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or other of these all Manchus and all the descendants of the entrance to the Canton river. These are supplied with heavy members of other nationalities are yet enrolled. They form the armament from the Krupp and Armstrong factories, but the garribulk of the population of the “Tartar city” of Peking. Each adult sons share the weakness common to all Chinese military establishmale is by birth entitled to be enrolled as a soldier, and by virtue ments. of his enrolment has a right to draw rations—i.e., his allowance of Production and Industry: D[inerals.—The Chinese Government the tribute rice, whether on active service or not. Detachments has hitherto shown a great repugnance to permitting foreign comfrom one or other of the banners were also stationed as garrisons panies to work minerals in any part of the country. As a consein the chief provincial centres, as at Canton, Foochow, and Hang quence very little is known of the actual resources of the empire, chow, &c., and their descendants still occupy the same position. which, however, are believed to be very great. A Bureau of Mines, They are, lil their kinsmen in Peking, entitled to draw a however, has been created with a view to granting concessions, pittance from the provincial taxes as rations. Both in the capital and probably much progress will be made in the near future, and in the provinces the Manchu garrisons are exempt from the Coal.-This mineral is worked on foreign principles at only one jurisdiction of the local authorities, and are justiciable only before place, viz., the Kaiping collieries in the north-east of the province their own officers. As a fighting force the Manchu garrisons both of Chihli. The mines are connected with the seaport of Taku by in the capital and in the provinces have long become quite effete. a railway. The coal is a soft bituminous coal with a large proIn the capital, however, the élite of the Manchu soldiery have portion of dust. The output is about 1,500,000 tons per annum. been formed into a special corps termed the Peking Field Force. A mine has also been opened in the province of Hupeh, about 60 Its nominal strength is 20,000, the men are armed and drilled after miles below Hankow, and near the Yangtse, in connexion with the European fashion, and fairly well paid. There are other corps the iron-works recently erected by the viceroy of that province. of picked Manchus better paid and better armed than the ordinary Numerous small mines have been worked for a long period by the soldier, and it is computed that the Manchu army in or near natives in the province of Hunan. There are two principal local Peking could muster 75,000, all more or less efficient. The second fields in this province, one lying in the basin of the Lui river and organization is termed the army of the Green Standard, being the yielding anthracite, and the other in the basin of the Siang river Chinese provincial forces. The nominal strength is from 20,000 yielding bituminous coal. Both rivers drain into the Yangtse, and to 30,000 for each province, or about 500,000 in all; the actual there is thus an easy outlet by water to Hankow. The quality of strength is about one-third of this. They are enrolled for the the coal, however, is inferior, as the stratification has been much purpose of keeping the peace within their own province, and disturbed, and the coal seams have been in consequence crushed resemble a militia or local constabulary rather than a national and broken. No statistics of the output are obtainable, but it army. They are distributed in small camps or garrisons in the estimated to be over 300,000 tons per annum-mostly destined for principal towns, and the most serious duty they are likely to be local consumption. The largest coal-field in China lies in the called on to perform is that of putting down a local rebellion. province of Shansi. Coal and iron have here been worked by the The bulk of each provincial army is under the command of a natives from time immemorial, but owing to the difficulty of general-in-chief, but certain brigades are under the orders of the transport they have attained only a limited local circulation. The governor and the governor-general. They are generally poorly whole of southern Shansi, extending over 30,000 square miles, paid and equally badly drilled and armed. As a fighting force is one vast coal-field, and contains, according to the estimate of they are of no practical account.

Baron von Richthofen, enough coal to last the world at the present The only real fighting force which China possesses is made up rate of consumption for several thousand years. The coal seams, of certain special corps which are not provided for in the constitu which are from 20 to 36 feet in thickness, rest conformably on tion, and which consequently used to be termed yung, braves" or a substructure of limestone. The stratification is throughout irregulars, but which have now acquired various distinctive names. undisturbed and practically horizontal. As the limestone bed is They are enlisted for service generally, and have all had some raised some 2000 feet above the neighbouring plain the coal seams smattering of foreign drill. They are also fairly well paid and crop out in all directions. Mining is thus carried on by adits armed. Since the Japanese war these corps have been quartered driven into the face of the formation, rendering the mining of the near Peking and Tientsin, and are generally spoken of as the army coal extremely easy. The coal-field is divided into two by a of the North. They are now grouped in five divisions under the mountain range of ancient granitic formation running north-east command of Generalissimo Jung Lu, and are supposed to number and south-west, termed the Hoshan. It is of anterior date to the 75,000 men. In addition to these the Government could count on limestone and coal formations, and has not affected the uniformity 20,000 men more who are now scattered in garrisons in Manchuri of the stratification, but it has this peculiarity, that the coal on

Navi. Since the destruction of the northern fleet by the the east side is anthracite, and that on the west side is bituminous. Japanese at the capture of Wei-hai-wei in 1895, the Chinese navy A concession to work coal and iron in certain specified districts may be said to be non-existent. It formerly consisted of two in this area has been granted to a British company, together divisions, the northern and the southern, of which the former with the right to connect the mines by railway with water

naviwas by far the more formidable. The southern was under the gation, and it is expected that important developments will follow control of the viceroy of Nanking, and took no part in the on this grant. At present the mines, in default of railway facilities, Japanese war. While the northern fleet was grappling in a are practically valueless. At the pit's mouth coal can be had for death -struggle, the southern was lying snugly in the Yangtse a shilling a ton, but as transport costs from 2 d. to 5d. per ton waters, the viceroy of Nanking apparently thinking that as the per mile, the price becomes prohibitive after a short distance. Japanese had not attacked him there was no reason why he should În spite of these drawbacks the present output must be considerrisk his ships. Since the close of the war an attempt has been able, considering the great area and the number of openings that made to restore the northern fleet, which now consists of five are being worked, but it is impossible to state it with any degree small cruisers and a few torpedo boats. The southern squadron of accuracy. There are various other sources of coal-supply, such consists of seven small cruisers, old-fashioned, and four torpedo as the western hills near Peking, many parts of Szechuen, and boats. The viceroys of Foochow and Canton possess a few gun some districts in Shantung and kwangtung, which, however, do boats meant to repress piracy, but of no fighting value.

not call for detailed notice. It may, indeed, be said generally that Arsenals and Dockyards.-Since the loss of Port Arthur, China there is hardly a province which does not possess coal mines more possesses no dockyard except a small one at Foochow, which can or less valuable—the one draw back to their development being not dock vessels over 3000 tons. Many years ago the Chinese the absence of railways. Government established at Foochow a shipbuilding yard, placing Iron.—Iron ore of various qualities is found almost as widely it in the hands of French engineers. Training schools both for diffused as coal. The districts where it is most worked at present languages and practical navigation were at the same time organized, lie within the coal-field of Shansi, viz., at Tse-chou-fu and Ping-tingand a training ship was procured and put under the command of chou. The ore is a mixture of clay iron ore and spathic ore, a British naval officer. Some twenty-five or thirty small vessels together with limonite and hematite. It is found abundantly in were built in the course of as many years, but gradually the whole irregular deposits in the Coal Measures, and is easily smelted by organization was allowed to fall into decay. Except for petty the natives in crucibles laid in open furnaces. This region suprepairs this establishment is valueless to the Chinese Government. plies nearly the whole of north China with the iron required for Well-equipped arsenals have been established at Shanghai and at agricultural and domestic use. The out-turn must be very conTientsin, but as they are both placed up shallow rivers they are siderable, but no data are available for forming an accurate useless for naval repairs. Both are capable of turning out heavy estimate. The province of Szechuen also yields an abundance of guns, and also rifles and ammunition in large quantities. There iron ores of various kinds. They are worked by the natives in are also military arsenals at Nanking, Wuchang, Canton, and numerous places, but always on a small scale and for local conChengtu, besides smaller establishments'at other provincial centres. sumption only. The ores occur in the Coal Measures, predominant Forts. A great number of forts and batteries have been

erected among them being a clay iron ore. Hunan, Fuhkien, Chekiang, along the coast and at the entrance to the principal rivers. and Shantung all furnish iron ores, but only a petty industry is Chief among these, now that the Taku forts formerly commanding carried on at any one place. the entrance to Tientsin have been demolished, are the Kiangyin

. forts commanding the entrance to the Yangtse, the Min forts at found chiefly in the provinces of Kweichow and Yunnan, where a the entrance of the Foochow river, and the Bogue forts at the rich belt of copper-bearing ores is found running east and west

1875.

1880.

1885.

1895.

1898.

India.

1875.

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1990.

1895.

1898.

The only

across both provinces, and including south Szechuen. The chief

Imports into China. (000's omitted.) centres of production are at the cities of Tung-chuan-fu, Chaotung, and Ning-yuan. The mines are worked as a Government Imports from

1890. monopoly, private mining being nominally prohibited. No concessions have so far been granted to foreign companies. The

Un. Kingdom £6,340 £6,382 £6,396 £6,357 £5,518 £5,244 output is considerable, but no statistics are published by Govern

Hongkong 8,282 8,829 9,40-1 | 18,615 14,331 14,582 ment. The supply is not, however, enough to meet the require

4,451 6,039 | 4,306 2,661 2,753 2,870

Other British
ments of the country, as foreign copper is imported to the extent
of about 28,000 tons a year.

Possessions 396 346 512 571 732
It is generally supposed that if the

721
United States 301 351 881

919

827 mines were thrown open to foreign enterprise, not only would the

2,574 home demand be met, but there would be a large available supply

Continent of for export.

Europe (ex

cept Russia) 230 Precious Metals. There is no known source of supply in China

671 671 638 1,227 1,410

Russia in proper where gold and silver are worked to any appreciable extent.

Europe.

177 A little gold washing is done in the sandy beds of certain rivers,

291 218

Russia in Asia 30 50 52 51 18 45 for instance, the Han river and the upper Yangtse, above Suifu,

The which here goes by the name of the “Goldsand ” river.

Japan.
746 1,021 | 1,404

1,909 2,794 4,156
amount so extracted is extremely small and hardly pays the
labour of washing, but the existence of gold grains points, no

Exports from China. (000's omitted.) doubt, to a matrix higher up. The whole of south-western China has the reputation of being highly metalliferous, and it is probable

Exports to that valuable deposits may be found when permission to prospect United Kingdom £8,749 £8,125 £5,864 £3,383 £1,718 £1,607 has been granted by the Chinese Government. Gold is obtained,

Hongkong 3,824 4,814 4,232, 8,5075,651 9,312 however, in some quantities on the upper waters of the Amur India

72 323 157 273 449 198 river, on the frontier between China and Siberia. The washings Other British are carried on by Chinese, no foreigners so far having been allowed Possessions. 948 874 818 886 586 558 to participate. Gold has also been found in quartz veins at Ping United States 2,302 | 2,906 2,213 2,109 2,499 | 1,798 tu, in the province of Shantung, but hardly in paying quantities. Continent of

Manufactures.-In regard to manufactures the only point to be noticed is the recent establishment of cotton spinning and weaving

Europe (except
Russia)

2,524 | 3,760 | 1,918 3,004 3,440 3,889 mills by foreign companies at Shanghai. Permission to carry on Russia in Europe

411

252 959 727 751 this industry was refused to foreigners until the right was secured

Russia in Asia 928 1,252 1,041 1,329 1,808 | 1,919 by the Japanese treaty following on the war. Some native

Japan

586 642 398 1,248 2,408 | 2,414 owned mills had been working before that date, and were reported to have made large profits. Eight mills with an aggregate of 300,000 spindles are now working, five of which are under foreign

The principal exports from the United Kingdom to China are management. There are also four or five mills at one or other of

cotton piece goods, woollen manufactures, metals, and machinery. the ports working 80,000 spindles more. These nills are all

China is next to India the greatest consumer of Manchester goods. engaged in the manufacture of yarn for the Chinese market,

The export of plain cotton cloths to China and Hongkong has for very little weaving being done. Chinese-grown cotton is used,

some years averaged 500,000,000 yards per annum. the staple of which is short, and only the coarser counts can be

competitor which Great Britain has in this particular branch of spun. So far these mills have not had the financial success

trade is the United States of America, which within recent years

has been supplying China with very large quantities of cotton which was predicted for them, but many of the initial difficulties were due to inexperience, and it is probable that the cotton

goods. In 1888 China imported 70,000,000 yards of American

made goods, but in 1898 the import hai risen to 165,000,000 yards. manufacturing industry in China will attain considerable proportions. The only other manufacture that deserves mention is

The value in sterling of the total imports into China from the United that of silk weaving. This is carried on solely by native looms,

Kingdom has remained nearly constant for the last 25 years, but and chiefly in the cities of Hangchow, Soochow, and Nanking.

inasmuch as the gold prices have been falling the volume of the The native looms have long been famous for their beautiful silks

export has been in reality steadily growing. The imports into and brocades. The greater part is destined for home consump

England, however, of Chinese produce have fallen off enormously, tion, but there is now also a considerable export. In 1898

mainly through the fact that China tea has been driven out of the the export of silk piece goods amounted in value to £1,400,000.

English market by the growth of India and Ceylon, and also

because the bulk of the China silk is now shipped directly to Lyons The reeling of silk cocoons by steam machinery has also come

and other Continental ports instead of to London as formerly was into vogue in recent years, and is gradually supplanting the native methods. Notwithstanding the large foreign importations

the rule. The growth of the import of Indian yarn into China the spinning and weaving of cotton on native hand-looms is still

has been very rapid. In 1884 the import was 35,000,000 fb and carried on almost universally. The whole of the large import of imports into China from all foreign countries for the year 1898

in 1898 it reached 188,000,000 lb. Arranged in categories the Indian yarn, as well as that locally manufactured, is worked up into cloth by the women of the household. Four-fifths of the

were as follows :clothing of the lower classes is supplied by this domestic industry. Cottons and cotton yarn

£11,012,000 Commerce.—The progress of the foreign trade of China is set out Woollen manufactures

440,000 in the following table. The values are given both in currency and

Metals and machinery

1,600,000 sterling, but it is to be remarked that during the period when silver

Petroleum .

1,600,000 was falling, that is from 1875 to 1893, the silver valuation repre

Opium

3,160,000 sents much more accurately variations in the volume of trade than Sundries

10,370,000 does the gold valuation. Gold prices fell continuously during this period, while silver prices were nearly constant. Since 1893 silver

Total

£28, 182,000 prices have tended to rise, and the gold valuation is then more accurate. The conversion from silver to gold is made at the rate

The principal exports from China are silk and tea. These two of exchange of the day, and therefore varies from year to year

articles, indeed, up to 1880 constituted more than 80 per cent. of

the whole export. Owing, however, mainly to the fall in silver, Table of Imports and Exports, exclusive of Bullion. and partly also to cheap ocean freights, it has become profitable to Imports.

Exports.

place on the European market a vast number of miscellaneous

articles of Chinese produce which formerly found no place in the Equivalent in Value in Equivalent in returns of trade. The silver prices in China did not change Sterling.

Taels.

Sterling. materially with the fall in silver, and Chinese produce was thus 1875

able to compete favourably with the produce of other countries. 66,344,000 £19,903,000 77,308,000 £23,193,000

The following table shows tho relative condition of the export 1880 76,689,000 22,368,000 87,694,000 25,582,000

trade in 1880 and 1898:1885 84,803,000 22,618,000 73,899,000 19,206,000 1890 113,082,000 29, 213,000 96,695,000 24,980,000 1895 154,685,000 25,136,000

Exports of 154,964,000 25,181,000 1896 184,897,000 25,816,000 141,685,000 23, 114,000

Silk.

£9,750,000 £9,074,000 1897 185,194,000 27,779,000 175,229,000 26,284,000

11,774,000 4,178,000 1898 189,991,000 28,498,000 170,743,000 25,612,000

Miscellaneous

4,058,000 12,360,000 The distribution of the trade among the various countries of

Total .

£25,582,000 £25,612,000 the world is shown in the following table :

Year.

Value in
Taels.

1SSO.

1898.

Tea.

Value in H. Taels.

Gold
H. Tls.

Silver
H. Tis.

Silver
H. Tls.

H. Tls.

...

In the miscellaneous class the chief items of export are beans Internal CommunicationRailways.—The ninth edition article and beancake, £1,524,000; raw cotton, £473,000; hides, £562,000; on China closed with the notice of the opening of a short line of mats and matting, £552,000 ; oils, £475,000 ; furs and skin rugs, railway between Shanghai and Woosung, and the writer hazarded £461,000 ; sugar, raw, £311,000; tobacco, £576,000; strawbraid, the remark, that notwithstanding the fact that the trains were £470,000 ; and wool, £214,000. The export of all cereals except daily crowded with passengers, the approbation was that of the pulse is forbidden.

people only, and that the Government were more determined Movements of Bullion.—The following table shows the export than ever to withstand the adoption of the iron road (v. 672). and import of the precious metals for the past eleven years. The The fate of this pioneer railway may be mentioned as an intronet import or export only is given.

duction to what follows. It must be admitted that the officials had

some justification for their opposition. The railway was really Imports,

Exports,

built without any regular permission from the Chinese GovernValue in H. Taels.

ment, but it was hoped that once finished and working, the Gold

irregularity would be overlooked in view of the manifest benefit to the people. This might have been accomplished but for an

unfortunate accident which happened on the line a few months 1888

1,678,000 1,911,000

after it was opened. A Chinaman was run over and killed, and 1889 6,005,000 1,625,000

this event, of course, intensified the official opposition, and indeed 1890

1,783,000 3,557,000

threatened to bring about a riot. The working of the line was 1891

3,693,000 3,113,000

stopped by order of the British minister, and thereupon negotia1892

7,332,000 4,825,000

tions were entered into with a view to selling the line to the 1893 9,873,000 7,459,000

Chinese Government. A bargain was struck sufficiently favour1894 26,389,000 12,774,000

able to the foreign promoters of the line, and it was further 1895 36,685,000 6,624,000

agreed that, pending payment of the instalments which were 1896 1,720,000 8,114,000

spread over a year, the line should continue to be worked by the 1897 1,641,000 8,512,000

company:

The expectation was that when the officials once got 1898 4,722, 200 7,704,000

the line into their own hands, and found it a paying concern, they

would continue to run it in their own interest. Not so, however, Total

87,035,000 11 years)

67,298,000 13,406,000 did things fall out. The very day that the twelve months were

up the line was closed ; the engines were dismantled, the rails.

and sleepers were torn up, and the whole concern was shipped off There has thus been over the whole period a net import of silver

to the distant island of Formosa, where carriages, axles, and all of H. taels 73,629,000, equivalent to about 95,000,000 ounces.

the rest of the gear were dumped on the shore and left for the Nearly the whole of this, however, was imported during the years 1894-95, and was the proceeds of loans raised by the Chinese Shanghai station was cleared of its buildings, and thereon was

most part to disappear in the mud. The spacious area of the Government in Europe to meet the costs of the Japanese war. Very little comes into China in discharge of the annual balance

erected a temple to the queen of Heaven by way of purifying the

sacred soil of China from such abomination. This effectually put. of trade, inasmuch as the exports, including gold, and imports nearly counterbalance each other. There is a regular cxport of into China, and more

than twenty years elapsed before the subject

a stop to all efforts on the part of foreigners to introduce railways gold amounting on an average to about a million sterling per

was taken up again. It is only within quite recent years that the annum. A part of it would seem to be the hoardings of the nation Chinese Government have been induced to move in the matter. brought out by the high price of gold in terms of silver, but a

The first short line built was a mineral line, to connect the coal part is virgin gold derived from gold workings in Manchuria on

mines of Kaiping in North Chihli with the mouth of the Peiho the upper waters of the Amur river.

river at Taku. The Government next authorized the formation Shipping and Navigation.-All the foreign trade of China and a great part of the coasting trade is carried on by foreign-owned line from Taku to Tientsin, which was opened to trafic in 1888.

of a Native Merchants' Company, under official control, to build a vessels. The only Chinese-owned steamers are those of the China

It was not, however, till nine years later, viz., in 1897, that the Merchants' Steamship Company, which has its headquarters at Shanghai, and a few colliers belonging to the Kaiping Mining Com

line was completed as far as Peking. Meantime, however, the

extension had been continued north-east along the coast as far as pany. The following table shows the nationality and tonnage of the

Shanhai-kwan, and a further extension will connect with the vessels entering and clearing at the ports of China for 1898 :

treaty port of Newchwang. The money for these extensions Flag. Tonnage entered Percentage of

was mostly found by the Government, and the whole line total foreign.

is now known as the Imperial Northern Railway. A loan of

£2,300,000 for the Newchwang extension was raised through British. 21,265,966 8107

the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank in 1899, and secured by German 1,685,098 6.5

a mortgage on the completed section as far as Shanhai-kwan. Japanese 1,569,134 6

The length of the line is 340 miles, and, including the Newchwang
French.

420,078
1.6

extension, it will be when completed 600 miles in length. MeanAmerican

239, 152
0.9

while the high officials of the empire had gradually been brought Russian

178,768
07

round to the idea that railway development was in itself a good Other Powers 686,812

2:6

thing. Chang Chih-tung, then viceroy of the Canton provinces,

memorialized strongly in this sense, coupled, however, with the Total foreign

26,045,008 100 tonnage

condition that the railways should be built with Chinese capital and of Chinese materials. In particular, he urged the making of

a line to connect Peking with Hankow for strategic purposes, In addition to the foregoing, 8,187,572 tons of Chinese-owned The Government took him at his word, and he was transferred shipping entered and cleared at the open ports during 1898. from Canton to Hankow with authority to proceed forth with with These were wholly small vessels engaged in the coasting trade. his railway. True to his purpose he at once set to work to con

Treaty Ports. In addition to the coast and river ports declared struct iron-works at Hankow. Smelting furnaces, rolling mills, open to foreign trade under the treaty of Tientsin, the following and all the machinery necessary for turning out steel rails, places have since been thrown open at various times :

locomotives, &c., were erected. Several years were wasted over On the Canton or West River, Samshui, Wuchow, and Nanning. this preliminary work, and over £1,000,000 sterling was spent only

On the Yangtse, Wuhu, Shasi, Ichang, Chungking, and Yochow to find that the works after all were a practical failure. Steel -the last being at the entrance to the Tungting lake.

rails could be made, but at a cost two or three times what they On the Shanghai inland waters the cities of Soochow and Hang- could be procured for in Europe. After the Japanese war the chow were opened by the Japanese treaty of 1895. They are hope of building railways with Chinese capital was abandoned. connected with Shanghai by canal.

A prominent official named Sheng Hsuan-hwai was appointed On the Tongking and Burma frontiers, the cities of Lungchow, director-general of railways, and empowered to enter into negoMengtze, Szemao, and Momien.

tiations with foreign financiers for the purpose of raising loans. The German naval station in Kiaochow Bay (Tsingtao) is also It was still hoped that at least the main control would remain in open to trade, and it is understood that Talienwan, which was Chinese hands, but the diplomatic pressure of France and Russia similarly acquired on lease by Russia, and which is to be the caused even that to be given up, and Great Britain insisting on commercial terminus of the Russian Manchurian Railway, will equal privileges for her subjects, the future of railways in China in due course also be thrown open. An anchorage termed

Ching will be in the hands of the

various concessionaires, at least until wan-tao, near Shanhai-kwan, in the Gulf of Pe Chili, was opened their redemption by the Chinese Government. in 1900. It lies close to the Imperial Northern Railway, and The following is a list of the several railway concessions which being ice-clear during the winter affords access to Peking when have been granted up to date :the other northern ports are closed.

(1) English.-1. (a) Shanghai to Nanking; (6) Shanghai to

and cleared.

Hangchow and Ningpo; (c) Pukou (on the north bank of the law. They lend money on personal security, but do not advance Yangtse opposite Nanking) to Siuyang, a station on the Luhan line. against shipments of goods. In some places there are small local Total length 650 miles. 2. Hongkong to Canton, 100 miles. 3. In banks, usually called cash shops, which issue paper notes for the provinces of Shansi and Honan, the Peking Syndicate, besides small sums and lend money out on personal security. The notes mining rights, have the right to connect mines with navigable never reach more than a very limited local circulation, and pass waters. Lines not yet determined, but will probably extend to current merely on the credit of the institution. There is no 300 or 400 miles.

law regulating the formation of banks or the issue of notes. (2) Anglo-German. -A trunk line from Tientsin to Chinkiang, Pawnshops occupy a prominent position in the internal economy 600 miles. Northern or Shantung half to be built and equipped of China. They lend on deposit of personalty at very high by the German syndicate ; the southern or Yangtse half by rates, 18 and 24 per cent., and they receive deposits of money English syndicate. Total length 600 miles.

from the public, usually allowing 6 to 10 per cent. They are the (3) Anglo-American. -A trunk line from Canton to Hankow, real banks of deposit of the country, and the better class enjoy 1600 miles.

good credit. (4) German.-Lines in Shantung. Kiaochow to Tsinanfu, and Currency.— The currency of China consists of:-(1) Silver, Kiaochow to Yihsien, 420 miles.

which may be either uncoined ingots passing current by weight, (5) Russian.—(a) Permission to carry the Siberian main line or imported coins, Mexican dollars and British dollars; and (2) now in course of construction from Stretensk through Chinese Copper cash,” which has no fixed relation to silver. The standard territory viâ Petune to Vladivostock, 1000 miles. (0) A line to is silver, the unit being the Chinese ounce or tael, containing .connect Port Arthur and Talienwan with the above, 400 miles. 565 grains. The tael is not a coin, but a weight. Its value in (c) A line from Taiyuenfu, the capital of the province of Shansi, sterling consequently fluctuates with the value of silver ; in 1870 to connect with the Luhan line at Chengting, 130 miles.

it was worth about 6s. 8d., it is now worth rather less than 3s. (6) Belgian or Franco-Belgian. -A trunk line from Hankow to The name given in China to uncoined silver in current use is Peking, generally termed the Lu-Han line, length 700 miles. “sycee.” It is cast for convenience sake into ingots weighing

(7) French.—(a) From Tongking up the Red river to Yunnanfu, about 50 taels each. Its average fineness is 916-66 per 1000. 200 miles. (6) Langson to Lungchow and Nanning, 100 miles. When foreign silver is imported, say into Shanghai, it can be (c) Pakhoi to Nanning, 120 miles.

converted into currency by a very simple process. The bars of The British Government has also obtained the right to extend silver are sent to a quasi-public office termed the " Kung Ku,” or the Burma railway system through Yunnan and north to the public valuers, and by them melted down and cast into ingots of Yangtse so soon as a company is prepared to take it up.

the customary size. The fineness is estimated, and the premium Many years will doubtless elapse before these lines are made,

or betterness, together with the exact weight, is marked in ink on involving as they do an outlay of something like 60 or 80 millions

each ingot. The whole process only occupies a few hours, and of capital, and some of them will probably not be made at all. the silver is then ready to be put into use. The Kung Ku is The Russian lines are being pushed on with activity, and the simply a local office appointed by the bankers of the place, and Belgian, or more properly Franco-Belgian syndicate, which has the the weight and fineness are only good for that locality. The Peking-Hankow, commonly called the Lu-Han line in hand, has Government takes no responsibility in the matter, but leaves commenced work from the Hankow end. The section Peking to merchants and bankers to adjust the currency as they please, Paotingfu has been already built, and has been transferred for For purposes of taxation and payment of duties there is a standard operation to the Belgian syndicate. The lower Yangtse lines as or treasury tael, which is about 10 per cent. heavier than the tael well as the Hongkong-Canton line will no doubt be made, and of commerce in use at Shanghai. Every large commercial centre passing as they do through the richest and most populous districts has its own customary tael, the weight and therefore the value of of China, they ought to pay well.

which differ from thăt of every other. Silver dollars coined in Roads and Canals.-In regard to these nothing new need be Mexico, and British dollars coined in Bombay, also circulate said. The Chinese Government spends nothing on these objects. freely at the open ports of trade and for some distance inland, Occasionally the local authorities make an effort by employing passing at a little above their intrinsic value. Carolus dollars, the corvée system to dig out the bed of a canal, but as a rule introduced long ago and no longer coined, are retained in roads are left to take care of themselves. Even the Grand Canal current use in several parts of the interior, chiefly the teahas been suffered to silt up, so that for nearly half its length it is growing districts. Being preferred by the people, and as the quite useless for through traffic. It is only employed by the supply cannot be added to, they have reached a considerable annual fleet of tribute rice boats, which are still required by premium above their intrinsic value. Provincial mints in Canton, unyielding regulations to carry their freight by this route. They i'uchang, and other places, have recently been issuing silver .choose the time of high water, when the country is more or less coins of the same weight and touch as the Mexican dollar, but flooded, and even then it is only by dint of sheer hauling for very few have gone into use. As they possess no privilege in miles along a muddy bottom that they are got through. Pages debt-paying power over imported Mexican dollars there is no are filled by the reports of the officer in charge, describing the inducement for the people to take them up unless they can be superhuman exertions of himself and his men in getting the had at a cheaper rate than the latter, and these are laid down at boats hauled through. It does not appear to occur to anyone so small a cost above the intrinsic value that no profit is left to that a moderate sum spent in dredging, with a few locks here the mint. The coinage has in consequence been almost disand there, would make the passage cheap and easy.

continued. Subsidiary coins, however, are coming largely into Telegraphs. —Here the case is different. Every important use, issued by the local mints. The only coin officially issued by city in China is now connected by wire with the capital, and the Government is the so-called copper cash. It is a small coin the service is reasonably efficient. Connexion is also established

which by regulation should weigh 1th of a tael, and should with the English lines in Burma and the Russian lines in Siberia. contain 50 parts of copper, 40 of zinc, and 10 of lead or tin, The Great Northern Telegraph Co. (Danish) and the Eastern and it should bear a fixed ratio to silver of 1000 cash to one Extension Telegraph Co. (English) connect Shanghai by cable tael of silver. In practice none of these conditions are observed. with Hongkong, Japan, Singapore, and Europe. An imperial Being issued from a number of mints, mostly provincial, the postal service has also been recently established under the general standard was never uniform, and in many cases debased. Excontrol of the Maritime Customs. It serves all the open ports, cessive issues lowered the value of the coins, and for many years and is gradually being extended to the interior. The treaty the average exchange was 1600 or more per tael. Within the Powers, however, still maintain their separate post offices at last few years the rise in copper has led to the melting down of Shanghai for the despatch and receipt of mails from Europe. all the older and superior coins, and as for the same reason

Mining Concessions. — The only mining concession of any value coining was suspended, the result has been an appreciation of granted to a foreign company is that secured by the Peking the “cash,” so that a tael now exchanges for only 1180 or 1200. Syndicate, which gives the right to work coal, iron, and petroleum Inasmuch as the “cash” bears no fixed relation to silver, and is in the province of Shansi. It is expected that this concession moreover of no uniform composition, it forms a sort of mongrel will lead to very important industrial developments. Several standard of its own, varying with the volume in circulation at preliminary contracts have been entered into for mining conces any particular time. It is, however, the universal medium of sions in other provinces, but they are clogged with conditions exchange for all retail transactions, and the quantities in circulaimposed by recent regulations issued by the Chinese Government, tion are enormous. The fluctuations in regard to silver give and for the present they seem of doubtful value.

rise to great complaints among the people. The introduction of Banks and Banking. — Native banks for purposes of inland a uniform system of coinage is one of the most pressing wants of exchange are to be found in most large cities. They are private China. banks using their own capital, and seldom receiving deposits from the public. The best known are the Shansi banks, which

II. RECENT HISTORY, have branches all over the empire. They work on a small capital, seldon over £50,000 each, and do a small but profitable In the article in the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, business by selling their drafts on distant places. None of these the history of China was carried down to the accession of the issue notes, although they are not debarred from doing so by | Emperor Kwang Su in January 1875. As an introduction to what

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follows we shall first take a brief survey of the condition of the first time to the Temple of Heaven to perform the ancestral rites, empire at that period. The decade 1854-64 had witnessed low one of the censors committed suicide in his presence as a protest water mark in the political fortunes of the Manchu dynasty. The against so grave a breach of the dynastic tradition. The accescentral provinces had been overrun and devastated by the Taiping sion of an infant in the place of Tung Chi achieved, however, for rebels. "Nanking, the ancient capital of the empire, was in their the time being what was doubtless the paramount object of the hands, and throughout the whole of the lower Yangtse valley, policy of the two empresses, namely, their undisturbed tenure of even down to Shanghai and Ningpo, bands of marauders burnt, the regency, in which the junior empress Tsu Tsi, a woman of pillaged, and murdered at their will

. In the south-west the unquestionable ability and boundless ambition, had gradually province of Yunnan was the scene of another rebellion. A become the predominant partner. Mahommedan tribe known as Panthays had risen in revolt, The first question that occupied the attention of the Governcaptured the city of Talifu, and proclaimed a chief Tu Win Siu as ment under the new reign was one of the gravest importance, their sultan. In the north-west a similar Mahommedan rebellion and nearly led to a war with Great Britain. The Indian broke out in the province of Kansuh. This was followed by a Government was desirous of seeing the old trade relations berevolt of the whole of the central Asian tribes, which for 2000 tween Burma and the south-west provinces, which had been years had more or less acknowledged the imperial sway. In interrupted by the Yunnan rebellion, re-established, and for that Kashgaria, a native chief termed Yakoob Beg, otherwise known purpose proposed to send a mission across the frontier into as the Atilik Ghazi, had made himself Ameer, and seemed likely China. The Peking Government assented and issued

Murder to establish a strong rule. The fertile province of Kuldja or Ili, passports for the party. Mr A. R. Margary, a young lying to the north of the Tien shan range, was temporarily taken and promising member of the China consular service,

Margary. possession of by Russia in order to put a stop to the prevailing was told off to accompany the expedition as interpreter. anarchy, but with a promise that when China should have All went well until the mission, which was under the command succeeded in re-establishing order in her central Asian dominions of Colonel Browne, was nearing the Chinese frontier, when it should be given back. To add to all these misfortunes, and rumours of trouble ahead began to reach them. Mr Margary, even when they were at their height, the Chinese Government who had a month previously crossed overland from Shanghai with embroiled itself in a foreign war. Redress being refused for long no difficulty, made light of the reports, but offered to ride on standing grievances, a combined British and French expedition ahead and ascertain the state of affairs. He left, accompanied was sent to operate in the north. The emperor fled to Mongolia, only by his Chinese servants, and never returned. Two days Peking was surrendered, and terms of peace were dictated within afterwards news reached Colonel Browne that he had been the walls of the capital (24th October 1860). This last calamity, treacherously murdered by Chinese at the small town of Manwyne, which might have seemed to some the worst of all, was in reality and almost simultaneously an attack was made on the expedition the salvation of the country. The foreign Powers had gone there by armed forces wearing Chinese uniform (January 1875). Colonel for the sole purpose of establishing fair and equitable terms of Browne with difficulty made his way back to Bhamo and the trade—terms which would be just as advantageous to the people expedition was abandoned. Demands were made on the Peking of China as to themselves. The treaty having once been made Government for a thorough inquiry on the spot in the presence of with the imperial Government, it was their interest to uphold its British officers. The Chinese reply was that the murder and the authority, and to see a speedy end to the forces of anarchy and attack were alike the work of irresponsible savages and hillmen, disorder. No sooner, therefore, had the war with China been animated with a desire for plunder. Enough evidence was colfinished, than Great Britain and France proceeded to lend the lected on the Burma side to show that this was not true, and it Chinese active assistance. The services of General Gordon at this could not be doubted that the orders for the attack emanated juncture are too well known to need further mention. With the from the provincial government of Yunnan, if not from higher first of his victories the tide began to turn, and from that time quarters. After infinite shuflling and delay an imperial comfortune smiled on the imperial arms. By degrees the Taiping mission was despatched to hold an inquiry, three British officers rebellion was crushed ; indeed the movement had for some years being sent at the same time to watch proceedings. The trial been collapsing through internal decay ; and, with the fall of proved an absolute farce. Eleven half-naked savages were proNanking in 1864, it finally disappeared. The next ten years duced as the culprits, and the only evidence tendered was such as (1864-74) witnessed a general revival of the strength of the empire. had manifestly been manufactured for the purpose. The British The Panthay rebellion in Yunnan was put down in 1873, and officials protested and withdrew from the burlesque. The trial, order had been re-established somewhat earlier in the north- however, proceeded, and the eleven hillmen were sentenced to western provinces of Shensi and Kansuh. The central Asian states death. A report in that sense was addressed to the throne, and still remained under the rule of the Ameer Yakoob Khan, and China with this it was hoped the British sense of justice would be was at this time strongly counselled by many to leave things satisfied. Sir Thomas Wade, then British minister at Peking, alone in that region. Russia had in the course of the disorder promptly declared that if this report were published or acted on possessed herself of the khanate of Khokand, and it was pointed he would at once haul down his flag, rightly deeming that such out that a strong state like that of Kashgaria under Yakoob Khan a reparation was a greater insult than the original offence. might be a convenient buffer against farther progress on that side Tedious negotiations followed, which more than once threatened from the great western Power. This counsel, however, as will to end in a rupture, but finally, more than eighteen months after be seen, did not prevail.

the outrage, an arrangement was come to on the basis of guarantees Such, briefly, was the state of affairs at the accession of the for the future, rather than vengeance for the past. The arrangereigning emperor, Kwang Su, in January 1875. He was not then ment was embodied in the Chefoo convention, dated 13th four years old, and his accession attracted little notice outside of September 1876. The terms of the settlement comprised (1) a China, as the supreme power continued to be vested in the two mission of apology from China to the British court; (2) the dowager empresses whose long regency had been only nominally promulgation throughout the length and breadth of the empire determined in favour of the emperor Tung Chi when the latter of an imperial proclamation, setting out the right of foreigners to attained his majority in 1873—the empress Tsu An, principal | travel under passport, and the obligation of the authorities to wife of the emperor Hsien Fung, and the empress Isu Tsi, protect them; and (3) the payment of an indemnity. The consecondary wife of the same emperor, and mother of the emperor vention comprised besides a number of clauses which, though Tung Chi. Yet there were circumstances connected with the meant to improve commercial relations, were severely criticized by emperor Kwang Su's accession which might well have arrested the mercantile communities. The stipulation most objected to attention. The emperor Tung Chi, who had himself succumbed was one by which the Chinese Government were debarred from to an ominously brief and mysterious illness, left a young widow levying likin within the area of the foreign concessions, thereby in an advanced state of pregnancy, and had she given birth to a implying, it was argued, the recognition of the right to levy it male child her son would have been the rightful heir to the throne. ad libitum elsewhere. Ratification of this article was refused by But even before she sickened and died—of grief, it was officially the British Government, and additional articles were subsequently stated, at the loss of her imperial spouse—the dowager empresses signed in London relative to the collection of likin on Indian had solved the question of the succession by placing Kwang Su opium and other matters. on the throne, a measure which was not only in itself arbitrary, While these events were going on the imperial authority had but also in direct conflict with one of the most sacred of Chinese been re-established in the north-western provinces of Shensi and traditions. The solemn rites of ancestor-worship, incumbent on Kansuh under Tso Tsung-tang as governor-general, and prepara' every Chinaman, and, above all, upon the emperor, can only be tions were made for the reconquest of Kashgaria. Money was properly performed by a member of a younger generation than supplied by a foreign loan for £1,600,000, being the first appearthose whom it is his duty to honour. The emperor Kwang Su, ance of China as a borrower. It was a formidable expedition ; not being a son of Prince Chun, brother to the emperor Hsien Fung, so much from the warlike nature of the enemy, as from the imand thus first cousin to the emperor Tung Chi, was not therefore mense distances to be traversed and the extreme difficulty of qualified to offer up the customary sacrifices before the ancestral transport. Nevertheless after two years of dogged perseverance tablets of his predecessor. So profound was the prejudice created China succeeded. Manas, the last stronghold of the Jungaris, against the young emperor on this score, that fifteen years later, was captured (November 1876), and the ath of the Ameer when, having reached the age of manhood, he proceeded for the Yakoob Khan in the following year greatly facilitated the com

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