the protection given to authors and artists, by made more general by the treaty known as "The Bern lengthening the term of protection to thirty years after Convention,” signed at Bern on 5th September 1887. the death of the author, by increasing the amount of The contracting parties were the British Empire, Belgium, protection given (as by forbidding abridgments, dramatiza- France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Tunis, and tion of novels, and translations), and by increasing the Hayti.' Luxemburg, Monaco, Norway, and Japan have efficacy of the remedies for infringement. Many difficult since joined. Austria and Hungary have a separate con

vention with Great Britain, concluded on 24th April 1893. | promptly and more economically, they could be and often The notable absentees among European powers are Holland were issued in an abbreviated and garbled form, an injury and Russia. The basis of the Bern Convention was that which to not a few writers seemed more grievous than the authors of any of the countries of the Union, or the pub- lack of pecuniary profit. In Great Britain, during the first lishers of works first published in one of them, should half of the 19th century the copyright law had been so enjoy in each of the other countries of the Union the same interpreted as to secure recognition of the rights of American rights as the law of that country granted to native authors. authors for such works as were produced there not later The only conditions were that the work should comply with than in any other country, so that authors like Washington the necessary formalities, such as registration, in the country Irving and Fenimore Cooper secured for a time satisfactory where it was first published, in which case it was exempt returns; but after 1850 the conditions became the same as from all such formalities elsewhere; and that the protec- in the United States. Unauthorized editions were pubtion required from any country should not exceed that lished, and were often incomplete and garbled. given in the country of origin. The rights conferred in As from decade to decade the books produced on either cluded the sole right of making a translation of the work side of the Atlantic, which possessed interest for readers of for ten years from its first publication. The Convention the other side, increased in quantity and in importance, the was retrospective; that is to say, it applied to copyright evil of these unrestricted piracies increased. The injury works published before its coming into existence, each to British authors was greater only in proportion as the country being allowed to protect vested interests, or copies English books were more numerous. The pressure from already made by others, as it should think best.

Great Britain during the last half of the 19th century for The rights of foreign authors in Great Britain rest on international copyright was continuous; and in America legislation giving effect to the Bern Convention, namely, it was recognized by authors, by representative publishers, the International Copyright Act of 1886 (49 and 50 Vict. and by the more intelligent people everywhere, that the c. 33), and an Order in Council made under that Act, existing conditions were of material disadvantage. The dated 28th November 1887. These confer on the author or loss to American authors was direct; and the loss to publisher of a work of literature or art first published in legitimate American publishers was also clear, in that one of the countries which are parties to the Convention, better returns could be secured by adequate payments for after compliance with the formalities necessary there, the rights that could be protected by law than hy “courtesy” same rights as if the work had been first published in the payments for authorizations that carried no legal rights. United Kingdom, provided that those rights are not greater An injury was being done to American literature ; for, than those enjoyed in the foreign country.

when authorized editions of American works had to comThe rights of British authors in foreign countries rest | pete against unauthorized and more cheaply produced in each country on the domestic legislation by which the editions of English works, the business incentive for particular country has given effect to its promise contained literary production was seriously lessened. In fiction in the Bern Convention, and are enforced by the courts particularly, authors had to contend against a flood of of that country. The Bern Convention was revised in cheaply produced editions of “appropriated” English minor details not affecting its broad principles by a con

books. Equally to be condemned were the ethics of a ference meeting in Paris, and Great Britain adopted the relation under which one class of property could be approresults of their labours by an Order in Council dated priated while other classes secured legal protection. On 7th March 1898.

these several grounds efforts had long been made to secure AUTHORITIES.—BIRRELL, A. Copyright in Books. London, 1899.

international copyright. Between 1813 and 1886 no less -COHEN, B. A. Law of Copyright. London, 1896.-EDMUNDS, L.

than eleven international copyright Bills were drafted, for Copyright in Designs. London, 1895.-Knox and Hind. Copy, the most part at the instance of the copyright associations right in Designs. London, 1899.---SCRUTTON, T. E. Law of or copyright leagues. They were one after the other killed Copyright, third edition. London, 1896.

(T. E. S.)

in committee. In 1886 the twelfth international copyright

Bill was brought before the Senate by Senator Jonathan AMERICAN COPYRIGHT.

Chace of Rhode Island, and was referred to the Committee

on Patents. In 1887 the American Publishers' Copyright An Act of the United States, known as the Act of March League (succeeding the earlier American Publishers' Associa1891, which replaced the Act of July 1870, and which is tions) was organized, with William H. Appleton as president, still in force, constituted the most important modification and G. H. Putnam as secretary. The Executive Comin copyright law since the original Act of 1790. Under all mittee of this league formed, with a similar committee of Acts preceding it, copyright had been granted to "citizens the Authors' Copyright League, a Conference Committee, or residents of the United States,” the term “resident” | under the direction of which the campaign for copyright having been, in decisions prior to 1891, construed to mean was continued until the passage of the Act of March 1891. a person domiciled in the United States with the inten- Of the Authors' Copyright League James Russell Lowell tion of making there his permanent abode. The works was the first president, being succeeded by Edmund of foreigners could thus be reproduced without author- Clarence Stedman. The secretary during the active work ization, and they were so reproduced in so far as there of the League was Mr Robert U. Johnson. Under the was prospect of financial gain. The leading publishers, initiative of the Conference Committee copyright leagues however, had from the earliest times made terms with

with were organized in Boston, Chicago, St Louis, Cincinnati, British authors, or with their representatives, the British Minneapolis, Denver, Colorado City, and other places. publishers, for producing authorized American editions. The Chace Bill was introduced in the House in March But at most they were only able to secure by this means an 1888. In May 1890 this Bill, with certain modifications, advantage of a few weeks' priority over the unauthorized came before the House, and was there defeated. In March editions, and the good-will of the conscientious buyer; so 1891 the same measure, with certain further modifications, that if they paid the author any considerable sum, the secured a favourable vote in the House during the last price of the authorized editions had to be made so high hour of the last day of the session, was passed by the Senate, that it was not easy to secure a remunerative sale. The and was promptly signed by President Harrison. Thus, unauthorized editions had the further advantage in com- after a struggle extending over fifty-three years, the United petition, that for the purpose of being manufactured more | States accepted the principle of international copyright.

S. III. — 31

The Act of 1891.-The provisions of the copyright law, as Australia, &c. An American work which has been duly amended by the Act of 1891, may be briefly summarized as follows:

entered for copyright in Great Britain secures, as a British A. Works of Literature.—1. Copyright is granted to authors, publication secures, the protection of copyright under the whether resident or non-resident, for a term of twenty-eight years.

provisions of the Bern convention throughout the territory A further term of fourteen years is granted to the author if at of the several states that are parties to that convention. the expiration of the first term he be still living, or to his widow

Amendments to the copyright law have been made as or children if he be dead. Unless the author survives the first term, or leaves widow or children, the copyright is limited to

follows: 3rd March 1893–Producers of article entitled twenty-eight years. The essential change indicated in this to copyright who had heretofore failed to make delivery, section of the law is the extension of copyright privileges to non according to the regulation in force, of two copies of the resident producers. 2. In order to secure copyright, all editions article to be copyrighted, but who had complied with of the works of all authors, resident or non-resident, must be entirely manufactured within the United States, the term

all the other provisions of the Act, and who shall “manufactured” including the setting of type as well as printing before 1st March 1893 make such delivery, shall be and binding. Prior to 1891 the works of American authors could entitled to complete the entry of copyright accordingly. be put into print on either side of the Atlantic. This manufac

2nd March 1895The penalty to be paid in case of turing condition was insisted on by the typographical unions. 3. The country of which a non-resident author is citizen must

the infringement of the copyright of a photograph made concede to American authors copyright privileges equivalent to

from any object not a work of the Fine Arts shall be limited those which it concedes to its own authors. 4. As under the to a maximum of $5000; and in case of the infringement British Act, the works of resident as well as of non-resident of a work of the Fine Arts, or of a photograph of the same, authors must be published in the home country not later than in any other country. 5. The regulations previously in force for

to a maximum of $10,000, one-half of said penalties to be making the entries of copyright are continued. 6. While the

the paid to the proprietors of the copyright, and the other half importation of clitions of the books so copyrighted is prohibited, to the Treasury of the United States. 1st January 1897 whether the authors of the same be American or foreign, invoices —The performance of dramatic and musical compositions may be imported of not more than two copies each, said copies being certified to be “ for use and not for sale. 7. Foreign periodicals,

without the consent of the authors involves a liability for of which there are no editions printed from type set in the United damages of not less than $100 for the first performance, States, cannot secure an American copyright. The importation and $50 for every subsequent performance as to the Court of such periodicals is unrestricted except for such numbers as shall appear just. If the unlawful performance be wilful contain reprints of material that has already in some other form secured an American copyright. An English author who copy

and for profit, the party responsible shall be guilty of a rights and publishes a volunie in the United States, some chapters

misdemeanour, and upon conviction shall be imprisoned for of which have previously been printed in an English magazine, is a period not exceeding one year. 19th February 1897— not able to prevent the reprinting in the United States of an A Bill establishing as the Copyright Department of the unauthorized issue of those chapters. In case all the chapters Library of Congress a Bureau of Copyrights, the head of have been printed in a foreign periodical before the publication of the American edition, its American copyright has probably been

which bears the title Register of Copyrights. 3rd March forfeited. 8. The foreign author has the same control as the 1897—Through a modification of section 4963, the renative author over translations of such of his books as have been sponsibility for enjoining the publication or the selling of copyrighted in the United States. There is, however, no prohibi

any article made or imported in violation of the United tion of the importation of an edition of a work printed in a language other than that in which it has secured its copyright.

States copyright laws is placed upon the Circuit Court of 9. Authors or their assigns have the exclusive right to dramatize

the United States in the city of the person complaining of and to translate any of their works for which copyright has been violation. obtained under the laws of the United States.

The salaries of the staff of the Bureau of Copyrights, as B. Works of Art.-Forcign artists and designers are accorded the term or terms accorded to foreign authors and to domestic established in 1897, amounted to $36,440. The Approartists. To reproductions in the form of chromos, lithographs, or priation Bill passed by Congress in March 1900, inphotographs the condition of American manufacture is attached, creasing the appropriation for the library as a whole, but not to the more artistic forms of reproduction, so that foreign authors can control engravings or photogravures of their designs,

gave the staff of the Copyright Bureau an additional whether these are manufactured in Europe or in the United

allowance, making the total $51,080. According to the States. This provision is held by artists and art publishers of annual statement of the Register of Copyrights of 30th the Continent, who had in past years suffered severely from December 1899, the fees received during the twelve preAmerican appropriations of their productions, to be of special

prodluctions, to be of special ceding months for copyright entries and for the recording importance. In the case of a painting, drawing, statue, statuary: of assignments aggregated $60,803.50. The copyright or a model or design for a work of the Fine Arts, in addition to the title, if there be one, a description and a photograph must be entries comprised 78,370 titles of United States producsent.

tions, and 8122 titles of foreign productions. These C. Music. — Foreign composers are given the same terms that

figures include works of art and musical compositions. are accorded to Americans. American manufacture is not necessary, but the condition of reciprocity is the same as in the case

During the years immediately preceding 1900 the proof books.

ducers of copyright property paid into the United States The Act came into effect 1st July 1891. The provisions Treasury from $15,000 to $20,000 annually in excess of having to do with international copyright become operative the cost of carrying on the Copyright Bureau, and with the in the case of a foreign state only when the President increased expenditure for the maintenance of the bureau proclaims that the state has fulfilled the condition of there will still apparently be a surplus of fees amounting to reciprocity. The Act has been put into force with foreign $10,000. In addition to this, the producers of copyrighted states as follows :—1st July 1891, Great Britain, Belgium,

books deliver to the library of Congress a copy required as a France, Switzerland; Sth March 1892, Germany (by separate voucher for the copyright entry and a further copy for the treaty); 31st October 1892, Italy ; Sth May 1893, Den

use of the nation. The books so delivered aggregate from mark; 15th July 1895, Spain ; 20th July 1895, Portugal ; 6100 to 6500 works each year. 27th February 1896, Mexico; 13th April 1896, Sweden and The existing American copyright law is defective in several Norway ; 25th May 1896, Chile ; 19th October 1899, Costa

respects, and the following considerations are submitted with a

view to its amendment :Rica; 20th November 1899, the kingdom of the Netherlands. 1. The condition that books or works of art must be "manuIn the case of each state the territory covered by the provi factured” in America in order to secure American copyright should sions of the law includes the possessions, dependencies, &c. he eliminated. In case it may not prove practicable to secure the The copyright agreement with Great Britain, therefore,

abolition of the manufacturing condition, consideration ought cercovers the Crown colonies of the empire, such as India,

tainly to be given promptly to the just claims of authors whose

books are originally produced in some language other than Engand the independent dominions and states, such as Canada, 'lish. There is no logical connexion between the right of an

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